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Argumentative Essay On Alcohol Essays and Research Papers. ?A Quick Note Before You Begin Argumentative essays are also commonly known as persuasive essays . However, there . Research Proposal Samples? are some differences between the two even if they’re commonly considered to be the parenthood argumentative same. Proposal? Persuasive essays are short, around five to six paragraphs. They usually focus on your side with occasionally one paragraph devoted to the opposing side. Persuasive essays focus more on the emotions of the reader. Argumentative essays are usually longer in length, ranging from as little as five paragraphs. Writer Agent? Conclusion , Debut albums , Essay 863 Words | 4 Pages. Research? ENGLISH 101 ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY GUIDELINES for the Argumentative Essay : Using the documentary . Pakistan’s Taliban Generation write an argumentative essay that addresses the following questions. Pay special attention to the content (answers to the questions below) and the organizational structure of the essay (introduction, body, conclusion; prioritizing the information and arguments; smooth transition between the paragraphs). 1. What is a way to rainy mountain essay religious extremism?
Make use of the narrative and. Argument , Argument map , Counterargument 586 Words | 3 Pages. Argu1nentative Essays Mani stones, Nepal An argumentative essay is an essay in which you agree . or disagree with an issue, using reasons to support your opinion. Your goal is to convince your reader that your opinion is right. Research Proposal Samples? Argumentation is a popular kind of essay question because it forces students to think on their own: They have to take a stand on an issue, support their stand with solid reasons, and support their reasons with solid evidence. In a general writing test such as the TOEFL. Argument , Argument map , Argumentation theory 694 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay The legalization of marijuana is a current growing issue in British Columbia (BC).
Marijuana, which . comes from the cannabis sativa (or hemp) plant, has been used for profile analysis essay, ten thousand years and will continue to be used for a very long time. People smoke it, with a pipe or water pipe, or in loosely rolled cigarettes called “joints”. It is also brewed with tea and mixed with cakes and brownies. Marijuana is so popular with the public that it has developed many aliases, such as. Cannabis , Decriminalization , Drug addiction 962 Words | 3 Pages.
Date Abstract The consumption of research proposal alcohol in Australia is becoming a problem, and because of practise gamsat essay irresponsible and callous drinking, Australia is research . in need of writer agent a more mature drinking culture. The main points in this essay discuss the issues concerning irresponsible drinking amongst teens.They include the effects of research alcohol on the adolescent brain, accidents involving underage drinkers and teens delaying the consumption of alcohol for as long as possible. This essay argues that because underage drinking. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholism 1148 Words | 4 Pages. ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY Do curfews keep teens out of trouble? Thesis Statement: In the modern day, with growing knowledge and . Write My Aper? curiosity of teens about the real world, as well as the desperation of people caused by poverty, curfews nowadays, though believed to keep teens safe and controlled, anything like crimes can happen in any time, so curfews do not really keep teens out of trouble.
OUTLINE: I. Research? Introduction A. Background information B. Definition of the parenthood argumentative essay topic C. Thesis statement . Mind , Modern history , Present 1950 Words | 5 Pages. Essay on samples Alcohol Alcohol is not only the reason why prohibition took place . in dissertation writing, the 1920s, but it is research proposal samples also the profile analysis essay reason why many persons wake up not remembering their pervious night’s events. It has always been evident that alcohol has an research samples effect on brain function, which in-turn impairs the behavior of a person. Alcohol can be separated into essay two separate groups: what is expected to research proposal samples happen, and what actually happens. Alcohol is expected to play social lubricant and. Alcohol , Alcohol intoxication , Alcoholic beverage 915 Words | 3 Pages. ? The Scarlett Letter Argumentative Essay In the Scarlett Letter by Hawthorn, public humiliation is analysis used as a form of . punishment. Research Proposal Samples? In that place and time period, the seventeenth century, Puritanical Boston, Massachusettes, this form of punishment was quite common. There was no separation of parenthood argumentative church and state at that time and research since Puritan beliefs were based on good versus evil, it was a common practice to humiliate, chastise, and berate people as a scare tactic to practise gamsat questions keep order. Research Proposal Samples? Fast forward. 17th century , Abuse , Bullying 1168 Words | 5 Pages.
How to write an argumentative essay. your opinion. Argumentative Essay How to write an Argumentative Essay : Outline, Structure, . Format, Examples, Topics How to analysis write an argumentative essay ? The leading tone in an argumentative essay is the research proposal samples position of proving that the presented point of view is the write my aper correct one and possesses more truthful arguments than any other opinions. The author through proper reasoning, inducting and making conclusions, must prove the assertions or the theories of the argumentative essay . If the author fails. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 569 Words | 3 Pages. Outline B. Appendix B: First Draft C. Appendix C: Printed materials (main points amp; supporting details must be highlighted) . 7. Final Draft - Essay form: 3 - 5 pages 8. Submission on research Final Term paper- Has to essay be bound with a cover page ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TOPICS 1. Violence in proposal samples, television programs leads to violence in planned parenthood argumentative essay, our society. 2. Text books should be replaced by I-Pads and online resources 3. The mass media plays an important.
Grammar , Linguistics , Rhetoric 558 Words | 4 Pages. a student is. Consequently this takes him to the counter part of his story were his son was awarded for using his imagination in an essay at research samples, . school. The evidence strengthens Ho’s argument of that the school system gives a student freedom to choose and a way mountain essay gain more confidence when awarded for trying new ways. When looking at the quality of research proposal samples his sources the argumentative appeal weakens a lot.
He draws a conclusion from writer agent his own experience and assumes that “disgruntled American parents forget…[that] their. Research Samples? Creativity , Education , Education in gamsat essay, the United States 1331 Words | 4 Pages. Research Proposal? used material, but this could be more dangerous due to mountain essay residue of the chemical in research proposal samples, the new items. However, the things that we already used should not be . around to writer agent recycle for several reasons. In this essay , I am going to talk about three weaknesses of research samples recycling. Firstly, I will start with the argumentative , and then analyze emotional appeal. The first reason is that the processes of recycle costs are very high. Analysis Essay? For many years, people always hear that paper, plastic, aluminum should be recycled. When. Aluminium , Paper , Paper recycling 926 Words | 4 Pages. ? Argumentative Essay Braden Rawson Social Networking or the use of specific websites or applications to research proposal interact with other . users is write my aper one of the research proposal many key and driving factors today in our world. We find ourselves lost for many minutes or possibly hours at a time on any particular app or website. Looking deeper into the issue of social networking and write my aper its impact on our life, I highly doubt we have accomplished anything at all.
A very smart man once said, “Time is money.” If that quote is research proposal true do we. Facebook , MySpace , Orkut 941 Words | 3 Pages. | Breastfeeding is better for your baby | Argumentative Essay | | | Islas, R. Argumentative . essay Among the parenthood argumentative essay many decision a woman faces when she is samples pregnant, is whether or not she will breastfeed her child. Writer Agent? In our society and in this day and age, this has become a matter of choice as opposed to long ago where formula was nonexistent and the only research samples, means of nurturing your baby was to planned parenthood argumentative essay breastfeed. Many women are oblivious to the health risks their baby may endure having not being breastfed. Baby bottle , Baby food , Breast milk 1314 Words | 4 Pages. ?IGCSE First Language English: Coursework Paper 4. Name: Kevin Koku Donkor Essay Type: Argumentative Topic: Does foreign aid . continue to be beneficial to African countries? All over the world, aid is given by proposal, individuals, private organizations, or governments to countries in need, especially countries in Africa. Foreign aid can be described as the international transfer of write my aper capital, goods or services in the form of proposal samples grants or loans. Aid can be given to a country in the event of dissertation a crisis, for developmental. Africa , African Union , Sub-Saharan Africa 948 Words | 3 Pages. ? Argumentative essay College Composition I 10-15-2014 Should drivers of automobiles be prohibited from using cellular . phones? Driving requires a lot of concentration in order to research proposal samples keep the road, and help uk ourselves safe.
Nowadays, many people have a license without being able to drive in a manner that is responsible. This raises the question of cell phones. There are many factors that contribute to accidents. Eating, drinking, reaching for proposal, fallen objects and talking to planned parenthood passengers are also some. Automobile , Cellular network , GSM services 753 Words | 4 Pages. Brandon Aponte, Sarah Jerez, Karen Huot, and Shams Fardeen?? 701 Mrs. Schwibner English Language Arts Argumentative Essay ? The . word traditional means to proposal samples follow older styles and year round schools mess with these systems.
A reason to support this is that it costs more to argumentative essay run year-round schools due to proposal samples air-conditioning bills and other expenses. Secondly, it disables the activities that you can accomplish over parenthood argumentative the long summer because year round vacations have shorter break periods. Lastly, it forces. Buffalo Bills , Education , Extracurricular activity 959 Words | 3 Pages. ALCOHOL : SHOULD IT BE ABOLISHED? Malaysia is known as the tenth largest consumer of research alcohol in a way mountain essay, the world and very . Proposal Samples? few studies have been done to find the practise gamsat essay accurate magnitude of the proposal problems caused by this consumption. Although not many studies have been carried, the facts and writer agent figures show that it is research proposal samples increasing each year. Malaysians spend about dissertation help uk, USD$500 million on alcohol yearly and among the drinking population, the Malaysian Indians who are 8 per proposal samples cent of the country’s population are. Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Beer 2068 Words | 6 Pages. ?Sirisakul Ratanachomsakul Argumentative Essay Girls love dolls and boys love trucks is what we have been taught by our . grandparents, parents, and teachers generation by generation and has become gender stereotypes. Women are expect to marry and have children.
She also put her family’s welfare before her own; be loving, compassionate, caring, nurturing, and sympathetic. For that female is often seen as a symbol of a weaker gender comparing to male who are bigger, stronger, and financial provider. Discrimination , Female , Gender 1260 Words | 4 Pages. Dissertation Writing Help? English 102: Argumentative Essay ( Essay #1) May 14th 2012 outline I. Introduction: 1. Background: . Nowadays, Television is an unavoidable part of modern culture. Proposal? It plays an important role in our life. We always depend on television for mountain essay, news, entertainment, education, weather, sports, and even music, since the advent of Music Television.
2. Thesis statement: Television has both advantages and proposal samples disadvantages, and I think the advantages far outweigh the disadvantage. II. Cancellation , Closing credits , Film 1211 Words | 4 Pages. This is an a way to rainy argumentative essay on the best sentencing for alcohol offenders. The Best Sentence for research, Alcohol Offenders ? ABSTRAC T This paper will argue the fact that house arrest is the analysis essay best option for . alcohol offenders. It will prove through research that most alcohol offenders that have been sentenced to prison time become repeat offenders. Research will also show that offenders sentenced to SCRAMx were less likely to abuse alcohol once released. Research Samples? It will also show how house arrest saves the state money by making the offender pay a fixed rate for their time served on parenthood argumentative essay house. Alcohol , Alcoholism , Criminal law 1494 Words | 5 Pages. ? Argumentative essay - Separate-Gender Classes in Co-Ed School is the best solution to the situation · Defend solution . Nowadays, many parents are worrying about the research proposal amount of distractions that exist in co-ed schools, which directly affect their children's academic performance. I propose: Assigning students in Single-Sex School Allocating all girls in one classroom and all boys in another, while they are in the same school.
Defend on 2nd solution. And here is profile analysis essay my argument. . Education , Gender , Single-sex education 982 Words | 3 Pages. ? Argumentative Essay About Internet Censorship Censorship has been defined as “The removal of material that is deemed or . judged offensive to any sector of the population. Many have wondered, “Just how beneficial is censorship to proposal samples man, when is it enough and does it help”? It is my view however; that there is no clear answer to the question, for censorship has its fair balance of write my aper advantages and disadvantages. Proposal Samples? I argue that the censorship of the internet in planned parenthood argumentative, the modern digital era is “Ludacris” ridiculous. Broadband Internet access , Censorship , Freedom of research samples speech 1524 Words | 4 Pages. Alcohol should be banned from public events What if you were told that mortality in to rainy mountain essay, Canada could be reduced by proposal samples, as low as 3000 a year! . Analysis Essay? Would you be willing to accept the terms in order to make this happen? According to Parliament of Canada, statics by Collin (2006) reveals “1,055 person died in alcohol -related road crashes in Canada in 2002” and “666 people died as a result of mental and behavioral disorders due to the use of samples alcohol .”, making alcohol consumption a known risk factor for mortality. Addiction , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 648 Words | 3 Pages. If you are too young to choose, then lay off the booze. Youth drinking alcohol is dangerous.
According to www.drinkaware.co.uk the young . body is not developed enough to properly digest alcohol until the age of 20. Alcohol and youth is a safety hazard because according to the same website drinking when in your youth can cause, diabetes, liver failure and other organ failure, just to name a few. A young person’s brain is not fully developed until they are in their twenties. This specifically includes. Alcoholic beverage , Decision making , Insulin 1018 Words | 3 Pages. ? 1 . LTCA Argumentative Essay April 16, 2013 Why our country should have universal healthcare? In America there are so many people who live without healthcare. President Obama has tried hard to change that known fact by introducing and passing his new Obama Care Act. Planned Essay? It is very important for research proposal, people to have proper healthcare coverage. Barack Obama , Health care , Health economics 992 Words | 4 Pages.
to not drink at all and write my aper stand up to peer pressure. The advice he gives to his children is to stay clear of alcohol and if you are brought into . a situation involving alcohol excuse yourself from the party or wherever that may be. Research Proposal? He explained that even if you aren't drinking and write my aper are in research, an environment with alcohol that new laws in essay, Pennsylvania claim you are still in proposal samples, the possession of alcohol and you can get charged for that. He touched on the fact that it’s becoming socially acceptable by some parents. Essay? Addiction , Adolescence , Alcohol abuse 1779 Words | 6 Pages. ?.Christopher North Prof. Research? Ed Stever ENG 101 March 24, 2015 Argumentative Essay Capital Punishment The majority of . Americans support capital punishment, and there are some who don’t. The other side does not support capital punishment because Christian doctrine believes that killing is writer agent a mortal sin. There are some government officials who do support the death penalty and are there some who do not support the death penalty. Therefore, capital punishment should be utilized in all 50 states. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Crime 1207 Words | 5 Pages.
Argumentative Essay (Introduction) Guantanamo Bay did a good thing for America. Guantanamo Bay is located in research proposal, a small area in . Cuba off of American soil. America's most recent president, Barack Obama wants to shut the prison down and suspended it for a short period of time in the beginning of January this year. (My position And Thesis) I believe that Guantanamo bay should never be shut down because the prison led United States and other countries' to analysis essay terrorists and it punished those who planned. Proposal? Al-Qaeda , Human rights , KILL 1059 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sahra Sheikhnur Argumentative Essay Terrorism has made a major impact in The U.S in the past 10 years. Terrorism is very . dangerous and analysis essay has led to research many lives being lost.
Recently, there have been many terrorist acts going on, which led the U.S. government to wonder if individuals should use censorship to prevent terrorist speech. The United States government should completely renounce coverage of terrorist speech because the ongoing coverage can lead to more threats and dangers. The media is a great. Al-Qaeda , Censorship , Freedom of speech 1106 Words | 4 Pages. “ Argumentative essay assignments are useful learning tools for helping students to dissertation writing help uk both understand key concepts and in helping . students to think critically.” Module 3 Case Assignment Nassal R. Braimbridge Trident University If you have ever attended college at some point you have had to write an argumentative essay . It is used to convey your thoughts, insights, and point of view to an audience in an attempt to persuade them. Extensive research is required to provide the facts. Argument , Critical thinking , Educational psychology 790 Words | 3 Pages. Drug Addiction Argumentative Essay. Natalee Sweet Comp. #1 Mr. Yates 7-22-2012 Argumentative Essay : Addiction is research a choice Alcohol and write my aper illicit . drug consumption are all too prevalent today in high schools, colleges, and all across the research proposal samples globe. Students seeking to essay questions fit in or forget about the repetitiveness of school and research proposal samples homework have a tendency to experiment. Drug addiction is known by the scientific community to be a psychological condition based on excessive, obsessive, and compulsive actions.
Once that regular user crosses the. Addiction , Dopamine , Drug addiction 977 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay on Legalization of Marijuana. ?Tim Brown English 103 Due: Dec. 13 Marijuana Argumentative Final Essay Ever since marijuana's first recorded use . five-thousand years ago, it never had much popularity until the dissertation help last century with prohibition and anti-war movements. The legalization of marijuana has recently been a rather controversial issue, although there should be no issue at samples, all. Marijuana should be legalized. Prohibition was once tried with alcohol and it was a proven failure, and it should be soon proven again with marijuana. Addiction , Cannabis , Drug 1115 Words | 4 Pages. Parenthood Argumentative Essay? ?Caleb Madison ENG 101 10/3/13 Argumentative Essay From fire to light bulbs, and pagers to smart-phones, humans have always . Proposal? sought progress. The average person can agree that most new things are for the better. If humans didn’t grow and writer agent progress then one could question whether or not we even have a purpose. One thing that humans have lacked the necessary progression in is the place that homosexuals have in society.
Same-sex marriage has recently begun to be legalized by several states. At this. Bisexuality , Gay , Heterosexuality 2058 Words | 6 Pages. Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay Guidelines. Writing Handout E-5: Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay Guidelines Structuring a Argumentative (Persuasive) . Essay A persuasive essay is simply a writer’s attempt to convince readers of the validity of a particular opinion on a controversial issue.
The following steps should help you write a persuasive essay . Research Proposal? 1. Carefully select a topic Choose a topic that interests you. An argument does not have to be a burning issue, but it must be a debatable topic. It can be anything you feel strongly about. Artery , Boxing , Brain 857 Words | 4 Pages. ?ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION For many years, the profile analysis importance of English has increased because it has became a very common language all over the . Proposal Samples? world. Owing to this situation, there are lots of argumentative topics which are about the write my aper power of research proposal English. One of them is about the medium of instruction at Turkish universities whether it should be English or not. First of all, the a way mountain definition of the research English as a medium of instruction can be made. Haagen – Schutzenhofer Mathelitsch (n.d.) explain. Education , English medium education , Language education 1098 Words | 4 Pages.
English 0099 Argumentative Essay 25 March 2013 Say No to . Birth Control Oral contraceptives have been around for more than 4,000 years. Write My Aper? In 1843, prior to proposal samples discovering that conception occurs when the sperm enters the female egg, Scientists assumed women had no role in the creation of writer agent life. Research Proposal Samples? After realizing women played a part in conception Scientists have begun creating ways for women to prevent pregnancy. There have been many types. Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Condom 1497 Words | 4 Pages. ? Argumentative essay : The 25th of November, 2011 is to be tattooed in all Moroccan’s memories and hearts as it was a . quite significant day in gamsat essay questions, Morocco’s history. PJD, the Party of Justice and Development, came out winner of the proposal samples harsh competition that was to oppose the Moroccan parties because it seemed to write my aper have made quite tempting promises to the Moroccan populace. Its message was straightforward and obviously promising to the millions of citizens who have been hoping for change for numerous. Africa , Corruption , Cycle of poverty 1830 Words | 6 Pages. ?Michael Todd Wright English 111 25 April 2012 Argumentative Essay High Gas Prices What defines gas prices and the negative . impacts on America? Gasoline prices are on the rise due to several factors.
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Facebook , Internet , MySpace 1631 Words | 5 Pages. to finally appreciate the female race and respect them for their abilities and physical attributes. Stylistic Choice Based on Pollitt’s Essay . I chose this essay to research proposal samples integrate the obvious differences between the male and female gender. I used it to also convey a point to differentiate between male and female’s participation within the sport world. Pollitt’s essay points out the countless arguments regarding how much two genders can be the complete opposites in dissertation, so many ways. I chose to base my arguments.
Discrimination , Female , Gender 1055 Words | 5 Pages. at least one thousand dollars to have the research samples procedure done. In the Atlantic an article by Rebecca J. Writing Help Uk? Rosen, she explains that in research samples, some circumstances, “Women . would take ergotrate, then castor oil, then squat in scalding hot water, then drink everclear alcohol .” When all else failed, women would rather beat their stomach with a hammer before going to write my aper an illegal abortionist. One reason for the extreme home procedures was that they simply could not afford the surgery. Supporters from the pro-life side advocate. Abortion , Abortion law , Drug addiction 906 Words | 3 Pages. ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY FORMAT When writing an argumentative essay , a student must first choose a . topic. The topic must be one that has two sides to it, and proposal ideally, will have supporters for write my aper, both sides of the topic.
For a basic argumentative essay , a student should structure the essay so that there are five paragraphs. The first paragraph will be the introduction, the proposal samples second and writing help third paragraphs will be the research proposal support paragraphs, the fourth paragraph will be the write my aper counter argument with rebuttal, and. Alternative medicine , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1335 Words | 4 Pages. ENG 113 Section 3007 . 9/29/14 Essay #2 Garcia 1 Lupita. Automobile , Cellular network , Crash 1193 Words | 3 Pages. “investors” out of proposal samples their hard earned savings, there are thousands of historically documented events that lend credibility to this age old saying, however, . like so many other generalised statements, it is used more as an excuse than as a reason. This essay will present evidence to planned argumentative essay refute the claim that Money is the root of all evil.
Money is research proposal samples not the root of mountain essay all evil. Research? Money is simply a means used by practise questions, people to obtain what they already desire in life. In order to demonstrate this point, we need to research have. Bible , Crime , Crimes 1219 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Packet Essay format Title Page I. Introduction a. Writer Agent? Attention Getter b. General Information . c. Specific Information d. Thesis Statement II.
Counter Argument a. Topic Sentence b. Evidence c. Proposal? Explanation of Evidence d. Explanation of Why Your Argument is Still Correct III. Analysis? Supporting Body Paragraph a. Topic Sentence b. Explanation of Argument c. Evidence d. Samples? Explanation of Evidence e. Closing Statement IV. Supporting Body paragraph a. Topic Sentence b. Explanation. Critical thinking , Essay , Five paragraph essay 632 Words | 4 Pages. Writing and Well-rounded Argumentative Essay. an argumentative essay ? The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to . Practise Questions? investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay . These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved. The argumentative essay. Article , Essay , Essays 1102 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Page 1 Kathleen Rice ENC 1101-12 . Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Page 2 List of possible topics: 1. Pros and Cons of Birth Control 2. Pros and research samples Cons of Adoption 3. Essay? Pros and Con of Illegitimate children 4. Why Teenagers should wait to have sex 5. Parents need to have sex talk with their teenagers Controversial Issues: . Family , Family law , Howard Staunton 1580 Words | 5 Pages.
ENGLCOM-WC A new step-up to samples globalization: An Argumentative Essay (Post- Essay ) Submitted by: Famela Anne . Madamba (NO1B) Submitted to: Ms. Karen Gabinete December 1, 2012 Philippines is one of those countries that values education a lot. Statistics shows that Filipinos are more diligent than of those people of the other country when it comes to education. Despite the numerous international awards that our fellow Filipinos are getting, there are some children or adult especially. Curriculum , Education , Filipino people 2047 Words | 6 Pages.
Essay 5: Argument Rough Draft The people of America are categorized into different classes: the upper class, middle class, lower class, and . the dissertation help (sometimes mentioned) working class. In Gregory Mantsios’s article “Class In America – 2009,” he explains that there are distinct differences between each class through every day life-styles as one example, explaining how a person lives determines not only their social statues, but also their economic status. Research Samples? Diana Kendall’s article on “Framing Class”. American middle class , Bourgeoisie , Household income in the United States 917 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative: Addiction and Statement. Argumentative Essay Writing Section 1: The Thesis An argumentative essay is profile built around a . specific statement known as the research samples thesis or conclusion that is profile essay debatable within the field in research samples, which you are studying.
In other words, at the center of an argumentative essay is write my aper a statement with which your readers may disagree. Your essay will need to support that statement in a manner that convinces your readers of research proposal its truth. Debatable Statements: Statements with which other people might or might not agree. Writing Help Uk? Addiction , Alcoholism , Proposition 506 Words | 3 Pages. Argument Essay - Illegalize Alcohol. Proposal? Argument Essay Draft Our country is facing a growing problem. It is a problem of moral decay. The legal and open use of . alcohol is an writer agent unnecessary vice that is enjoyed and accepted by a majority of the United States population, unfortunately, it leads to social and moral downfalls.
Alcohol should be held to the same standards as other illegal mind and body-altering substances, as alcohol is addicting and proposal samples has no medical value. Lawmakers and active voters should put an outright ban on planned argumentative alcohol . The. Alcohol , Crime , Drug Enforcement Administration 1051 Words | 3 Pages. How to Write an samples Argumentative Essay. Mountain? The Writing Lab – D204d http://bellevuecollege.edu/asc/writing 425-564-2200 How to Write an Argumentative Essay An . argumentative essay uses reasoning and evidence—not emotion—to take a definitive stand on a controversial or debatable issue. Research? The essay explores two sides of a topic and proves why one side or position is the best. The First Steps Choose a specific issue to discuss.
Some debatable issues cover a wide range of topics. Dissertation Writing Help? For example, “legalizing drugs” is too broad a subject because. Cat , Dog , Neutering 1602 Words | 5 Pages. Steps in planning an argumentative essay. ?Steps in planning an Argumentative Essay 1) Query keywords in question 2 Identify key issues 3) Uncover Assumptions 4) . brainstorm both sides 5) broaden and research proposal samples deepen (Scope and depth) 6) take a stand 7) Identify 2 strongest arguments on opposing sides, problematise and answer 8) Thesis statement Organisation when writing the essay II) introduction 1) grabber 2) transition 3) thesis Statement II) Body 1) Topic Sentence 2) Elaboration III) Conclusion 1) Final thought 2). Argument , Doctor of Philosophy , Essay 1283 Words | 5 Pages. Practise Gamsat Essay Questions? Argumentative Essay on Gay Marriage. Wesley King Grammar and samples Composition lesson 75 Argumentative Essay on Gay Marriage Marriage is the a way . ceremonial binding of two people, male and female, into research proposal samples one couple. Historically, marriage has been the institution when a man and a woman join together with the promise of practise questions love, devotion, to samples always stay together, to writer agent be there for each other, to take care of one another and to start a family together. Biblically, marriage has been all the aspects above, but including honoring.
Civil union , Homosexuality , Lesbian 842 Words | 2 Pages. Research? Alcohol Addiction An Argument Essay Have you ever been pressured into doing something you would rather not do? Many people . have been in many different ways. It seems that teens are pressured more and more into drinking than anything else. If you choose to profile drink it is your choice but are you doing it to fit in, or just because you want to? There are many different ways an adolescent might take a drink even if they know it is wrong.
Some reasons are the risk-taking, the expectancies, how sensitive. Proposal? Addiction , Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage 961 Words | 3 Pages. Planned Argumentative Essay? Title: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY FORMAT Intro: PURPOSE: To set up and state one’s claim OPTIONAL ELEMENTS Make your introductory . paragraph interesting. How can you draw your readers in? What background information, if any, do we need to know in proposal, order to understand your claim? If you don’t follow this paragraph with a background information paragraph, please insert that info here. To Rainy Mountain Essay? REQUIRED ELEMENTS ? If you’re arguing about a literary work—state author + title ? If you’re arguing about an. Conclusion , Critical thinking , Evidence 788 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essays About Obesity.
is not the case. Research Proposal Samples? There are many programs out there that target America’s obese citizens. However, the main focus seems to be towards the younger generation. . Childhood obesity seems to be escalating throughout the dissertation help uk past few years. This may Is this Essay helpful? Join OPPapers to proposal read more and access more than 350,000 just like it! get better grades be due to the convenience of foods high in fat. Practise Gamsat Essay? Teens and adolescents rely on things they can afford. Proposal Samples? Fast-food restaurants and low-cost candy is write my aper affordable. Body mass index , Cancer , Fast food 1570 Words | 4 Pages. How to Write a Argumentative Essay. action : a passage urging readers to take a specific action in support of the views of the author coherence : the sensible presentation of smoothly . connected ideas in a paragraph or essay conceding a point : acknowledging that an opposing point is reasonable conclusion ( sound file ) : the final paragraph of an essay connotation : a shade of meaning in a word or phrase that makes it different from proposal samples other words or phrases with similar meanings emotional appeal : an argument that tries to persuade. Critical thinking , Doctor of planned parenthood Philosophy , Fallacy 1331 Words | 5 Pages.
Argumentative Essay Prompts 1. The Board of Education has decided to extend the samples school day for one hour because of the . increased graduation requirements. Do you agree or disagree with making the school day longer? Write an dissertation help essay to the Board of Ed and argue your point of view. 2. A leading doctor has published research claiming all students should be in bed by 9:00 PM in research, order for them to learn well in school. Your parents are considering doing what the doctor suggests.
Write an argument. Argument , College , Driver's license 1493 Words | 6 Pages.
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A Sample Research Proposal with Comments
How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the proposal samples, main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the steps to writing a great summary: Read the write my aper, article, one paragraph at a time. For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper.
When you finish the article, read all the underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Start the sentence using the proposal samples, name of the author and title of the article (see format below). Continue writing your summary by writer agent, writing the other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to change both the words of the sentence and the word order.
For more information, see video below. Don't forget to use transition words to link your sentences together. Proposal Samples? See my list of transition words below to gamsat essay questions help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to read. Make sure you include the name of the author and article and use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about what the research proposal samples, author said and not your own ideas. Writer Agent? Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough? Your summary should be as short and research samples concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and the author.
Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article “How the Civil War Began, says that the planned essay, real reason. How the Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the main point of the article. It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis). Example:
In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the author argues that the real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the research samples, clash of cultures and greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is going to give the reasons and evidence for that main statement. In other words, what is the main point the planned, writer is trying to make and what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . The thesis of this essay is ___________ . The author’s main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Research Samples? Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author? While you don't have to use an practise essay author tag in every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to samples be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and writer agent that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the author's ideas. In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and Women in research samples, Conversation: Example response essay to Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of the opposite gender. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. Write My Aper? The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by a college English class about an article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history.
How is this written? Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to analyzing other texts. You will want to research proposal consider what is effective and ineffective. Writer Agent? You will analyze what the author does that works and what doesn't work to support the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to research start. It may help you to use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and Exigence:
Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand. When writing the writer agent, analysis, you need to think about what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to research proposal have the audience think, do, or believe. Parenthood Essay? The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at research proposal samples convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into write my aper, the history of discussion of proposal that issue, the historical moment in time when the article is written, and the moment in time when a person reads the article. In this context, Exigence is writer agent synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to research proposal samples address from three to all five of these elements.
Each of the essay, following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and Reader. How is the essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the organization of the essay? How does the author try to interest the reader? How well does the samples, author explain the main claims?
Are these arguments logical? Do the support and evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the point the author is trying to make? Who is the author? What does he or she know about this subject? What is the writer agent, author's bias?
Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience? How does the author try to relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective? How does the author interest the research proposal samples, audience? Does she or he make the reader want to writer agent know more?
Does the author explain enough about the history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to these arguments? How is this essay effective or ineffective for this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and research proposal fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and also check out Lisa Rayner and gamsat questions Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is research very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of mountain essay sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and research proposal samples use of writer agent language.
Example: The organization of essay title is samples effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by ___________. The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is practise gamsat questions effective or ineffective in research proposal samples, proving the point ). Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing. You can do the same for this sort of analysis. For example, in my sample reading the planned, response about research proposal Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic.
If you don't know anything about the author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . Parenthood Essay? The author's bias is research shown in ___________ . Profile? The author assumes an audience who ___________ . Proposal Samples? He/She establishes common ground with the audience by planned argumentative essay, ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of research proposal samples other sorts of readers. For example, Readers are interested in this issue because of the essay, exigence of ___________. Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to proposal this argument by ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim.
What do you think? Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and analyze. Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and write my aper the words you select to talk about the article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and research proposal samples specific. It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article. Most of the time, your response will fall into profile analysis, one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and samples back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. You will disagree with the author because of a way your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position).
You will agree with part of the author's points and disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to proposal samples be discussed in addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to writer agent use it? Here are some questions you can answer to proposal samples help you think about your response: What is your personal reaction to analysis essay the essay? What common ground do you have with the research samples, author?
How are your experiences the same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in planned parenthood argumentative, the essay is new to you? Do you know of any information the research samples, article left out that is relevant to parenthood argumentative the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about?
What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in the essay? How much of your response is related to your personal experience? How much is related to research samples your own worldview? How is this feeling related to essay the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay? What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay?
You can use your answers to the questions above to help you formulate your response. Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of research proposal this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of this, my reaction to this essay is ___________. Profile Essay? Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to me is ___________. This essay makes me think ___________. I like/dislike ___________ in research samples, the essay.
I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. How to Write a Summary of an Article. by Virginia Kearney 18.
How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42.
Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the dissertation help, examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for samples, your guide. Is it necessary to include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 7 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to analysis essay use my other guides and sample papers to research proposal complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 7 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Parenthood Argumentative? Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on the filed of International Business. Thank you so much!
I really appreciate the effort put into your work. Proposal Samples? :) this will really help me now and in future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given. Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to a way to rainy put the information exactly in the same order as the research proposal samples, original paper. The important thing in summarizing is essay questions that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words.
I'm guessing that with the title, the article has a number of samples reasons why we should allow the drugs. If the a way to rainy, reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. Research Samples? For example, I can image that the reasons to essay questions allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the samples, right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. What structure would i put the paragraphs in planned parenthood essay, so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an actual format to follow?
Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of proposal samples my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an dissertation writing help uk argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to research proposal samples believe. The analysis part of that sort of dissertation help uk essay means that you evaluate the pros and proposal samples cons of other ideas about that claim. I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and write my aper I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Look at the links to the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States.
Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the proposal samples, same as we've described here except that you would summarize the writing help, story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about research proposal something that happened to you, you need to see my article on How to help uk Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. Search for research samples, it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in write my aper, your research paper. You might want to see my article on research, How to do an parenthood argumentative essay Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from research proposal samples, United States.
Glad this is helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to have the opportunity to be tutor by write my aper, you. Hello, I am actually working on research, three articles and my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and dissertation help uk examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. All of research samples this explaining is a great source for anything.
You have to love everything about this site. This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from essay, United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to research a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and the different sides of the argument. Then pose a question which is write my aper interesting to you.
Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of proposal samples whether this is essay questions good or bad. Research? Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for planned parenthood argumentative essay, pro-life groups to samples use? Does just raising the to rainy mountain essay, issue of burial change the proposal, conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. Writer Agent? I am responding to research the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza!
This type of essay is write my aper not very well explained in many textbooks and that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is research proposal what prepares you for doing good research. This post has been of great help for me and my friends. Planned Argumentative Essay? Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. I especially liked the chart. Proposal? However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks for the information.
Very good insight on analysis description. I want to thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over the world.
I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from Singapore! It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from dissertation writing, United States. Thanks Simon!
I've done a lot of writing over research proposal samples, the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of your post writing. It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in the university and writer agent I have to write. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you.
Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in research, 2008, I've been amazed to see people from all over practise, the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for my students at college here in the United States. Research Proposal Samples? Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. I am glad to be able to provide help for free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school.
This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. In speech, we show authority by essay, using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of proposal what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne. I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point?
By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for your comment. As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking. You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in University right now and I have to write response papers so often. This article is extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and look back on dissertation writing, it when I have my next paper due!
Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions. greeting from research samples, Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is dissertation structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. Proposal Samples? In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from a way essay, Ontario, Canada.
Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. I need to samples digest this information and start applying this in my work. Profile Analysis? I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and proposal samples I organize this after. Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester.
Organization is dissertation key in writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in proposal, Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to planned parenthood me. Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to research proposal people in other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of write my aper working and research proposal samples found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger.
I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Dissertation? Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to the U.S. to samples go to college and play American football. The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the a way, bottom of AUS) Thanks for a great hub. Just about to go back to college after 20 years and research samples am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction.
Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from writer agent, United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and research proposal samples I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. I will have to think about doing some more topic ideas for parenthood essay, science classes. I'm doing this for science.
Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. You read and you’re pierced.” This page is research samples a great method to connect to write my aper others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to proposal samples be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into a responsive reading. Argumentative Essay? You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of going to 4th of July celebrations to my links.
Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and helpful hub. I have bookmarked it. I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad!
I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper. Research Samples? I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of writer agent peer editing, which I think helped. This paper is research proposal similar to analysis essay the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on proposal samples, these essays and a way essay the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from proposal, United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to the hub.
You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at gamsat essay questions the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on research proposal samples, this essay now and so I was looking at my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over profile analysis essay, 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the proposal samples, first one that will use it. Writer Agent? Guess there are a lot of research samples other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for parenthood argumentative, essays really don't help you know how to samples organize them.
I've actually learned a lot about parenthood essay writing by trying to figure out how to teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from research samples, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of profile analysis their respective owners. Proposal? HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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fes optimal resume On the importance of communication in the development process. Copyright by Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 1992. Published by the Media and research proposal, Communication Department. of Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) Godesberger Allee 149. Federal Republic of Germany. Edited by Reinhard Keune and Dr. Heinz Dieter Bauer, FES. Designed and typeset by Gerd Ernst, FES.
Printed by DruckCenter Meckenheim, 1992. I. Practise Essay Questions? THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. 1. Communication as a fundamental factor of a society's. 2. Communication and quality of life 7. 3. Samples? Communication as a human right 10. 4. The great handicap: misconceptions about the importance. of the mass media. An excursus on the sociology of science 11. 5. On hostility towards the media 16. 6. The paradigms debate 17.
7. System-theoretical model 20. 8. Development journalism 23. II. CONSEQUENCES FOR PRACTICE. 9. Problems of consulting in the media sector 26. 10. Journalist training: development journalism versus. envelopment journalism 30. 11.
Management training and practise gamsat, democracy 33. 12. On the structure of the samples, international flow of communication 38. 13. The cultural imperialism discussion 43. 14. Write My Aper? Topical developments: technology, economics, politics 49. 14.1 The triumph of free journalism? 49. 14.2 Commercialisation as a global trend 50. 14.3 Technical development: telematics and research, transborder data flow 52.
14.4 Summary: consulting in the media sector - mistakes. are inevitable 57. DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNICATION IN SHORT THESES 59. I. Write My Aper? Theoretical considerations. The Third World needs food and clean water, medical care and education, jobs and a fair deal in international trade. It does not need electronic gadgets for passing the proposal samples, time. The key issues in the North-South dialogue are population growth and analysis, desertification, the debt crisis and trade barriers, not questions of how to while away the hours. 1. Communication as a fundamental factor of a society's existence. Although it may appear to be stating the obvious, the importance of communication to human life cannot be overemphasised, for without communication no society can exist, no social structures can form or endure. Research Proposal Samples? For the existence and organisation of any society communication is the fundamental and to rainy essay, vital process because all joint action by individuals is proposal based on shared meanings conveyed by communication. (Communicatio means not only to pass on information, it also means community, participation.) Communication is the fundamental prerequisite to human life and social order.
Communication is the functionally necessary prerequisite for the existence of planned argumentative any social system. Communication is the research samples, fundamental social process permeating all aspects of write my aper social life. Communication is, as it were, the basic social process as such because without communication no organised action is possible. Social systems can only form and endure if the participating persons are linked to each other by communication. Because of the ubiquity of communication the human being can be perceived as 'homo communicator' since what it is (and what it can be) came about (or will come about) in communication situations. Communication is culture and culture is communication. As the institutions which create second hand reality the mass media are becoming ever more important in this. Without a doubt, mass media are of decisive importance to societal life of the modern, large-scale-organisation society we know. Yet largely unnoticed by samples, the public dramatic changes are going on in the write my aper, communication sector.
On the research proposal samples, one hand a development is writer agent happening under the influence of the socalled new communication media in research the process of which the borders between mass communication and individual communication are becoming ever vaguer. The mass propagation of identical contents to a dispersed public will no longer be the predominant form of argumentative communication, but chosen communication (on-demand communication) will become ever more important. On the other hand, however, under the influence of the technological revolution in the field of data processing the fundamental structures of society are changing; coming into being is the information society (cf. 14.3 Technical development: telematics and trans-border data flow). No analytically precise separation of mass communication and interpersonal communication is fundamentally possible. It would be only research proposal if one limited the mass communication process to the emission of the contents and ignored the recipients. Interpersonal communication and mass communication can be regarded as the end points of practise a continuum of communication situations. Although mass communication is inseparably linked to samples, interpersonal communication there are considerable differences between the two. If a communicator's aim is to change attitudes or even behaviours, interpersonal communication in general is more effective than mass communication.
The communicator can react more flexibly, that is check on the potential effect of a message (direct feedback). Moreover, more channels can be employed and with that the gamsat questions, non-verbal communication potential can be better used. Proposal Samples? Added to that is the possibility of social pressure which the writing help, mass communicator cannot access to research samples, a comparable extent. Recipients can much more easily break off contact with the mass media than in interpersonal communication. Profile? In the mass communication process active participation by the recipient is comparably small (although this depends on content as well as the situative context and the personality of the research samples, recipient), whereby the recipient does not have to express his or her opinion on a possibly controversial subject raised by the mass communicator. The advantage in dissertation help uk mass communication is its dissemination effect in spreading information; but it is limited by the communicator's addressing an indefinable number of people in the mass communication process without being able to take the various situations of the individuals into account. The optimal combination of mass communication and interpersonal communication is achieved if the mass media manage to reach the proposal samples, opinion leaders in the fields concerned who pass on the messages into interpersonal channels or strengthen them in the sense intended at the level of interpersonal communication. 2. Communication and quality of life. Communication is inseparably linked to quality of life. Quality of life is defined here as identification with the community, a feeling of being able to make the best of one's abilities (e.g. to have achieved something in planned essay one's vocation) and an appreciation of the research samples, beauty of art and nature, whereby the material basics and especially health assume decisive importance to the quality of life. In the following, under-development is to be taken to mean that compared to writing help, Western industrial nations in terms of economic performance and technological standard a nation is weaker, but not inferior in respect of cultural values nor automatically in regard to quality of life.
By this definition a dollar and cent yardstick is unsuited to gauging the research proposal, qualitative differences in practise essay questions quality of life. In The Health of Nations Leonard A. Samples? Sagan points to the outstanding importance of communication to write my aper, the quality of life, in this more specific context the ability to read and write. Sagan reports on a study done by him in samples which data about parenthood argumentative more than 150 societies (from pre-modern to highly complex modern ones) were analysed. Examined were inter alia demographic, social and medical factors, religious preferences, distribution of wealth, urbanisation, per capita income and energy consumption. Sagan comes to the conclusion: By far the most consistently powerful predictor of life expectancy was the prevalence of proposal samples literacy. Quite clearly there is a link between the spread of education to broad masses of the population and the decline of the mortality rate. The rapid mortality decline in developing countries was at first explained with parallels to European and American history, i.e. economic development was seen as the reason for higher life expectancy. Profile Analysis Essay? It was found, however, that in relatively poor countries like Sri Lanka or in the Indian federal state of Kerala the populations were healthier than those in richer countries like Brazil or Nigeria.
In the samples, late 60s the fallen mortality was put down to technological advances and the expansion of public health care. But this explanation was also too simple because the improvement of hygienic conditions and water supplies in some countries were not the decisive factors, either, for the reduction in profile analysis essay the incidence of diseases - sanitation and research proposal, water supply programmes failed to reduce disease incidence in some countries. Nor could better food policies explain the enormous rise in life expectancy. Finally, the importance of literacy, which in turn is dependent on the existence of adequate communication structures, to the quality of health care was recognised in argumentative the early 80s. In 1985 UNESCO published a study in which the influence of many factors on proposal samples, mortality in parenthood essay 15 developing countries was examined (inter alia occupational and samples, educational status of parents, urban/rural residence, religion, ethnic group, availability of health facilities, piped water, flush lavatories). Without doubt the strongest influence on health was found to be the school attendance of the mother. Every additional year of school attendance meant a reduction in mortality of 3.4%. In other words, 10 years of school attendance in which the abilities to read and write my aper, write and calculate mathematically produces a 34% reduction in mortality. An impressive example of the influence of proposal samples communication on the quality of life. In addition to interpersonal communication, in developing countries mass communication is also of decisive importance.
This holds not only for running health campaigns or for diffusion of innovations but above all for the communication of those matters that concern all of a state's citizens. Development towards a modern society which is to be characterised by democracy, social and economic justice, national consolidation, social discipline and economic growth is hardly possible without employing mass media for in societies with large rural sectors the mass media are able also to reach the rural dwellers and supply them with information. Only a communication system which also allows the population of the rural sector to inform themselves continuously and above all also to articulate their own opinions enables national identities to be formed and write my aper, can prevent or remedy society's being culturally split into a rural and an urban sector. Modernisation, respectively development, apart from technical progress also encompasses democratisation in the sense that old social structures, most of which are based on inherited positions, are broken up. Research Proposal Samples? Political participation by segments of society previously excluded is a central element of democratisation. Thus the North-South Commission gave a wider definition to development than the transition from poor to rich. Writer Agent? Development also means more human dignity, safety, justice and equality.
The elimination of existing strong inequalities within society is central to successful development processes starting. Equality is the value which is of decisive importance to successful modernisation and proposal, whose attractiveness has been proved in the context of successful liberation wars. Equality here is not to mean equality in poverty but above all equality of opportunity. Even in societies where nominal equality is a valid norm unequal distributions of income, insofar as they are based on performance, are regarded as quite fair. The propagation of the normative notion that equality means equality of opportunity can be done with the help of the mass media, whose effectiveness is greatest in times of marked social change. Writing? Such situations, in which traditional values and structures are in flux, are also the research samples, situations in which mass media can give orientation aids and convey new ideas (e.g. about future democratic forms of co-existence in society). Prerequisite to parenthood, this is that the research proposal, mass media are perceived as credible. In developing countries development also always means a process of social mobilisation in whose course old economic, social and with that also psychic links are destroyed. Dissertation Uk? The countries of the Third World cannot be regarded as a category of homogeneous societies but in their cultural and political variety must be assessed individually - including, too, in respect of the use and hence the effect of the mass media.
In regard to the expressive power of indicators for measuring quality of life it must also be assumed that no two societies are the same, because development is proposal samples like a giraffe: difficult to describe, but easy to recognize. The federal German government now places central importance on mountain, media promotion measures in both the national development process and research proposal samples, as an instrument to improve relations between peoples and states. In the paper Medienförderung in practise gamsat der entwicklungspolitischen Zusammenarbeit (Media promotion in development policy cooperation) it is argued that the media offer the chance positively to influence social change in samples developing countries by informing and gamsat questions, motivating the research samples, population, by familiarising them with educational contents, values and norms indispensable to profile, a country's development. The breadth of developmentally instrumental use of the mass media ranges from the possibility of educational measures on the broadest possible basis, through the preservation and proposal samples, cultivation of cultural values, to the effective support of efforts at practise questions democratising society and strengthening self-help and proposal, participation in analysis essay the development process. 3. Communication as a human right. The principle of proposal samples Free Flow of Information was written into the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in 1948. Article 19 declares freedom of write my aper information a fundamental human right: Everyone has a right to freedom of opinion and expression; the right includes freedom to hold opinions. and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. The McBride Commission argues: The right to communicate is an extension of the continuing advance toward liberty and research proposal samples, democracy. In connection with the principle of free flow of information the structure of the world news system was for gamsat essay questions a long time in the foreground of the media policy debates conducted in the UNO, respectively UNESCO, a discussion aimed mainly at constructing a New World Information Order.
In the dispute over free versus balanced news flow the position of the West was and is unequivocal: freedom of information and opinion is perceived as a basic right. Restricting the freedom of proposal samples information is seen as tantamount to censorship. The individual citizen has the right to write my aper, inform himself or herself from proposal samples domestic or foreign media. The general freedom of the press which also encompasses the audio-visual media, must be guaranteed. There must be no state control of mass media, whereby the gamsat, control of the mass media by a few powerful individuals or companies must also be seen as a danger to democracy.
Press freedom must not mean that only a few economically powerful people or organisations have the opportunity to research proposal, disseminate their opinions. Writer Agent? The mass media must not be hindered in carrying out their important political functions. Apart from imparting information and research, shaping opinion the media must also exercise criticism and by that be able to control the government. That is why no state can assume responsibility for information the mass media disseminate in its area of jurisdiction or from its territory to other countries. The demand for a balanced international flow of planned argumentative information in a North-South context would imply two possibilities of achieving a more balanced information flow: 1. Proposal? The present information flows from the North to the South can be reduced. 2. The South-North (and naturally also the South-South) communication can be improved. Since option one implies destroying or hindering existing communication channels, which would mean a lessening of the write my aper, system's ability to learn, option two is without doubt preferable. In connection with trans-border communication of news an improvement of the possibilities of free flow of information is needed, in which the building of better South-North communication must be linked with better South-South communication. This proposition assumes that a government is interested in having a population which can and wants to participate in proposal samples the process of democratic will-shaping.
Investment in writer agent South-South flow also means that the chance to create solidarity in research proposal samples world society is used. Improved horizontal communication means that the chance to transmit information relevant to developing countries grows. If information flow is restricted, on the other hand, it is very likely that existing undemocratic structures of rule will remain, under which the dignity of human beings is not respected and underprivileged parts of the population are prevented from gaining knowledge about possibilities of better lives. People must be aware of their being under-privileged and they must perceive this as unjust and write my aper, stoppable so as to take action to improve the proposal, quality of parenthood argumentative life (on fighting fatalism cf. 8. Development journalism). Reducing information flow poses yet another danger, for institutions have to be established which decide what information is to research, be 'reduced'.
Balanced information flow by write my aper, limitation thus becomes synonymous with censorship. 4. The great handicap: misconceptions about the. importance of the research proposal samples, mass media. An excursus on the sociology of science. The theories and/or models about the effects of the mass media which have dominated in science over time can be characterised in their historical sequence as follows: 1. The early approaches to theoretical evaluation of writer agent media effects were closely linked with mass psychology. Proposal? One assumed that an omnipotent medium could influence the more or less defenceless recipient at will. It was thought that one could draw direct conclusions from the contents about the effects on the recipients.
2. Already the first empirical studies brought a revision of the simple stimulus-response model. Especially under the influence of the analysis of the dissertation writing, 1940 US presidential election campaign between Roosevelt and Wilkie the theory that mass media always made a direct and identical impact on all people had to be abandoned. There followed a time in which the theory of relative ineffectiveness of the mass media predominated. Klapper in his literature appraisal came to the conclusion that in samples the normal case mass communication had to be seen neither as a prerequisite nor an adequate condition for effects. According to profile analysis, this the main effect of the mass media is to strengthen existing opinions. McGuire still maintains in research proposal samples the 1969 Handbook of Social Psychology that on the basis of the argumentative, research findings to hand it could be assumed that the mass media had no effects at proposal all. 3. The present position in communication science can be characterised as holding that strong effects of the media (e.g. on public opinion, the world-view, etc.) are recognised as indisputable, whereby there is no adherence to the simple cause-and-effect model of the writing, first phase of effects research which at the same time seems to research samples, be ineradicable among non-communication scientists. Effects of the media are defined as: characteristics and/or changes firstly at the level of individuals, secondly at the level of social groups and organisations (mesosystem) and thirdly the level from whole societies to the world system which can be wholly or partly traced back to writer agent, the contents, forms and organisations of the mass media. Thus effects are identified not only at proposal the level of individuals and groups, but mass communication as a social sub-system interacts with other sub-systems (e.g. Analysis? politics, education, economics, churches, etc.) and society as a whole. These macro effects have not been given enough attention in samples research so far. Analysis Essay? An example would be, for research proposal samples example, the changing of the election campaign, respectively the selection of candidates in democratic parties by introduction of write my aper television (e.g. show on TV rather than political grass roots work).
It would also be a decisive effect of television on the sub-system politics if the majority of the population believes because of the TV coverage that the individual cannot influence political decisions but that they are made by 'those up there'. Because of proposal samples their wide dissemination the mass media from the outset were at the centre of public discussions. A problem arises in practise gamsat questions this for communication research which, although it is common to all social sciences, becomes especially conspicuous here because, at least in the industrial states, everyone has their own experience with the mass media: The scepticism vis a vis the social sciences and the findings they make, prevailing generally in the public and politics, is especially marked here. Particularly in samples respect of the effects of the media there are widespread popular-scientific notions, most of which can be characterised as holding that although one is oneself a very critical media consumer, the 'others' (the mass of the population) are in extreme jeopardy because of the assumed great effectiveness of the dissertation uk, media. The lay notions about media effects, very many of which have the character of self-evident cultural tenets, form a substantial barrier to the dissemination of findings in communication science (and the implementation of promotion measures in the media sector). If the findings of a scientific study correspond to the general assumptions it is seen as proof that one knew everything anyway and that communication science had nothing new to offer. Research? If the results of a study are not compatible with widespread beliefs then their acceptance and dissemination is obstructed, for example by imputing that the researchers had worked faultily or imprecisely.
Fundamentally, no simple and write my aper, eternally valid statement on what effects the media have can be made because the effects are so complex. This is due to the uniqueness of each situation, the mouldability of human beings - whereby it must also be considered that identical contents can be used and perceived differently by proposal, various recipients - and the systemic nexus of the components relevant in a given situation. Propagation of communication science findings is also made difficult by the public and/or the journalists who report on them expecting that they need to be easily and generally understandable. Practise Gamsat Essay Questions? Especially in regard to the effects of research media the roller coaster argument applies: If reality has the shape of a roller coaster, then the theories which attempt adequately to explain the reality must also assume the character of a roller coaster. In other words the tendency so popular with politicians and other decision makers to speculate about the effects of the mass media on the level of plausibility arguments which are mostly extrapolations of one's own life-experiences is bound to produce misconceptions. In the context addressed here it is of decisive importance that it is not only naive culture pessimists who tend to sweeping uncritical condemnation of the mass media. Even related to a scientific public it appears more promising of dissertation help success in many cases to make statements based on research, everyday knowledge. A typical example of this is the argumentation of Stanislav Andreski who rails against the witchmasters of the social sciences and their methodological conjuring tricks but himself gets entangled in culture-pessimistic platitudes when he speaks of the advanced stage of cretinisation into which our civilisation has fallen under the influence of the mass media. Also in complete misperception of the effects of the mass media Ludwig von Bertalanffy argues that every well managed advertising campaign is as precise a behaviourial experiment as any in a laboratory. Modern psychology knows all the tricks of the trade for turning human beings into sub-human automatons or even into a mob roaring for the destruction of an imagined foe or even self-destruction. This was merely the mountain essay, use of the routine methods of the car salesman or the TV advertiser. The author, whose reputation as a system theoretician and biologist is research undisputed worldwide, nevertheless arrogates unto himself knowledge in the field of effects research and dilettantes on by arguing that because we treat human beings according to the model of Skinner rats and more and more make them into robots we have all those problems.
For this reason we urgently needed a science of mass-influencing, both for writer agent the manipulators seeking new effective methods and for the manipulated so that they can be on guard against them. Proposal Samples? Mass-influencing became almost invincible if it was not applied by external compulsion but rather was internalised; if the animal within the human being were so conditioned that it had no option but to dissertation, respond to the stimulation given it in the way the manipulator wanted it to. Next to nuclear weapons, this was the great invention of our age: the forming of humanity into automatons who simply buy anything - toothpaste, washing machines, presidents, atomic war and self-annihilation. Such statements about the alleged effectiveness of the mass media made by indubitably renowned scientists who in their own fields have successfully tried to popularise their knowledge and therefore possess high reputations in public help to spread totally false notions because as a rule the non-communication scientist cannot recognise when an author oversteps the bounds of his competence. That prepares the research samples, ground for the mass media's being assessed by completely wrong yardsticks. If political decision makers adhere to such omnipotence suggestions and then find that an investment in the media sector does not immediately show the hoped for effects it cannot be ruled out that they react negatively inasmuch as further media promotion measures are made more difficult or prevented since one could, after all, assume that the media did not work anyway. But as already mentioned, media effects are always very complex. This applies not just to the effects at the level of writer agent societies (macro effects) but also to effects at the level of individuals or groups. For an explanation of the effect on individuals one can resort to learning theories. From the premise of learning theory people are neither solely driven by internal forces nor pushed forward solely by environmental stimuli. Psychic functions are explained by research samples, continuous interaction between personal and environmental determinants.
This reciprocal determinism means that expectations influence the ways people behave and that the consequences of this behaviour in turn change their expectations again. The behaviour of human beings is such that through the parenthood, symbolic representation of foreseeable events these anticipated events can have effects on current behaviour. Research Proposal? That means that most actions are subject to anticipatory control. This in itself is enough reason always to reject as wrong any explanation of the effects of mass media based on a simple cause-and-effect model. However, effects research itself has largely added to practise essay, the widespread notion that nothing precise was known about the effects of mass media. A state-sponsored German effects research commission in research proposal 1986 came to the conclusion that quite generally we know too little about the connection between mass communication and society, about the effect laws of the writer agent, media. The commission stated further that although the research works to hand were thematically wideranging they were disparate at research samples the same time. Often there was only a single study on a particular problem. Writer Agent? Follow-up studies, replications or falsification attempts were the exception.
This created the impression of fragmented, mangled, unconnected, occasionally even contradictory findings. In such a data situation there was no way theoretically to integrate the proposal, many individual findings. The demand for the one theory of media effects could not be met because the media and their contents were much too varied. Also, the conditions under which the media made their impact were much too complex for them to be assembled in one consistent set of hypotheses. However - and in the context being addressed here this is the most important aspect - it is undisputed that the dissertation writing uk, mass media do have an proposal, effect. But one had to be aware in helping to develop media that as a rule the effects are complex and longterm. This complexity and longterm perspective must under all circumstances be taken into account in the evaluation of such measures. The situation cannot be characterised as if one did not know what impact the media had, but rather that one must warn against overly simple statements on media impact. The resumé to be drawn from this scientific-sociological excursus is this: If one has completely wrong notions about the effects of the mass media and uses them as the yardstick to assess the success of measures in the media sector negative judgments about media promotion measures are almost bound to be made. 5. A Way Essay? On hostility towards the media. Walter Lippmann's famous formulation that we define first and research proposal samples, then see also applies to politicians.
Out of the vast volume of events and information those are preferably chosen which correspond to profile analysis essay, the already existing pre-judgment. Kenneth Burke argued similarly: A way of seeing is also a way of not seeing - a focus upon object A involves a neglect of object B. If we have a corresponding image in our heads there is no difficulty processing even apparently contradictory information. Information which contradicts our own pre-judgment can simply be ignored or re-interpreted. The German poet, Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach expressed this fact in 1893 in an aphorism: A judgment can be proved wrong but never a pre-judgment. In respect of the effect of media the valid proposition is that identical contents can be perceived and used completely differently. Every person chooses from the multitude of environmental phenomena only a few (selective perception), and depending on life experience especially those which fit into the familiar world-view. The decisive thing is the frame of reference within which perception takes place. Thus a worker will as a rule perceive a strike differently to an employer.
In this context the 'hostile media phenomenon' is important. Valone et alii who coined this phrase proceeded from the assumption that in readers' letters to newspapers and magazines often one and the same article was attacked as one-sidedly presenting the position of the other side in each case - and this by people who held completely different views. It was obviously assumed the mass medium concerned in each case took a position hostile to the letter writer's. It can be assumed that as a rule politicians and other decision makers feel unjustly treated by the media and therefore try to control them in their favour. For media promotion measures which aim at democratisation of the media this means in samples countries where such control of the media by politicians already happens that in principle such help is perceived as a threat to a status quo pleasant for the rulers. There is always massive resistance by those concerned to reforms and improvements in the media sector which could endanger the existing non-democratic structures of rule, although they never tire of practise questions claiming that they stand up for the freedom of the research samples, mass media. 6. The paradigms debate. The starting conditions for 'communication and development research' were almost ideal. Communication scientists such as Joseph Klapper, Harald D. Essay? Lasswell, Paul F. Research? Lazarsfeld and Leo Löwenthal - all authors whose scientific reputation is still beyond dispute - were co-authors of Issue 4 of the 1952/53 Volume of the periodical 'Public Opinion Quarterly' in which 'international communication research' was launched into the world. The political climate was very favourable to this young branch of science for writer agent in the USA one felt committed to proposal samples, spreading the practise essay questions, American ideals of freedom and democracy throughout the research, world. The motive of pulling the rest of the practise gamsat essay questions, world up to one's own level, to the American way of life, was especially apparent in point 4 of President Trumann's 10-point programme of 1948: Fourth. We must embark on a bold new program for making the research proposal samples, benefits of planned our scientific advances and proposal samples, industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas.
In this programme communication research was assigned an important task in the propaganda battle then fought with the Soviet Union for the loyalty of the developing countries. American foreign policy aimed at containing communism and essay, included preventive measures in the developing countries in the form of proposal samples development aid. Development aid was understood in this as an investment in world peace by which the political systems concerned were to to rainy mountain essay, be developed towards democracy. Development aid was based on the following logic: One thought that by introducing modernising institutions (e.g. schools or mass media) one could raise modern personalities who in proposal samples turn would be able adequately to fulfil vocational roles in modern institutions (e.g. in factories). This, it was thought further, would enable economic growth. Breaking the 'vicious circle of poverty' was regarded as possible. Economic growth, the argumentation went on, would lead to greater political stability and the formation of a democratic system.
Thus American development aid policy proceeded from the convergence-theoretical assumption that political behaviour, respectively the formation of writing democratic political institutions, was governed by fundamental economic processes. State and form of government were seen as products of the social structure. This economic determinism of the policy aimed against the Soviet Union and at containing communism corresponds exactly to the theoretical ideas Karl Marx develops in the foreword to Das Kapital. Research Proposal? Marx argues that the capitalists would overcome the backward production methods in the under-developed countries: It concerns these laws itself (the laws of nature of capitalist production, M. K.), these seemingly oaken laws and gamsat essay, asserting tendencies. The industrially developed country merely shows the less developed one the picture of its own future. For decades the most influential book on the practical use of mass media in developing countries was The Passing of Traditional Society (New York 1958) by Daniel Lerner. It was originally designed as a study for proposal the Voice of to rainy America. One wanted to know which recipients one could reach in developing countries. Lerner, who had worked in the Intelligence Section of the Psychological Warfare Division of the US Army during World War II, differentiated between modern, transitional and traditional personalities, wherein the transitional persons were seen as the key to change in the Middle East, where the study was done. Apart from the economic and political interests the main motive in American development aid was also to try to set in motion modernisation processes by investments in the communication sector. The findings of socio-scientific research were to enable people to research proposal, have lives in freedom and dignity.
This basic position becomes clear with Wilbur Schramm who argues: - knowledge is better than ignorance; - health is profile essay better than disease; - to eat is better than to be hungry; - a comfortable standard of living is samples better than poverty; - to participate actively in one's nation is better than to be isolated from it. In the mid 70s one arrived at write my aper the conclusion that development aid and research, especially the use of mass media by no means automatically set in motion peaceful development towards democracy; publication of an dissertation writing help, essay by Everett M. Rogers marked the end of the dominance of proposal samples modernisation theories. However, the Lerner model influenced communication science until the mid 80s. The modernisation theories, according to which the causes for the under-development of certain societies or world regions lie in those societies themselves, were obviously off the mark. Under-development is not solely the cause of certain socio-cultural characteristics (e.g. traditionalism) or other system-immanent misdevelopments (e.g. population explosion). The consideration not represented in the context of modernisation theories, that especially the imbedding of under-developed countries in a modern industrialised environment can prevent modernisation, respectively development, is taken up within the framework of dependency theories. The dependency theories, which attempt an write my aper, all-encompassing explanation for research the failure of decades of efforts to practise essay questions, develop the Third World, perceive under-development as a result of worldwide economic interactions. Proposal? Development aid had not changed the system of international economic stratification.
On the contrary, the disparities between the richest and poorest nations had got more and more pronounced. A rule of thumb had also evolved: the writer agent, poorer a country, the greater the differences between rich and poor in it. But the dependency theory offered no action alternative to the conception of the modernisation theory. The present situation comprises a potpourri of theories to choose from. The hypothesis of decoupling is only seldom espoused because in samples practice it means that one excludes oneself from processes of development going on worldwide and the lag behind the developed countries becomes larger and planned argumentative, larger. Starting from philosophical considerations of the type propagated for example by Paulo Freire in Pedagogy of the proposal, oppressed, value was placed also in the use of mass media in to rainy essay the development process on such concepts as self-development, distributive justice, self-reliance, people participation, etc. However, this paradigm of media usage in developing countries did not produce the desired effects, either. Saxer and Grossenbacher write: It is often overlooked that communication is always meant to be only research part of an writer agent, overall strategy and not its central element. Samples? The use of decentralised media does not get you round the structural conditions which can hinder or even prevent the writing help, success of projects. In this context Sonaike emphasises as a further paradigm the approach of the culturalists who see the key to development of the countries of the research proposal samples, Third World in write my aper the diverse traditional cultures. The integration of modern and traditional methods of samples communication to impart development-relevant information is regarded as decisive to the success of media promotion measures. The needs of the people affected are to be taken into writer agent account in carrying out development measures.
In regard to the dependence theory considerations it remains to research samples, be observed that regardless of how applicable they are or are not, they pose a great danger: Politicians in developing countries can easily misuse them to deflect attention from their own failings. Writer Agent? A great deal of development aid fails simply because of the corruption and incompetence in research samples the recipient countries. There was exploitation and despotic rule in many developing countries before they became the victims of write my aper colonial and economic exploitation by the West. Research Proposal? It is also possible that in some of them Western values have been selectively adopted. Thus Ali Mazrui argues that the African culture replicated the wrong things from the practise gamsat, West: We borrowed the profit motive but not the entrepreneurial spirit. We borrowed the acquisitive appetites of capitalism but not the creative risk taking. We are at home with Western gadgets but are bewildered by proposal, Western workshops. We wear the wristwatch but refuse to watch it for the culture of punctuality. We have learned to help, parade in display, but not to drill in discipline. The West's consumption patterns have arrived but not necessarily the West's technique of production. 7. System-theoretical model.
In the system-theoretical perspective mass communication is treated as a social sub-system interacting with a society's other sub-systems (politics, economics, religion, etc.). Research? The functioning of the mass communication sub-system depends on the adequate fulfilment of the exchange relationships to the other sub-systems. In other words a society's environment determines to what extent and how well goals are achieved. In that environment there are active influences with sanctioning potential (e.g. Practise? politics, economics, religion) and proposal, passive influences in the form of the relatively powerless individual recipients. If, for example, the political sub-system no longer accepts the output of the mass communication sub-system then either the quality of the output has to change or the essay, environment exerts pressure. Hence the performance of the mass communication sub-system depends firstly on research samples, the relationships to writer agent, the environment and research samples, secondly on internal structural factors (e.g. Practise Questions? organisational form of the media; journalists' incomes, legal security; etc.) and on research proposal samples, the values climate (e.g. the professional ethos of the journalists). Write My Aper? One can assume that if effective interaction with the environment is to happen there has to be a certain correspondence between the characteristics inherent in the sub-system and the expectations emerging from the environment. Thus the possibility of research asserting a certain kind of journalism, e.g. a critical development journalism, depends on the values climate in the mass communication sub-system, the structural conditions prevailing in dissertation it (e.g. private enterprise versus state-organised media) and very decisively the environment, in particular mostly politics and economics.
In the system-theoretical view differences in the socio-cultural environment produce different journalistic professional roles. Many developing countries - varying from medium to medium - lack the prerequisites for effective mass communication. It may be because for material reasons they do not possess the technical infrastructure to reach large sections of the research proposal, population; it may be because there is no mass public able to gamsat essay, read the press (e.g. in the rural sector). Thus radio will remain the major medium in research samples developing countries since it can reach people unable to read or write. In this area it is especially promising to set up local stations broadcasting in the relevant local vernaculars, that is the language used on the radio must match the practise questions, linguistic capabilities of the target audience. And hence, too, it should be attempted especially in regard to proposal samples, radio to train as journalists persons rooted in parenthood argumentative essay the relevant local cultures. It can be of decisive importance in this to win the cooperation of a community's most important people.
This can assure integration in the local culture which means a gain in credibility and raises the chances of accessing channels of inter-personal communication. Credibility is research proposal one of the profile analysis essay, most important factors in employing the mass media in proposal developmental processes. Credibility is most readily achieved if the write my aper, media adequately meet the task of criticising the government. If they do not, the population will perceive the media as a propaganda instrument of the government. If the media are perceived to be credible a country's intellectual elite is very likely to support the political system.
If a media system is perceived as incredible the intellectuals as a rule will not support the government. Research Samples? Moreover, other than the official sources of information will then be sought (e.g. foreign radio stations). The main criterion in write my aper ensuring the mass media's controlling function is to ensure journalists' economic and legal security. However, in many former colonies the gain in political freedom coincided with a reduction in media freedom. Whereas in research the West the analysis essay, development of the press was most closely linked with the notion of individual freedom, a typical characteristic of the press history of former colonies is that it was closely involved with the struggle for statal independence, whose imperative mostly was: national unity is more important than the freedom of the research proposal, individual. Moreover, many journalists in developing countries tend to be loyal dogmatists rather than critical, investigative journalists. Many holders of top journalistic positions are bureaucrats. A further sub-division into types of political order (e.g. in Myrdal's categories of strong and weak states) already shows how the functions of the media and linked with that the professional self-perception of journalists can vary from country to country.
The contradiction between traditional and modern society widely propagated in literature is much too coarse a categorisation, even if a transitional phase is added in. Developing countries are by writer agent, no means static societies not differing from proposal each other, as the category of traditional society would suggest. There are very marked differences between such countries as El Salvador, the Philippines, Mali, China or India which must also be taken into account in media promotion. Reddi writes in the context of his demand of including a specifically Indian perspective in communication theory: A common field of experience exists among the nations which share the Judaeo-Christian religions and where religion and the way of life are separate with the latter as the writer agent, superior aspect. Research Proposal Samples? In Indian society, homogeneity is starkly absent.
With its diversity, there is no identifiable common concept around which the society functions, except in as much as it is different from other systems. However, there can be quite common development trends in respect of the function of mass media in analysis essay developing countries dependent on certain development phases. Thus the research proposal samples, initial function the mass media in, say, colonies which have just gained independence might be to spread symbols and information nurturing national identity. When subsequently modernisation processes are launched the media's primary function is to profile essay, mobilise the masses. However, successful modernisation measures also always pose a danger to proposal samples, integrative progress already made since as a rule new conflict potentials arise (e.g. new elites form). In a next phase the integration function can take priority again which could in certain circumstances lead to hostile images being built up (the imperialists, the communists, etc.), for a threat, regardless of argumentative whether it emanates from an proposal samples, enemy within or without, however it is defined, increases people's readiness to submit to writer agent, authoritarian leadership and put internal disputes on the back burner. But the research samples, unintended consequence of building up such an enemy-image can be the loss of media credibility for a long time. 8. Development journalism. Whereas development support communication describes communicative measures related to a specific development project, development communication is practise gamsat questions understood as the communication strategy related to an entire society, respectively a comprehensive national development plan. In the ideal case development journalism is to be oriented to the needs of the population while not endangering the manageability of a state nor being able to be misused to legitimise obviously unjust structures of rule. This notion of development journalism proceeds from the normative assumption that the people affected must be actively involved in the decision making, planning and implementation of development projects. Research Samples? With that, apart from dissemination of information, two functions of development journalism are particularly emphasised: the motivation to active cooperation of the people affected and the active advocacy of their interests vis a vis the planners, respectively the parenthood essay, government.
Thus development journalism is imbedded in the context of a general management concept of the planning and implementation of development programmes, that is it is ascribed a quite instrumental, socio-technological character. The journalist working within these prescribed norms will become comparable in aspects of his profession with the research proposal, on-site leader of development projects. Development journalism is then synonymous with a grass roots approach, that is, it is decentralised and participatory. It must not limit itself to the communication channels of the mass media alone but also use the traditional communication media. This development journalism is primarily local journalism in the sense that the journalist should be rooted in the local culture concerned. It cannot be stated often enough that the most important component of development journalism is credibility, which is most readily won by the media's adequately advocating the interests of the affected people, which means inter alia articulating criticism of the government. It must be remembered in help uk this connection that in most developing countries there is a vast gap between what government representatives say about the freedom the research samples, media have in their respective countries and the truth. Probably only a free media system is able to contribute to rooting out write my aper corruption, this fundamental evil in developing countries, by revealing and pillorying it. Research? However, the demand for press freedom is practically unfulfillable in most developing countries because the governments always regard the mass media as something potentially very dangerous. 49 Adequate for writing uk a start would be a phased freedom of the media system, perhaps at local or regional levels, i.e. corresponding to the experience horizons of the recipients. This would on the one hand secure the proposal, credibility of the media and on the other hand prevent a short-term endangering of the political system, i.e. Mountain Essay? trigger resistance from those with the political power.
Asserting such a development journalism depends decisively on whether the rulers of a developing country can be convinced that free communication is in the interests of the research proposal samples, entire system, whereby interests means that national autonomy is achieved or preserved and the material standard of living is lifted by planned processes of social change. But such guidance of the system presupposes functioning feedback mechanisms. Free communication does not mean abandoning management; on the contrary it increases the potential for steerage. Development journalism is writer agent not only to research samples, advocate externally set aims to the recipients but at the same time through continuous feedback from them fulfil the function of examining whether the development measures are succeeding or not. The form of development journalism sketched here proceeds from the premise that development policy measures run under the planned parenthood argumentative essay, perspective of the entire system, wherein those responsible must satisfy local and/or regional needs and developments to avoid failures and friction.
By ongoing feedback from the proposal, people on the ground with the help of to rainy essay development journalism which should also be the advocate of the recipients a process of learning the rules of research proposal play of democracy can at a way essay the same time begin at local and/or regional levels, i.e. it can be learned what loyal opposition means. Fundamentally the most important task of development journalism can be seen in removing the acquiescent basic attitude towards one's own destiny which is so closely tied up with poverty. Such a passive, authoritarian world view is expressed in the attitude that we cannot control events but are in the hands of God. In this context one talks of learned helplessness, or the hopelessness-helplessness syndrome. Sagan sees learned helplessness as the main reason for natural disasters' claiming so many victims in developing countries. In the context of removing the acqiescent outlook special mention has to proposal, be made of the role of a way to rainy mountain essay women who in many societies are still regarded and treated as second class human beings. In summary, the socio-technological development journalism outlined here is characterised as purpose-rational and ethically responsible.
It is pragmatically oriented to the objective of achieving higher quality of life. Apart from being the advocate of the interests of the proposal samples, population, another of its major tasks is to act as a buffer to dissertation uk, exaggerated demands and to emphasise goals achievable in a longer perspective. In terms of its value premises this journalism is clearly oriented to democracy and emancipation.