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Argumentative Essay about Why Smoking Should be Banned. Compare Quotes! Extracts from this document. ?Page | ________________ Ban Smoking in Public Places Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the United States, and doing it in public is even worse because smokers not only harm themselves, but also those around them. I remember how my great uncle would always smoke in his house regardless of his surroundings. When his daughter visited him for a vacation, she brought her three year old daughter with her. The baby was healthy before coming to her grandpa's house, but in less than two weeks, she had developed ear infections and started to write research paper introduction cough. Essay! When they went to essay on why u the doctors' office to find out how she had gotten it, the doctor linked it back to the second hand smoke that she was breathing in. Compare! When my great uncle found out are books in essays about it, he finally started to care about compare essay, where he was smoking and who he was with, and decided that he would smoke in a secluded place where no one but him may be affected. . read more. Romeo Essay! Though many smokers already know of the health risks that come with smoking cigarettes, but what most of them do not, is how secondhand smoking can affect other people. ?Breathing in low doses of secondhand smoke can increase a person?s risk of heart attack? according to a study by Dr. Meyers, a professor of Cardiology and Preventive Medicine at University of Kansas (Sciencedaily.com).
Smokers should not risk non-smokers for something that they do. Quotes! In continuation of Dr. Meyers? study is research paper introduction, that, ?secondhand smoking increases the likelihood of a heart attack by making the blood ?sticky?, making it more prone to clotting, and reducing the amount of good cholesterol in the body? (Sciencedaily.com). Non-smokers should not be worrying about compare and contrast quotes, paying more medical bills, especially in today?s economic situation. Many businesses provide health insurance to their employees.
According to a statistical data collected by Live Strong, employers spend an extra $49 million in medical costs for employees who are exposed to secondhand smoking in their jobs (Nelson). . read more. Romeo Essay About Love! Smoking in public should be banned at a federal level without question. Smoking negatively affects people, the environment and compare essay businesses. There are no logical reasons to allow smoking in alberta, public places and doing so does not benefit anyone but cigarette makers. Smokers should have secluded areas where they could smoke where no one may be harmed. The government should provide trash cans in these areas so smokers would not just throw their cigarette butts on the floor. Anyone caught smoking in public places and littering their cigarettes should be fined. Smoking endangers people who chose not to compare and contrast essay quotes engage in the same reckless behavior, like my baby cousin who had gotten so sick because of my great uncle?s smoking. It also dirties our environment and harms other animals that are in search of thesis food.
Businesses who provide health insurance to their workers affected by second hand smoking are wasting money that could be used to compare hire more employees. Banning smoking in essay about love, public may lead to a better way of life and a healthier place to essay quotes live. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of are books in essays many that can be found in our GCSE Writing to Argue, Persuade and quotes Advise section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Writing to Argue, Persuade and solve a hypothesis testing statistics Advise essays.
Should smoking be banned in public places? Putting a ban on smoking in public places would do great things for the economy and help businesses to attract more people. Non-smokers would feel less threatened and not have to sit and compare and contrast worry about the odd smoke cloud hitting them in the face while enjoying a drink or a meal. Pip was a common working boy; he was used to his status and was happy. But after he met the cold and proud Estelle, at Satis house, he fell foolishly in love with her. He became ashamed of himself, ashamed of his family and effective research introduction ashamed of his work. Because of the effects smoking has on you and compare and contrast quotes others should it be banned . They have not totally blocked out smokers but have catered for them in a way of putting benches and a heater outside every bar and restaurant, and they have proven that passive smoking has dropped dramatically. a case study on smoking and write research it's effects. Tobacco was so popular that as part of the war effort, tobacco was made a protected crop in America and cigarettes were included in soldiers rations.
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How to Start a Compare and Contrast Essay: 11 Steps
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Comparison and Contrast Essay: Mistakes to Avoid and Good Topic
The beating of Rodney King: the dynamics of backfire. Published in Critical Criminology, Volume 13, Number 3, 2005, pp. 307-326. A revised and and contrast essay quotes expanded version of are books italicized, this article appears as a chapter in Brian Martin, Justice Ignited: The Dynamics of Backfire (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2007), pp. 43-64. The 1991 beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles police provides rich case material in how an attack perceived as unjust can backfire. Drawing on nonviolence theory, an original framework is developed to analyze attacks as potential backfires that are usually, but not always, inhibited.
Attackers can use a variety of and contrast essay, methods to romeo and juliet young, inhibit backfires, including covering up the attack, devaluing the target, reinterpreting the events, using official channels, and using intimidation and bribery. Writings on the Rodney King beating include evidence on compare the use of each of these methods. Studying the backfire process offers improved understanding on essay on why u how to oppose unjust attacks. Not long after midnight on and contrast essay quotes March 3, 1991, Rodney King was beaten by officers of the Los Angeles Police Department. King was hit by two high-voltage tasers and then struck dozens of times by metal batons, as well as being kicked, over a period of and juliet essay about young, several minutes.
More than 20 police were present at quotes the beating, which was illuminated by alberta essay floodlights from a police helicopter hovering overhead. This event probably would have become just another arrest statistic except for the fact that a portion of the quotes incident was captured on videotape by an observer, George Holliday. After the video was screened on romeo essay young love television, the Rodney King beating became the most well-known case of police use of force in history, with serious adverse effects for the police. The reputation of the LAPD took a battering, as the force was widely perceived to be tolerant of brutality. There were vociferous calls for LAPD Chief Daryl Gates to resign. The four officers directly involved in the beating were charged with assault and brought to trial. Compare Essay Quotes? Media attention was intense over the following months, with thousands of newspaper articles published as well as extensive coverage by solve a hypothesis electronic media. Morale in the LAPD was seriously damaged (Cannon 1999; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, pp. 1-22). The King beating is an ideal case study for social analysis given the great amount of documentation of the incident and the subsequent media coverage, trials, and riots. Among the essay quotes studies undertaken are assessments of the context of racism and social control (Gooding-Williams 1993a), examination of the discursive practices of write effective paper, professionals, namely the police (Goodwin 1994), narrative analysis of media stories about the compare beating (Jacobs 1996, 2000), and and juliet about young love study of the effects of the beating on public opinion about racial discrimination (Sigelman et al.
1997). Here, the King beating is analyzed using an original framework: the dynamics of backfire. If the beating is conceptualized as an attack on King, then it is reasonable to say that the and contrast attack backfired: it recoiled adversely on the attackers. That the beating ended up being damaging to the police has been attested by observers of diverse persuasions (e.g., Cannon 1999, p. Effective Research Paper Introduction? 228; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, p. 10) and confirmed by essay quotes research (Lasley 1994). Beyond the existence of a backfire effect, though, is the question of what processes either inhibit or promote backfire. To gain insight into the dynamics of backfire, it is valuable to look at other attacks, even though they appear on the surface to be qualitatively different from a police beating. By examining violent assaults are made on peaceful protesters, such as the essay on why u Sharpeville massacre in and contrast quotes South Africa in 1960 and the Dili massacre in East Timor in 1991, it is possible to perceive five principal means by which attackers can inhibit a backfire effect: covering up the attack; devaluing the target; reinterpreting the events; using official channels to give the appearance of justice; using intimidation and bribery.
Challengers can augment the backfire effect by countering these five methods of inhibition, for example by exposing the attack. Backfire analysis is how to a hypothesis testing statistics problem built on the assumption that reality is and contrast essay socially constructed (Berger and Luckmann 1966). Although the video of the King beating has often been assumed to be self-explanatory, in practice it must be interpreted (Butler 1993, p. 17; Gooding-Williams 1993b, p. 165). Defenders of the police interpreted the events as a fully justified use of force. Reactions to the King beating were part of a struggle over perceptions of reality and what to do in response to those perceptions. In some cases virtually everyone agrees that police use of force was justified; other cases are highly contested. Due to its prominence and the high level of disputation, the King beating provides exceptionally rich case material for examination. The analysis here is also compatible with, but different from, the political process model of Ross (2000) for police violence.
This model, consisting of the stages of media initiation, arousal, reaction, and outcomes, is descriptive of what can happen after a public case of police violence; backfire analysis draws attention to tactics used by those who stand to gain or lose from outrage over police violence. In the next section, several historical examples are used to italicized, illustrate the five main methods for limiting or amplifying backfire. Subsequent sections apply this framework to quotes, the King beating, drawing especially on thesis evidence from a number of books, written from distinctively different perspectives, about the beating. This analysis shows that the framework of quotes, backfire is quite fruitful in placing a range of romeo and juliet young love, apparently diverse phenomena into a unified picture. In 1960, about a hundred black South Africans were killed when white police in the township of Sharpeville opened fire on an unarmed crowd protesting against the restrictive pass laws (Frankel 2001).
What became known as the essay quotes Sharpeville massacre was disastrous for the South African regime, greatly reducing its credibility as a democratic state and essay leading to a huge upsurge in international solidarity action. On November 12, 1991, hundreds of people were killed when Indonesian troops opened fire on quotes a peaceful protest at essay on why u a funeral in and contrast quotes Dili, the capital of Indonesian-occupied East Timor (McMillan 1992). A British filmmaker with the pseudonym Max Stahl managed to champions essay, capture the massacre on film and compare essay smuggle the essay on why u tape out of the compare essay quotes country. Shown on television internationally, the so-called Dili massacre had a galvanizing effect on international support for the East Timor liberation movement. East Timor gained independence less than a decade later, largely through nonviolent struggle (Fukuda 2000). These are two prominent examples of massacres that backfired. Alberta Essay? In each case, official violence that was intended to compare and contrast quotes, crush opposition instead had the opposite effect, namely stimulating more resistance. Gene Sharp, the world's leading nonviolence researcher, developed the concept of political jiu-jitsu, a term that makes an analogy to the sport of jiu-jitsu, in which the feiler faster thesis opponent's strength and force are turned against compare essay, them (Sharp 1973, pp.
657-703). In Essays? Political jiu-jitsu occurs when violence used against nonviolent opponents generates outrage and rebounds against the aggressor. The attack can lead to greater support for the challengers among third parties, among some members of the compare and contrast essay quotes attacker group, and among what Sharp calls the grievance group, namely those with potential affinity with the target of the attack. Write? He is quotes careful to point out that not all violent attacks lead to political jiu-jitsu; context is thesis important, as is the configuration of forces and tactics used in the struggle. Sharp's case studies and analysis provide strong support for the view that some attacks can be counterproductive. He restricts his attention to violent assaults on nonviolent protesters, but it is reasonable to presume that the same dynamics can apply to any attack that is seen as unjust or disproportionate. King was certainly not a nonviolent activist - he was speeding, fled police in a high-speed chase, and resisted arrest - but his beating was widely perceived as unjust or disproportionate to anything King had done to the police. This is compatible with the view that there are recurrent moral codes that, in nearly every culture, lead people to respond against perceived injustice, except when strong inhibiting factors are present (Moore 1978, pp. 3-48). This is also compatible with Durkheim's views on norm violation, with the qualification that the norm violation in the sort of cases covered here is by authorities rather than deviant individuals.
I have introduced the term backfire to and contrast essay, refer to the reaction against attacks that are perceived to be unjust or disproportionate; in essence, backfire is a generalization of essay on why u, Sharp's political jiu-jitsu beyond the category of nonviolent action. Sharp focuses on political jiu-jitsu as an observed phenomenon. Taking a cue from Moore's (1978) discussion of factors that can inhibit reactions against injustice, it is possible to look for factors that inhibit outrage. One obvious way to inhibit outrage is to hide the attack. The Dili massacre might have received relatively little attention except for the presence of Western journalists and a film that was smuggled out compare essay, of the country. The Indonesian military, after attacking and occupying East Timor in 1975, had cut off virtually all external communication, thereby reducing awareness of human rights abuses. In 1991, a more liberal policy allowed Western journalists to enter East Timor, setting the are books italicized in essays stage for and contrast exposure of the essay on why u Dili massacre. A second way to inhibit outrage is to devalue the target. In the case of the Sharpeville massacre, South African police blamed the event on agitators in the crowd, a view adopted by many white South Africans, for compare quotes whom blacks were seen as inherently inferior. Outrage against the massacre was far greater internationally and among black South Africans than among white South Africans. The commander-in-chief of the Indonesian armed forces denigrated Dili protesters as scum and delinquents who must be shot (McMillan 1992, p. 162).
A third way to minimize outrage is to reinterpret the events. Even the most brutal attack against a defenseless victim is not self-explanatory: all social phenomena are socially constructed and hence require interpretation. Italicized? South African authorities claimed that the large crowd at Sharpeville was threatening the safety of police, whereas other observers detected a more playful atmosphere. In some cases, authorities lie blatantly about events, but in others the attackers and compare and contrast essay quotes their supporters may genuinely believe an interpretation that justifies the attack. For a reinterpretation of events to inhibit outrage, truth and truthfulness are less important than the persuasiveness of competing interpretations. A fourth way to reduce outrage is to essay on why u, use official channels to give the appearance that justice is being done. Following the Sharpeville massacre, the South African government set up a commission of inquiry to investigate. The aim was to reassure supporters of the government that democratic ways had not been jettisoned. There was a risk that an official inquiry might come up with damaging findings and make matters worse, so a pliant commissioner was sought, but not one who would be so subservient as to lose all credibility (Frankel 2001, p. 188).
After the Dili massacre, there was an official Indonesian investigation that greatly underestimated the number of casualties but did lead to removal of some officials from compare and contrast quotes their posts. International pressure prompted the Indonesian government to prosecute a few members of the security forces for their role in the massacre; however, their sentences were light (Kohen 1999, pp. 170-71). A fifth way to a hypothesis testing statistics problem, inhibit the expression of outrage is to intimidate or bribe targets, participants, and witnesses. Compare And Contrast Essay Quotes? After the Sharpeville massacre, police went through the township arresting anyone involved in thesis organizing the protest.
So effective was intimidation that very few eyewitnesses to compare quotes, the massacre were willing to testify at the commission of inquiry. Romeo Essay About? More generally, potential defectors among the attackers, such as among police or troops who carry out massacres, are commonly deterred by the implicit or explicit threat of reprisals. Similarly, those who toe the line, such as tame officials who ignore or approve an and contrast, atrocity, often can look forward to career advantages. In the tradition of developing grounded theory, I discovered and elaborated these five ways to essay, inhibit outrage by looking at a range of cases, especially at detailed accounts such as Frankel (2001) and at a range of case studies from different fields (Jansen and Martin 2004; Martin 2004; Martin and and contrast quotes Wright 2003). Nevertheless, there is a certain logic in the classification. The backfire process can be conceptualized as an event that leads to a perception of a target being attacked unjustly which in and juliet young turn leads to action. Each of the methods of inhibition engages with a different facet of compare and contrast quotes, this process, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. A schematic portrayal of backfire dynamics, with each of five methods of inhibition linked to facets of the backfire process. Method 1, cover-up, deals with access to information, potentially preventing any perception occurring.
Method 2, devaluation of the how to solve a hypothesis testing target, deals with psychology, especially attitudes about compare quotes just desert, that affect perception of injustice. Method 3, reinterpretation, deals with knowledge, meaning, and alberta champions narrative, again affecting perception of compare essay quotes, injustice. Method 4, official channels, deals with justice as formally administered, affecting the essay young reaction to injustice. Method 5, intimidation and bribery, deals with the compare and contrast quotes exercise of power, typically affecting willingness to take action against research paper introduction, injustice. The five-method classification has limitations. The methods, in practice, are not fully independent. For example, intimidation can be used to promote cover-up; devaluing the target could be considered to be a facet of reinterpreting the events. And Contrast Essay? Some of the methods can be subdivided. For example, the are books in essays method of cover-up can be applied to quotes, the very existence of an attack, just to the participation of certain parties in the attack, or to the use of intimidation. Paper? Any classification scheme is bound to have shortcomings.
The test of this scheme is whether it facilitates understanding of new cases, especially those in entirely different domains. There are correspondences between the five methods for inhibiting public outrage over injustice and essay quotes psychological mechanisms by which individuals disengage from responsibility for their actions. Essay On Why U? Bandura (1986, pp. 375-389) lists a number of such psychological mechanisms, such as dehumanizing the victim, euphemistic labeling, and misconstruing the consequences, that can be mapped on the methods of inhibition. Similarly, Sykes and essay Matza (1957) list five techniques of neutralization, again as psychological mechanisms for justifying deviant behavior. Of these, denial of responsibility and alberta denial of injury can be categorized as methods of reinterpretation; denial of the victim and condemnation of the condemners can be categorized as methods of devaluation; and appeal to higher loyalties can be categorized as an attempt to replace official channels. Note that the techniques of neutralization apply to deviant individuals whereas the methods for compare and contrast quotes inhibiting outrage are applied here to are books in essays, deviant authorities. With this prelude, it is now appropriate to look more closely at the King beating.
This will be done by examining in some detail each of the five methods of compare quotes, inhibiting outrage, presenting evidence, especially from partisan books about the paper introduction beating, that illustrates features of the struggle over compare and contrast, reactions to the beating. This is not an attempt to tell the story of the King beating, much less to determine what really happened. Are Books Italicized In Essays? Despite the existence of the videotape, the meaning of the events remains contested. The aim here is to show how attackers and their supporters used a variety of methods that inhibited backfire and how critics of the beating countered these methods. The defining feature of the and contrast essay King beating is the availability of a videotape recording the event. As noted by numerous commentators, without the videotape, the beating would have been unlikely to come to public attention (Ogletree et al. 1995, p. 6; Omi and solve problem Winant 1993, p. Compare And Contrast? 97; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, pp.
3, 190). Cover-up, as a means to inhibit backfire, failed spectacularly in King case. Statistics Problem? Nevertheless, evidence of cover-ups can be found in the King saga. But first it is worth noting that the usual scenario for compare and contrast cases of police brutality and write effective research other misconduct is no publicity and essay quotes little or no negative consequences for police (Ross 2000, p. 199). Essay On Why U? For example, in the 1988 Dalton Avenue incident, 80 Los Angeles police trashed four apartments, destroying property and spraying graffiti, and, according to witnesses, beat many people, but this received little media attention (Lawrence 2000, p. 67). An investigation into essay quotes, police misconduct in the US, stimulated by the King beating, stated: Many cases of police misconduct take place out of the public eye. Often, there are no witnesses to the incident other than police officers and the victim of the misconduct, and thus no one to corroborate the complainant's account. Representatives of about young love, community organizations and legal agencies described the difficulty of pursuing complaints against the police, particularly in the absence of witnesses. Both police and civilians agreed that, if it comes down to a citizen's word against an officer's story, the police version controls. In the vast majority of cases involving one civilian and one officer the complaint is not sustained. (Ogletree et al.
1995, pp. 60-61). Some of the reported cases of police brutality are far more serious than the King beating and seem to have less justification. They include beatings without pretext, torture, and killings, some apparently premeditated (Ogletree et al. And Contrast? 1995; Skolnick and a hypothesis testing statistics problem Fyfe 1993). From the point of view of targets and witnesses of quotes, such cases, cover-up is central to reducing a backlash. The basic means of cover-up is police lying about what happened: Far too many officers lie with impunity about the conduct of a defendant, about what they were able to observe, and about whether proper procedures were followed (Ogletree et al. 1995, p. Essay On Why U? 57). Other police often know that their colleagues are lying but decline or refuse to and contrast essay, speak out against them. This so-called code of silence - sometimes called the how to testing statistics problem blue wall of silence - is a form of and contrast quotes, police loyalty that inadvertently can sanction abuse (Ogletree et al. 1995, pp.
72-76; Quinn 2005; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, pp. Research Paper Introduction? 108-112). The code of silence was a feature of the Los Angeles Police, like many other forces. As described by the Christopher Commission, set up in response to the King beating, the code of silence consists of compare essay quotes, one simple rule: an officer does not provide adverse information against a fellow officer (Christopher et al. 1991, p. 168). The code of silence is part of the culture of many police departments, but it is also enforced by reprisals against those who speak out, as described later in champions essay the section on intimidation. Of crucial importance in the cover-up or exposure of police misconduct is the role of the media. In the conventional social science view of the quotes news, the official dominance model, officials are the primary definers of events. Consequently, most police use-of-force incidents are never mentioned in the news, and even those that are covered typically receive only cursory treatment, with the official versions of events predominating (Lawrence 2000, pp.
28-29). Romeo Essay Young Love? In most cases journalists do not even find out about police use-of-force incidents, and many cases do not conform to usual news values. For example, only a minority of police shootings in the U.S. Compare And Contrast Essay Quotes? are reported (p. 29). The interaction of official lying, the police code of silence, police public relations techniques, and feiler thesis the orientation of essay, most news to romeo young, official sources operates to minimize attention to most cases of alleged police brutality.
These processes serve, in effect, as means of cover-up. Regina Lawrence (2000), in compare and contrast essay quotes her highly sophisticated analysis of media treatment of police use of force, argues that a few exceptional events break through the usual elite-oriented framing of news. In Essays? The King beating is the most prominent example of an alternative, event-driven media treatment of police use of compare and contrast essay, force. She argues that three factors combined to make the beating into paper, an agenda-setting event: the compare and contrast essay quotes video, a dramatic political struggle between LAPD Chief Daryl Gates and Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley, and public reaction (Lawrence 2000, pp. 62-85). Though the King beating is the most dramatic exception to the usual pattern of cover-up, nonetheless there are some instances of attempted cover-up in its story. George Holliday, who made the video of the beating, rang the local police station saying he had witnessed a police beating, intending to offer the video.
However, the desk officer expressed no interest in what Holliday had to solve testing problem, say, nor did the officer record a complaint. Given this official unconcern, Holliday offered the tape to KTLA, a television station in Los Angeles (Christopher 1991, p. Compare And Contrast Essay? 11; Owens 1994, p. 56). Are Books Italicized In Essays? In retrospect, it is and contrast possible to say that had the officer taken Holliday's call seriously and obtained the write effective videotape, then destroyed it and claimed to compare, have lost it, the scale of the write effective research introduction backfire might have been dramatically reduced if not eliminated. Paul King, Rodney King's brother, attempted to make a complaint, but was given the brush-off. Indeed, Paul King was inappropriately asked whether he himself had ever been in trouble (Christopher 1991, p. 10; Owens 1994, p. 39). But for the videotape, no complaint about police misconduct might have been recorded. When police use violence, they commonly blame deviant, violent suspects (Lawrence 2000, pp. 14, 37, 179). The beating of King was more likely to generate outrage if King was perceived as innocent, indeed exemplary, not only during his encounter with the Los Angeles police on March 3, 1991, but also before and after.
In many news reports of the beating, King was described as a black motorist, with the implication that he had been doing nothing wrong (Cannon 1999, p. 82). Others, though, emphasized King's shortcomings and quotes transgressions, thereby devaluing him as a person and how to testing reducing backfire. The officer in charge of King's arrest was Sergeant Stacey Koon, who with the support of journalist Robert Deitz wrote a book about the affair (Koon 1992). Compare And Contrast Essay Quotes? A few years later, Deitz (1996) wrote his own book, again focusing on Koon's role. Tom Owens, in contrast, was a former LAPD officer who became an essay on why u, investigator for prosecutions of and contrast essay, police for misconduct. In Essays? He was hired as investigator for King's initial legal team. His book (Owens 1994) gives a very different perspective. And Contrast? Each of these authors pays attention to the characters of both King and Koon, as well as the other indicted police officers.
As might be expected, Koon's and Deitz's books are far more derogatory of King. Koon was proud of the arrest; he considered it a model arrest and was initially pleased that it had been videotaped. Are Books Italicized In Essays? In subsequent trials he justified every blow to King as appropriate and carried out according to official procedures. Compare Quotes? He is also forthright in mentioning a critical perspective on King. The force we used was well within the guidelines of the write effective introduction Los Angeles Police Department; I'd made sure of that. And I was proud of my officers, proud of the professionalism they'd shown in subduing a really monster guy, a felony evader seen committing numerous serious traffic violations. And subduing this guy without the deadly force that all too often accompanies the arrest of a PCP-dusted felony suspect. (Koon 1992, p. 21). Deitz (1996, pp.
31-60) wrote about matters of character, lauding Koon's sterling record, giving extensive attention to essay quotes, King's failings, and faster claiming that King was treated with kid gloves by the police and courts because he was so well known through the video. Owens (1994) gives an entirely different perspective. Compare And Contrast? He describes various attempts to smear King by associating him with crimes or by framing him. On March 28, 1991, Los Angeles media reported that King was being investigated for two robberies early in the year, with the victims being shown photos of King by officers from the solve a hypothesis testing statistics Foothills Division, where key police involved in the beating had worked (p. Compare And Contrast Quotes? 103). Owens collected evidence that cleared King, concluding that the episode was a set up by the LAPD meant to mitigate [sic] King's image, detract from his credibility and integrity, make the four cops look good by making King look bad (p.
105). Owens spends some time in his book telling of his personal interactions with King. While Owens certainly does not idolize King - he tells of King's crimes and impulsive and dangerous behavior - he does describe good sides to King, for example King spontaneously spending time with a group of kids, encouraging them to get an education and buying them ice creams (p. Alberta Essay? 151). Owens concludes that King is neither a hardened criminal nor a saint, but just a man (p. And Contrast Quotes? 152). In humanizing King, Owens counters others' denigration. In the first trial, King did not testify, making it easier for the defense to demonize him; in the second trial, he did testify, making him more human to the jury (Cannon 1999, pp. 427-28).
There is no doubt that King is an are books in essays, easy target for and contrast quotes denigration, given his limited literacy, his arrest and prison record, and his penchant for drinking and fast driving. In a 1992 article in Vanity Fair, King's failings are recounted, along with criticisms of his lawyer and others cashing in on the Rodney King trade (Boyer 1992). In an article about yet another arrest of King on August 27, 2003, Horowitz (2003) defends the LAPD, criticizes liberals, and denigrates King, calling him a self-destructive lout, a pathetic bum, and a reckless criminal. The struggle over the meaning of the beating, including the reputation of the target, thus continues long after the romeo and juliet about love event. If backfire can result from a perceived injustice, then an effective way to counter it is to convince people that what happened was not actually what it seemed. Compare And Contrast Essay? In the case of King, most people perceived a brutal police beating of an outnumbered and defenseless man. Police countered this with a different story: that King was a powerful and potentially dangerous threat to the police and that they had followed procedures in arresting him. Stacey Koon, in charge of the arrest, said that the LAPD policy had been followed throughout.
The policy specifies a series of options, with escalating use of force: presence; verbalization; commands; firm grips; pain compliance; impact techniques; and deadly force (Skolnick and effective research Fyfe 1993, pp. 37-42). On the night of March 3, 1991, police went through the stages of presence, verbalization, and commands, but King did not acquiesce. Koon ordered a swarm: four officers each grabbed one of King's arms or legs, but he threw them off. Then Koon used two tasers, whose high-voltage shocks normally bring down the and contrast essay quotes target, but King, unlike most people hit with tasers, was not subdued; he made a charge at about young officer Powell. Koon believed that King had superhuman strength due to being dusted with the drug PCP. Next on the list of force options was impact techniques. Koon instructed two officers to use their batons on King; policy insists that there be occasional pauses between strikes to compare and contrast essay quotes, observe whether the suspect is complying, in research paper introduction which case a lower-force option can be adopted. And Contrast Essay? But, said Koon, King did not adopt the fully prone position demanded by the police; the beating continued until he did. Koon said that the arrest was undoubtedly brutal, but it followed procedure (Koon 1992, pp.
25-52; see also Deitz 1996, pp. 61-91). Because the police adopt force options in response to the suspect's behavior, the italicized in essays police attribute their own actions to the suspect. Koon claimed that I had been in charge of the officers, but Rodney King had been in charge of the situation (p. 45). This theme of King being in charge was used by the defense throughout the trials and compare and contrast nicely captures the reinterpretation involved. Normally, in are books charge implies having power or authority, which the police certainly had during the arrest. By portraying King as being in charge - validly so, from the essay quotes perspective of police use-of-force options - the write research introduction responsibility for the beating was attributed to King. More generally, the and contrast essay defense tried to make King the italicized focus of attention, not the police (Geller and Hemenway 1997, p. 186). In the initial Simi Valley trial, the compare essay quotes jurors accepted the police framing of faster thesis, events, finding the four officers on trial not guilty (Osborne 1992). The police thus blamed King for his own beating, whereas most viewers of the video blamed the compare and contrast essay police.
But the police has multiple meanings: it could mean the four police directly involved in the arrest, the 20 or so other police at the scene who did not intervene, the Los Angeles police force generally, the LAPD as an organizational entity, or LAPD top officials - especially chief Daryl Gates - who were formally responsible for policies, training, and discipline. The popular and political response to the beating opened some divisions between these groups. Gates (1992, p. 316) referred to the beating as an aberration, blaming the individual officers. The Christopher Commission took a more structural view, examining police attitudes, complaint procedures, and official tolerance of brutality, concluding that The problem of excessive force in the LAPD is fundamentally a problem of supervision, management, and essay on why u leadership (Christopher et al. 1991, p. Essay? 32).
Koon blamed not only King but also LAPD managers, especially Gates, as self-interested bureaucrats who protected themselves at the expense of street cops (Koon 1992, pp. 105-9). Some commentators agreed: Cannon (1999, p. 107) noted that because there had been other events equivalent to the King beating, the problem was systemic. One way to alberta champions, reduce the compare popular outcry from injustice is to refer the matter to official bodies or experts that have a reputation for being independent and fair; commissions of faster thesis, inquiry are commonly set up after prominent incidents of police violence (Ross 2000, pp. 6, 38-44). If people believe that justice will be done, they are less likely to take matters into their own hands; for and contrast essay example, they will be less likely to join a protest group or take direct action. The King beating was seen by many as a blatant injustice, leading to demands and expectations that justice be done, with a range of possibilities for obtaining justice expressed, including penalties for the police involved in the beating, resignation of police chief Gates, reform of the police to reduce brutality and alberta penalize its perpetrators, and new policies to redress the economic and political disadvantage of poor minority inner-city communities in Los Angeles and elsewhere. The meaning of justice in part depended on whether a person saw the beating as an isolated incident or as a symptom of and contrast essay quotes, systemic problems, and on which of the multiple publics the person was a member (Jacobs 2000). Within days of the screening of the Holliday video, a grand jury was formed to look into the beating. Italicized? This was followed by initiation of an compare and contrast essay quotes, FBI investigation and by the indictment of four Los Angeles police officers (Cannon 1999).
These uses of formal procedures focused on the police involved in the beating, but pressure was intense for romeo and juliet about love more sweeping reforms. Calls for chief Gates to resign reflected an assumption that new policies would be implemented. At the end of March 1991, Gates formed a commission to investigate the beating; at compare essay the same time, mayor Tom Bradley also formed one. By agreement of the two bodies, they combined to form the Christopher Commission, which carried out a thorough investigation in a matter of months, reporting in early July (Cannon 1999). The commission did not examine the culpability of individual officers for the beating, which was a matter for the courts, but instead reported on systemic problems in the LAPD: the use of excessive force, racism and bias, police culture, recruitment and training, complaint systems, and romeo about love formal structures for control of the police department and its chief. The commission's report (Christopher et al. 1991) was seen by many as a largely sound and far-sighted document which, if its recommendations were implemented, would transform the police (Cannon 1999, pp. 121-47). Compare Essay? (In contrast, Gates (1992, pp. 347-51) was very critical of the report.) This was quite different from some official reports that essentially whitewash the problems.
After release of the essay report, pressure mounted on Gates to resign; eventually he announced he would step down in 1992. Attracting far more attention was the trial of the police officers directly involved in the beating (Cannon 1999). All four were charged with assault by force and with unnecessarily beating a person under color of authority, Koon and Powell with submitting a false police report, and Koon with being an accessory after the fact (Geller and Hemenway 1997, pp. 164-165, 316-317). Nearly everyone - the public, journalists, lawyers, and compare the defendants - expected a guilty verdict on at least some of the romeo essay about young love charges. Hence, news of the verdict of not guilty for all four officers acted like a shock wave through the country and especially through South Central Los Angeles. The massive riot that ensued can be attributed, in part, to outrage over justice denied or, in and contrast other words, to an extension of the original backfire over the King beating. On the third day of the riots, President George Bush addressed the nation on television and essay on why u virtually promised federal prosecution of the compare essay quotes acquitted police officers . the president and the attorney general felt the prosecutions were politically imperative (Cannon 1999, p. 374; see also Deitz 1996, pp. 96-98). According to Cannon, the government's goal was preventing far-reaching investigations into police conduct and defusing the concerns of civil rights activists (p.
375). And Juliet Essay Young Love? Enormous government resources were poured into the federal trial of the essay quotes same four officers; with a different venue and jury composition, plus enormous pressures on the jurors to reach a guilty verdict to prevent further riots, the result was that two of the four officers were found guilty and sent to prison. The system appeared to effective, work and this time no riots or disturbances occurred (Cannon 1999). The two criminal prosecutions of the four officers received saturation media coverage; far less media attention was given to system reform in the LAPD. In part this reflects news values that give priority to and contrast quotes, personalities and conflict. The net effect was to personalize the provision of justice and divert attention away from system reform. To point to the role of official channels in reducing backfire is not to reject official channels, especially when they can bring about real change. Romeo Essay Young Love? The point here is that official channels can be used, cynically or inadvertently, to reduce backfire from a perceived injustice. The media are offered a ritual of compare, normalization in write research paper which problems are identified but then handed off to officials to resolve (Lawrence 2000, p. 113). In terms of and contrast, narrative analysis, the government's initiatives in setting up a commission and holding trials served to retain a romantic narrative - with the government as hero (Jacobs 1996, p. Feiler Thesis? 1252). Police abuses are often accompanied by intimidation: the victim may be threatened or arrested.
Far too frequently, the citizen who has just been subjected to police abuse is then arrested and charged with a variety of crimes (Ogletree et al. 1995, p. 42). Sometimes witnesses are charged as well. Compare And Contrast? Many people are afraid to complain about police abuses, fearing retaliation and lack of response, hence complaints are made about only some incidents. Police discourage complaints by resisting the filing of are books italicized in essays, them, by harassing the complainant, by making threats, and by making arrests. For example, In Virginia Beach, an NAACP attorney was arrested and prosecuted for trespass when he went to the police station to file a complaint about police misconduct toward an NAACP observer at a major disturbance (p. 56).
Police may also sue citizens who they allege are making false allegations about police misconduct, an example of Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participations (SLAPPs) (Pring and Canan 1996). Compare Essay? Most of solve a hypothesis testing statistics problem, this intimidation by compare essay quotes police is alberta essay made more effective by compare essay being behind the scenes; cover-up and write introduction intimidation go hand in hand. Bribery is another tool to limit backfire. When citizens sue police over alleged misconduct, the result is and contrast quotes often a settlement in which the citizen receives a pay-out but in return signs a confidentiality agreement that restricts public comment on write research introduction the case. Evidence about intimidation and bribery can be hard to obtain, given the compare and contrast essay reluctance of targeted individuals to talk and the interest of the police in keeping the alberta champions issue quiet. In the King case, the most extensive account of intimidation is compare given by Tom Owens (1994), the former LAPD officer who became an investigator for King's legal team. It seemed every time someone on our side became publicly known, confidential information about that person's background surfaced. Within two days of appearing at how to statistics problem a press conference, a doctor who had initially scheduled various specialists to work with King became the target of a minor scandal. Confidential information about an alleged past problem of the essay quotes doctor's - an alberta champions, overbilling to an insurance company - was leaked to the media 'from an informed source.' As quickly as the smear was out, the doctor resigned from the team. (p.
32). Owens tracked down quite a number of witnesses to the beating of King, most of whom were reluctant to comment, much less testify, due to fear of reprisals (pp. 93-94, 99-101, 112). Freddie G, one of the two passengers in King's car during the chase before the beating, was killed a few months later in a car crash. Compare Essay? Owens spoke to witnesses who said the car was run off the road (p. 119). Police and essay on why u others who spoke out critically about the LAPD and compare and contrast essay chief Gates suffered threats and harassment (pp. 182-87, 249). Police use-of-force experts were highly reluctant to testify at the trials of the four officers: the police code of silence was backed up by reprisals, especially ostracism (pp. 186-87).
Alan Yochelson, one of the prosecuting attorneys in the first trial, told Owens: . we talked to any number of other force and policy experts, who told us the video showed excessive force. Clearly, there was excessive force on that video, but none of them would go on the record. They said it would end careers. Feiler? (p. 266). Lou Cannon (1999), in his mammoth account of the King beating and compare quotes its aftermath, reports some of the write effective paper same findings as Owens. Cannon recounts how LAPD use-of-force experts refused to testify at the Simi Valley trial. Fred Nichols, who had testified to excessive force at the grand jury, did everything possible to avoid testifying in court, including resisting a subpoena by claiming to suffer stress (pp. 237-38). In the second, federal, trial, LAPD use-of-force expert Mark Conta testified for the prosecution and was subsequently ostracized by fellow officers; Koon called him a whore (pp.
416-17). [Note added after publication: Conta's wife says that he was not ostracized: some people were initially mad at him, but most officers respected him for telling the truth. Kathy Conta, personal communication, 13 June 2006.] One of the four officers involved in the beating, Theodore Briseno, testified against his fellow officers. He was labeled Benedict Briseno; the quotes LAPD later instigated an investigation of Briseno for perjury (p. 598). As noted, intimidation is difficult to document, but even more so is bribery. Were police who adhered to the code of silence and refused to testify against are books in essays, fellow officers rewarded with collegial support, better assignments, or promotions? The processes involved are often unconscious, so producing documentation is extremely difficult. Bribery may be too strong a word to describe the process of rewarding those who do not speak out about an injustice.
The King beating offers an exceptionally rich and vivid case study showing how what is compare essay perceived as an attack can backfire. How To Solve Testing Statistics Problem? The video enabled this particular beating to break through the media's usual reporting of official interpretations of police use of force, generating widespread outrage, and triggering a major political struggle and crisis of legitimacy. Compare And Contrast Quotes? The case provides ample evidence of five methods for inhibiting outrage: covering up the attack; devaluing the target; reinterpreting the events; using official channels; and and juliet about young using intimidation. Compare? This evidence shows that the backfire model, developed out of the study of violent attacks on effective introduction nonviolent protesters, can usefully be applied to police use of force. Cover-up is a highly potent technique of inhibiting outrage. This suggests that reformers and activists should devote attention to means of exposing abuses. Skolnick and Fyfe (1993, p. 266) adopt openness as a key principle of police reform, arguing that we should routinely videotape police conduct during those occasions where propensity to excessive force are most likely to occur: high-speed chases, interrogations, protests, and riots, a recommendation endorsed by Ross (2000, p. 126), though it is important to remember that all videotapes are open to manipulation and compare essay interpretation. Other means of challenging cover-ups are to support investigative journalism and encourage whistleblowers, something especially challenging and important for police departments where the code of silence reigns.
Devaluing or stigmatizing the target is a familiar technique; it is now commonplace to hear activists called terrorists, a generic term of abuse. More long-standing is devaluation of groups such as people with disabilities, ethnic minorities, the poor, the unemployed, and people with criminal records (Ryan 1972; Wolfensberger 1972). Opposing devaluation is not easy. Those who are concerned about justice to all, regardless of romeo essay young, status or stigma, need to be aware of techniques of devaluation, to be prepared to expose it, and to argue that everyone deserves to be treated with dignity and fairness. Struggles over interpretations of events are a central feature of communication, from news to gossip, so it is not surprising that interpretation struggles are central to backfire dynamics. Compare Quotes? What is important to note is that interpretation struggles can persist long after an apparently uncontestable documentation such as the Holliday video. News stories and interpersonal communications - from backyard conversations to chatrooms - are all part of feiler faster, interpretation struggles, which can carry on for months, years, or decades.
For many activists, participation in compare essay protests seems more real and substantial than writing a letter to the editor; looking at backfires suggests that interpretation struggles can be as crucial to the impact of social action as the essay on why u immediate action itself. Official channels such as courts are often seen as vehicles for providing justice. Analysis of backfire dynamics leads to a rather different view: official channels can be potent tools for dissipating popular outrage against injustice. The implication for activists is that official channels should only be used with care, including advance investigation of their effectiveness. Someone studying the fate of complaints against compare and contrast quotes, the police - nearly all of which exonerate the police of feiler thesis, any wrongdoing - might conclude that it would be far more effective to write a letter to the newspaper, circulate a leaflet, or call a meeting. As argued by Lawrence (2000), mobilization of popular concern is and contrast essay a key reason why the King beating received such intense media coverage. Finally, intimidation and bribery can be potent tools for inhibiting backfire, but they are seldom studied. Police brutality is often accompanied by threats and arrests of the victims, a process that has strong links with cover-ups. More widely, many activists and movements have been targeted for effective research introduction harassment and disruption, but there is compare essay relatively little written on how to deal with this (Glick 1989). Preparation is crucial, as is refusal to are books in essays, be intimidated and willingness to expose threats and essay attacks. There is much more to learn about backfire dynamics by looking at individual cases, both where backfire occurs and where it is largely inhibited.
It is worth looking at backfire in a range of solve a hypothesis testing statistics problem, arenas, including censorship seen as an compare quotes, attack on free speech (Jansen and Martin 2004), torture (Martin and Wright 2003), terrorism, war (Martin 2004), and thesis genocide. By comparing diverse cases, insights can be gained about compare and contrast essay quotes common characteristics and idiosyncratic features. Studying backfire dynamics thus can lead to ideas on how to promote action to deal with injustice. I thank Don Eldridge, Jeff Ross, Barbara Sims, and an anonymous reviewer for valuable comments on drafts of this paper and Truda Gray, David Hess, Hannah Lendon, George Matheson, David Mercer, and Greg Scott for helpful discussions. This research was supported by the Australian Research Council. Bandura, Albert. 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Berger, Peter L., and Thomas Luckmann.
1966. The Social Construction of Reality. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Boyer, Peter J. 1992. The Selling of Rodney King, Vanity Fair (June):78-82, 158-61. Butler, Judith. 1993. Endangered/Endangering: Schematic Racism and White Paranoia.
Pp. 15-22 in Reading Rodney King/Reading Urban Uprising, edited by Robert Gooding-Williams. New York: Routledge. Cannon, Lou. 1999. Solve Testing? Official Negligence: How Rodney King and the Riots Changed Los Angeles and the LAPD.
Boulder, CO: Westview. Christopher, Warren, et al. 1991. Report of the and contrast Independent Commission on champions essay the Los Angeles Police Department. Los Angeles: Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department. Deitz, Robert. 1996. Willful Injustice: A Post-O.J.
Look at Rodney King, American Justice, and Trial by Race. Compare Essay Quotes? Washington, DC: Regnery. Frankel, Philip. 2001. An Ordinary Atrocity: Sharpeville and its Massacre. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Fukuda, Chisako M. Feiler Faster? 2000. Peace through Nonviolent Action: The East Timorese Resistance Movement's Strategy for compare quotes Engagement. Pacifica Review 12(1):17-31.
Gates, Daryl F. with Diane K. Shah. Essay On Why U? 1992. Chief: My Life in the LAPD. New York: Bantam. Geller, Laurence H. and Peter Hemenway. 1997. Last Chance for compare and contrast essay quotes Justice: The Juror's Lonely Quest.
Dallas: NCDS Press. Glick, Brian. 1989. And Juliet Essay Love? War at Home: Covert Action against U.S. Activists and What We Can Do about It. Boston: South End Press. Gooding-Williams, Robert, ed. 1993a. Reading Rodney King/Reading Urban Uprising. Essay Quotes? New York: Routledge. Gooding-Williams, Robert, 1993b. Are Books? 'Look, a Negro!' Pp.
157-77 in Reading Rodney King/Reading Urban Uprising, edited by Robert Gooding-Williams. New York: Routledge. Goodwin, Charles. Compare Essay? 1994. Professional Vision. American Anthropologist 96(3):606-33. Jacobs, Ronald N. 1996. Civil Society and Crisis: Culture, Discourse, and the Rodney King Beating. American Journal of Sociology 101(5):1238-72.
Jacobs, Ronald N. 2000. Race, Media, and the Crisis of Civil Society: From Watts to Rodney King. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kohen, Arnold S. 1999. From the Place of the Dead: The Epic Struggles of Bishop Belo of East Timor. New York: St. Martin's Press. Koon, Stacey C. Romeo And Juliet About Love? with Robert Deitz.
1992. Presumed Guilty: The Tragedy of the Rodney King Affair. Washington, DC: Regnery. Lasley, J. R. 1994. The Impact of the Rodney King Incident on Citizen Attitudes toward Police. Policing and Society 3:245-55. Lawrence, Regina G. 2000.
The Politics of Force: Media and the Construction of Police Brutality. Berkeley: University of California Press. Martin, Brian. 2004. Iraq Attack Backfire. Economic and essay quotes Political Weekly 39(16):1577-83.
McMillan, Andrew. 1992. Death in Dili. Sydney: Hodder and Stoughton. Moore, Barrington, Jr. 1978. Injustice: The Social Bases of Obedience and Revolt. London: Macmillan.
Ogletree, Jr., Charles J., Mary Prosser, Abbe Smith and William Talley, Jr.; Criminal Justice Institute at Harvard Law School for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 1995. Beyond the Rodney King Story: An Investigation of Police Misconduct in Minority Communities. Boston: Northeastern University Press. Omi, Michael and Howard Winant. 1993.
The Los Angeles 'Race Riot' and Contemporary U.S. Politics. Faster? Pp. 97-114 in compare Reading Rodney King/Reading Urban Uprising, edited by Robert Gooding-Williams. New York: Routledge. Osborne, D. M. 1992. Reaching for effective Doubt. American Lawyer (September): 62. Owens, Tom with Rod Browning. 1994. Lying Eyes: The Truth behind the compare quotes Corruption and Brutality of the LAPD and faster the Beating of Rodney King.
New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. Pring, George W. and Penelope Canan. 1996. SLAPPs: Getting Sued for Speaking Out. Essay? Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Quinn, Michael W. 2005. Walking with the feiler faster Devil: The Police Code of Silence. Minneapolis, MN: Quinn and Associates. Ross, Jeffrey Ian.
2000. Making News of essay, Police Violence: A Comparative Study of Toronto and New York City. Westport, CT: Praeger. Ryan, William. 1972. Essay On Why U? Blaming the Victim. New York: Vintage. Sharp, Gene. 1973. The Politics of essay, Nonviolent Action.
Boston: Porter Sargent. Sigelman, Lee, Susan Welch, Timothy Bledsoe and Michael Combs. 1997. Police Brutality and Public Perceptions of Racial Discrimination: A Tale of Two Beatings. Political Research Quarterly 50(4):777-91. Skolnick, Jerome H. and James J. Fyfe. 1993.
Above the Law: Police and the Excessive Use of essay love, Force. New York: Free Press. Sykes, Gresham M. and compare and contrast essay David Matza. 1957. Techniques of Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency.
American Sociological Review 22(6):664-70. Wolfensberger, Wolf. 1972. The Principle of Normalization in and juliet love Human Services. Toronto: National Institute on Mental Retardation.
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essay writing guida Double-click on any word and see its definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online. One of the most important skills you will learn and develop during your university years is writing, in particular essay writing. It is important to realise that this is a skill which has to essay, be learnt and practised, and that therefore you should apply yourselves from the very beginning, as you will be writing essays for which you will be graded from the early weeks to the very end of how to a hypothesis, your degree programme. These skills will be used by you regularly once you leave university, no matter what path you choose to take. Essay writing involves presenting an essay quotes argument and communicating. It can be easily imagined that this covers a vast variety of scenarios in which you need to be clear and persuasive : arguing that you should be given the job you are applying for, selling the outline of a film script you have written, presenting products at various forums, writing articles for publication, persuading your bank manager to extend your loan, preparing reports, beginning and sustaining your career in problem, journalism, and writing lectures and class plans for your future students. The list is endless, and and contrast quotes it is obvious that the are books in essays way you present your arguments in written form can make the difference between success and and contrast essay quotes failure - in which case you will have to think again.
In some of the scenarios outlined above the and juliet essay skills required for essay writing should be slightly adapted but the basic skills and methods are in the main common to all forms of formal writing in which an argument or arguments need to be presented. The focus here is primarily on compare and contrast quotes, writing essays concerning literature. You may have many great ideas and be a very intuitive and fine reader of are books italicized in essays, literature, but no-one will ever know if you cannot express your ideas properly and your communicative skills are not developed. It is no good carrying around insights into a particular piece of literature if you do not put efforts into presenting them clearly . Some of the and contrast essay following may be obvious, but the points need to be emphasised and consulted each time you are preparing an essay. The comments are based on years of experience of reading student essays, good, bad, and indifferent at the University of Liège. An essay should not be merely a list. Too many in essay on why u, the past have been a list of essay, notes, or a series of sub-headings followed by a list of dashes (-) or stars (*) accompanied by one or two words and/or quotations from the literary text with no explanation of what they are doing there. Let us be blunt here and state that we tutors are not impressed by indiscriminate underlining and the use of different coloured pens. Sub-headings written in magenta, underlined in ochre, followed by a list of quotations in vermilion are pointless.
We are not tricked by attempts to distract us, through dazzling visual displays, from the fact that an essay is poor. An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and analysis through extended and flowing narrative . To do this you need to romeo essay, work at the level of the sentence, of course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at the level of the compare and contrast quotes paragraph . Alberta? The paragraph is compare and contrast quotes, a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on feiler faster, no more than one or two ideas relevant to your argument. Do not use very short and unconnected staccato sentences. Compare And Contrast Essay? It takes experience and feiler thesis practice to essay quotes, develop a sense of when a new paragraph is needed and when it has been finished. Examine the introduction to this booklet and this guide to get some sense of faster thesis, how paragraphs, or ' idea units ' as they have also been called, can be developed and constructed, and how their 'natural' beginnings and essay quotes ends appear. The first sentence of the paragraph should generally be a 'strong' one, used to signal or indicate the essay idea to be discussed within the paragraph. Think of a 'topic sentence', as it has also been called, which will highlight the main areas examined in a particular paragraph. Connecting and signposting words and and contrast essay phrases should be learnt, used, practised and developed (examples are 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'in addition', 'to qualify the above', 'however', 'in order to', 'in this connection', 'having established that' etc.). The argument should develop through the language you use and feiler faster thesis therefore in a short essay sub-headings are unnecessary. Several stages are involved in essay preparation, choosing which points are to be considered, deciding how you will deal with them, and the actual writing.
As you gain more experience you will find methods and ways of working which suit you, your personality and compare essay quotes lifestyle. Generally, however, the process will involve the thesis following. You should examine carefully the statements made in the essay question , making sure you understand each word and what is being asked, as misreading and misunderstanding at quotes, this stage can be fatal. Essay questions can be very general, very specific and sometimes deliberately provocative, and an understanding of them is essential. Read through notes you may have made in class, start to gather other relevant source material , and make notes about the essay on why u literary text you are examining. Ask yourself the questions suggested earlier in the introduction to this booklet, concerning style, content, and imagery etc. Next you will probably want to identify the key points that you want to discuss. There may be many points you find generally interesting, but ask yourself if they are relevant to the essay in quotes, question. To do this it can be useful to try to think of write effective research paper introduction, a title for your essay.
This is not to be confused with the essay question or title, but is essay, concerned with your response to the task set. What title would best give the reader an overview of your approach and analysis, and highlight the main points you examine and the conclusions you reach? (Suggestions concerning conclusions will be given later). Italicized? You should not assume that an essay has to compare essay, include and cover all the possible points an interpretation may offer up. A short, well organised and structured essay focusing on some of the main points is far better than an essay love over-long and unwieldy attempt to say a little about everything. You may find it useful to state in the introduction which points you are focusing on and why. Keep your reader informed of the development of your argument. Let her or him know which direction is being taken and the reasons why.
Once the main points have been identified you need to compare quotes, consider in which order they will be examined. Students often do not make the most of the alberta champions essay good ideas they have because they get lost if the argument does not develop coherently. Good points are also often thrown away or wasted because students do not say enough about them. Make sure the relevance of each point to the main argument is compare quotes, clearly stated and demonstrated. You should dwell and linger on the points: often this requires no more than two or three extra sentences, particularly if your writing is concise and focused. A good essay takes time to prepare and write, so start to think about it and do the groundwork well ahead of the essay deadline (even in timed conditions, such as exams, it is important to take the time to organise and structure the essay before starting to write). Italicized? You will probably find that you need to work out essay your ideas on paper before writing the essay on why u essay, and are encouraged to prepare an compare and contrast essay quotes outline of the essay: a point by point series of key words, phrases and ideas. This will help you to how to solve, organise the structure and to recognise what is relevant and irrelevant to the essay as a whole. Essay Quotes? Some people find that a plan or outline will consist of eight to essay on why u, ten words only.
Others find it more useful to draw up very detailed plans, outlining every paragraph and and contrast quotes its contents. Again you will discover which method works for you as you go along. Some students find it easier to thesis, think and plan the essay point by compare and contrast quotes point before beginning to research paper, write, whilst others find that after some initial preparation, reading, organisation and thinking they can only develop their ideas through writing. And Contrast Essay Quotes? Both these approaches take time, if the essays are to be done well. It should be stressed here that the first plan does not have to be binding and may change as the work begins and develops.
The main point here is essay on why u, that essays involve a certain amount of planning and compare essay quotes preparation even before the actual writing begins. Having emphasised that essays are hard work and take time it should also be stressed that it can be very stimulating and rewarding to work through a number of ideas in depth and detail. Literary texts and literary language are potentially very complex, inspiring, and beautiful. The ideas and young love images often demand careful thought and compare quotes attention. Computers are essential in alberta, terms of using the and contrast essay quotes time you spend on an essay efficiently and productively. As stated earlier, good essay writing demands time spent on every stage of the solve a hypothesis process: reading and research, making an outline, ordering and structuring your ideas, writing and essay quotes changing various drafts, and final editing and a hypothesis presentation. With this in mind it cannot be stressed enough how important it is for you to learn word-processing skills and to make sure you have access to compare and contrast essay, a computer. Use the university resources.
Admittedly the space available is limited at times but this is no excuse not to learn the skills, if you do not already possess them, and to find out are books in essays where there are available computer terminals. Of course if you use university resources it is compare essay quotes, even more important to start your essay early in order to avoid the last minute rush as most students, not only from this department, search for terminals in a panic on the Friday before a Monday deadline. It is appreciated that students are very busy and romeo and juliet young love do have a lot of work, but it is a mistake to claim, as some students have been heard, that they are too busy to learn word-processing skills. Ultimately word-processing will save you a lot of time. And Contrast Quotes? It is far easier to add and delete material, and to restructure and reorganise essays by moving material around, on a computer than if you are writing by hand. Software has become really user-friendly; 'Word', for instance, will tell you what to do in explicit English or French, and typing skills can be learned whilst typing. Your essay will be the effective paper representation of an compare quotes argument on a given subject or subjects . It will include only points which are relevant to the subject, so be careful to alberta champions essay, get rid of material that is not directly relevant. Although students complain that essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Part of the essay skill of writing is to write concisely and economically , without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition. Write Effective Research? Once the points have been chosen they should be presented logically and compare and contrast essay quotes coherently , so do not leap about from italicized point to point. Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and the one to follow.
If you do leave one area of the essay to compare essay quotes, move into another, but intend later to go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by 'signposting', e.g. 'this point will be picked up later', 'this point will be returned to later, after taking into consideration . Testing? '. Compare And Contrast Essay? After each draft of the essay check that each point is presented in a logical and coherent order. Read each draft carefully and critically. Is there a significant idea you have not included in the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to write about? Are some of the essay on why u points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? If so, cut out and contrast essay and/or reduce some of the romeo essay text.
Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the whole process. A particularly distressing weakness in compare essay, the past, but hopefully not the future, has been the absence of serious discussion of imagery and literary language . Some students have merely stated that the author uses imagery, illustrated this with an example, and then moved on to the next point on alberta essay, the list. If you discuss images, metaphors and other literary devices, then say how and and contrast essay why they are being used in the piece of fiction, and how to solve a hypothesis maybe if you think the imagery works or not. If you do not say how and why an image is compare essay quotes, being used then don't mention it. You will not write good work on literature if you approach an essay as some useless game of 'spot the essay young love image'.
Throughout your years at and contrast, the University of Liège you will be writing essays on literature which will inevitably include numerous quotations , either from the literature you are working on or from secondary sources, be they books or articles on historical context, literary criticism or other relevant areas. These quotations can obviously add much to the texture and quality of your work, but they are often handled very badly by students. Do not assume that a good quotation will do all the work you want by itself. Poor essays are often merely a patchwork of quotations stitched together by the briefest of comments, and it is a mistake to leave quotations hanging in mid-air, as it were, without comment or explanation. Quotations need to be framed. Write Paper? They should be introduced, not mechanically, but within a context provided by the logical development of your argument . ( See Example 1 at the end of this guide). You should also provide some commentary on the quotations, particularly if they include difficult and/or controversial ideas or material. This is often likely to be the case as there is really little point in including 'bland' quotations in your essay. You may want to gloss, explain, qualify or modify the quoted words, or you may have included quotations whose assumptions or arguments you strongly disagree with. The latter case can be useful, if handled well.
Often an argument can be developed through contrast with opposing or differing arguments. This tactic in essay construction also displays independent thinking in that it demonstrates that you have not unthinkingly accepted and believed everything you have read. One final point on quotations: do not plagiarise . Using other people's work without saying so is a serious crime. Compare Quotes? Tutors have read widely on the subjects you will be writing on and are very likely to alberta essay, recognise when you are plagiarising. Compare And Contrast Essay? If you use other people's ideas and champions words they have to be acknowledged through proper footnoting and compare referencing . Thesis? ( See Example 2 at the end of this guide).
Essays need a conclusion , which for the sake of clarity should be relatively short. It is compare, generally best not to include new ideas or new material in essay on why u, your concluding comments, particularly since many people think that a conclusion should be a summary of the prior arguments. You may, however, point to alternative conclusions or arguments, or briefly suggest areas of interest that have not been dealt with directly by the essay. People often get the wrong idea about compare and contrast quotes, conclusions and believe that this is the place to state firm convictions, and that a conclusion has to make a stand and come down on the side of one argument or another. This can be the case but it is not necessarily so. If an essay title comes in the form of are books in essays, a question, for example 'Is James Joyce seeking to distance himself from compare and contrast quotes traditional forms of Irish culture?', and you cannot decide, do not think that this is a problem.
It is as much a sign of intelligence to state that you cannot decide as it is to sift through the evidence and decide one way or the other. Alberta Essay? Think about why you cannot decide. Compare Quotes? Perhaps the evidence is conflicting. Perhaps the literary text and its use of imagery is effective research introduction, ambiguous, or even contradictory; as is often the case. If you cannot decide, then say so, outlining why you cannot decide. Compare And Contrast Quotes? Alternatively, you may partly agree or partly disagree with the statements or questions raised by faster the title , or by compare questions raised directly in responding to the title. If so, say so. A forced conclusion to an essay can be as bad as the essay having no concluding remarks at all. In connection to the last point it should be emphasised that any essay should be about feiler faster, your ideas and your interpretation of the literature being studied . Of course your ideas may, and essay indeed should, develop through discussions with friends, fellow students, tutors and through the essay on why u consultation of books and compare and contrast quotes articles, but it is your ideas which should form the basis of the essay. About Young Love? Whilst you will use material that is not your own, it is the way that you use, add to, adapt and modify this material that makes the argument your own and original. Your own voice should be heard.
This needs to be qualified by and contrast essay quotes the understanding that there is a particular form and essay on why u style in compare, academic writing . Solve Testing Statistics? This is generally formal, analytical , and 'serious' rather than colloquial, emotional and compare and contrast essay conversational . Your voice and your ideas need to be heard, but be careful of cultivating an overly idiosyncratic, 'individual' style. Remember that in writing you are communicating and that therefore your argument should be clearly expressed. This does not mean you should be simplistic: it is a very important skill to express complex ideas with clarity. One final point needs to be made on the subject of the essays you write being about your ideas. Some of you may find this an extraordinary statement but it is a bad idea to tailor and italicized construct your essay around what you believe your tutor or the head of the course thinks about the text, and what you think she or he wants to and contrast, hear.
If you have different methods or your interpretations differ from those of the tutor, then develop them happily. Remember that essay writing is all about presenting an argument and using evidence from the text and elsewhere to back up your statements, and if you do this well you will be given credit for it whether or not the tutor agrees with the overall argument. Romeo And Juliet About Young Love? It is not particularly interesting for and contrast essay quotes, tutors to write introduction, read in essays only what they have said in class, particularly if this is reproduced in compare and contrast quotes, a flat, unconvincing, and unconvinced manner. Of course you may agree and be persuaded by arguments and interpretations outlined in class but if you do not believe the arguments you reproduce in the essay it will be obvious and alberta champions essay the tutor will wonder why you bothered to include them. You will write a better essay if you are focusing on and contrast essay quotes, your own ideas, developed through discussion and reading, not least because you will be enthused by them. Eventually your ideas will be thought through, outlines planned and feiler re-planned, main points developed, written down on paper, then rewritten, and and contrast essay quotes finally given to your tutor. Essay On Why U? Nevertheless your work on the essay has not yet finished.
Once the essay has been graded and returned it is very important that you do not merely look at compare and contrast quotes, the grade you have received before putting it at the bottom of your files. Read through your tutor's comments carefully, and make sure you understand exactly why you have received the grade you have, even if you are happy with it. If you do not understand why, or you are not sure about your tutor's comments, then ask. If it is not possible to alberta, ask during class or you would prefer to talk privately go to your tutor during office hours, or make an appointment if these clash with other classes. Writing is a skill which has to be learnt and practised, it is an ongoing process and you will learn more each time. Follow up work once the essay has been returned is an compare essay important part of this process. Example 1: Using Quotations. The extract below, from a paper on Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie , shows how quotations can be used. Because the paper quotes from the novel extensively, page numbers are found within the feiler main body of the text, in parentheses, after complete bibliographical details have been provided in compare quotes, a footnote to the first quotation. Quotations from secondary sources are referenced by footnotes.
Short quotations are included, in quotation marks, within the how to a hypothesis problem main body of the paper, whilst the longer quotation, without quotation marks, makes up an indented paragraph. Note that even when the writing by the author of the paper is combined with quotations from the novel and essay quotes secondary sources the sentences are still grammatically correct and coherent. Jean Brodie is convinced of the rightness of her own power, and uses it in a frightening manner: 'Give me a girl at an impressionable age, and she is mine for life'. 1 This is Miss Brodie's adoption of the Jesuit formula, but, whereas they claim the essay on why u child for God, she moulds the child for compare and contrast quotes, her own ends. 'You are mine,' she says, '. of my stamp and cut . ' (129). When Sandy, her most perceptive pupil, sees the 'Brodie set' 'as a body with Miss Brodie for the head' (36), there is, as David Lodge points out, a biblical parallel with the Church as the body of Christ. 2 God is Miss Jean Brodie's rival, and this is demonstrated in a literal way when one of her girls, Eunice, grows religious and is preparing herself for confirmation. She becomes increasingly independent of Miss Brodie's influence and decides to go on the Modern side in the Senior school although Jean Brodie makes clear her own preference for essay on why u, the Classical.
Eunice refuses to continue her role as the group's jester, or to and contrast essay quotes, go with them to the ballet. Cunningly, her tutor tries to regain control by playing on her religious convictions: All that term she tried to inspire Eunice to become at least a pioneer missionary in some deadly and dangerous zone of the essay on why u earth, for it was intolerable to Miss Brodie that any of her girls should grow up not largely dedicated to some vocation. 'You will end up as a Girl Guide leader in essay, a suburb like Corstorphine', she said warningly to Eunice, who was in fact secretly attracted to champions essay, this idea and who lived in Corstorphine. And Contrast? (81) Miss Brodie has different plans for Rose; she is to be a 'great lover' (146), and her tutor audaciously absolves her from the sins this will entail: 'she is above the moral code, it does not apply to her' (146). This dismissal of possible retribution distorts the girls' judgement of Miss Brodie's actions. The above passage is taken from Ruth Whittaker, The Faith and are books Fiction of quotes, Muriel Spark (London and Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1982), pp.106-7. Example 2: Laying out a bibliography. The bibliography will usually include the relevant sources consulted in producing your essay , even if you have not referred to or quoted from them directly. The order is alphabetical and determined by the authors' names. Book titles appear in are books italicized, italics or are underlined , whilst article titles appear in inverted commas. Compare And Contrast Quotes? When referring to books you should include the author's name, place of publication, the publisher, and the date when the book was published.
To reference the source of an article from effective research paper a journal include the name of the journal, the number and/or volume number, the date of publication and the page numbers. There are several styles for laying out a bibliography, but the same elements appear in each, and you must be consistent. Consult the compare and contrast essay handbooks to be found in the libraries for further details. This is a model used by many British universities and publishers. Dahlgren, Pete, Television and the Public Sphere (London: Sage Publishers, 1995) Dubois, Ellen, 'Antipodean Feminism', New Left Review , no.206, July/August 1994, 127-33. Fussel, Paul, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975) Gledhill, Christine, 'Melodrama', in are books in essays, The Cinema Book , ed. Pam Cook (London: BFI, 1985), pp.73-84.
Lodge, David, 'The Uses and Abuses of essay quotes, Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of alberta champions, Miss Jean Brodie ' in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and and contrast essay Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44. Pettifer, James, The Greeks (London: Penguin, 1993) This is the model recommended by essay on why u the Modern Languages Association (MLA) and is used by most American universities and publishers. Dahlgren, Pete. Television and the Public Sphere . London: Sage Publishers, 1995. Dubois, Ellen. Antipodean Feminism. New Left Review 206 (July/August 1994): 127-33. Fussel, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Gledhill, Christine. Melodrama in The Cinema Book . Ed. Pam Cook. London: BFI, 1985. 73-84. Lodge, David. The Uses and Abuses of compare, Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of in essays, Miss Jean Brodie in David Lodge The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971. 119-44. Pettifer, James. The Greeks. London: Penguin, 1993.
The essential information provided by each model is given in the same order, but they differ in the way that the details are presented. Whichever model you choose or are instructed to use ensure that you stay consistent to it. Consult reference works for further advice. These books are on compare, the open shelves: · John Clanchy and Brigid Ballard, How to Write Essays (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1992) · Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for feiler faster thesis, Writers of Research Papers (New York: MLA, 1995) 1 Muriel Spark, The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (London: Macmillan, 1961), p.7.
All further references are to this edition and given in the text. 2 David Lodge, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ', in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44.