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Sensory ability in kinds of thesis, the narwhal tooth organ system. Correspondence to: Martin T. Nweeia, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterial Sciences, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA. And The Dream. E-mail: Martin_nweeia@hsdm.harvard.edu. Delta Dental of of thesis Wisconsin, P.O. Box 828, Stevens Point, WI Search for wallach thesis, more papers by kinds of thesis, this author. Orthopaedic Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA Department of paper Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by kinds, this author. Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Ave. S., Minneapolis, MN Search for college essays, more papers by this author. Arctic Research Division, Fisheries and system, Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Search for deep springs college, more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and kinds of thesis system, Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by deep essays, this author.
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by this author. Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by this author. Arctic Research Center, Institute of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej, Roskilde, Denmark Search for more papers by of thesis, this author. National Institute of Standards and Technology, ADAF Paffenbarger Research Center, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD Search for more papers by this author. Veterinary Services, Calgary Zoo, 1300 Zoo Rd. NE, Calgary, AB, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by college, this author. Department of of thesis system Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. First published: 18 March 2014 Full publication history DOI: 10.1002/ar.22886 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 6 articles Check for updates.
Animal Care : Animal Protocol, 04384. Office of Research Subject Protection, Harvard Medical School. The erupted tusk of the narwhal exhibits sensory ability. The hypothesized sensory pathway begins with ocean water entering through cementum channels to a network of patent dentinal tubules extending from the dentinocementum junction to the inner pulpal wall. Education American Dream. Circumpulpal sensory structures then signal pulpal nerves terminating near the base of the of thesis system tusk. The maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve then transmits this sensory information to the brain. Paper. This sensory pathway was first described in kinds system, published results of patent dentinal tubules, and evidence from dissection of tusk nerve connection via the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. New evidence presented here indicates that the patent dentinal tubules communicate with open channels through a porous cementum from the ocean environment. The ability of pulpal tissue to education and the dream, react to external stimuli is system supported by education american essay, immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers in the pulp and gene expression of pulpal sensory nerve tissue. Final confirmation of kinds of thesis sensory ability is demonstrated by significant changes in heart rate when alternating solutions of hanna wallach thesis high-salt and fresh water are exposed to the external tusk surface.
Additional supporting information for function includes new observations of dentinal tubule networks evident in unerupted tusks, female erupted tusks, and vestigial teeth. New findings of sexual foraging divergence documented by stable isotope and fatty acid results add to the discussion of the functional significance of the kinds of thesis narwhal tusk. Deep Essays. The combined evidence suggests multiple tusk functions may have driven the tooth organ system's evolutionary development and persistence. Anat Rec, 297:599617, 2014. System. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The functional significance of the erupted narwhal tusk has been the subject of conjecture and theory since the writings of Albertus Magnus in 1495 (Magnus, 1495). It has been thought to serve as an mobile, acoustic probe (Best, 1981; Reeves and kinds, Mitchell, 1981), possibly associated with sound transmission (Ford and Fisher, 1978; Best, unpublished B.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1972); a thermal regulator (Dow and education and the american, Hollenberg, 1977); a swimming rudder (Kingsley and Ramsay, 1988); a breathing organ; a spear for hunting or finding food (Vibe, 1950; Harrison and King, 1965; Ellis, 1980; Bruemmer, 1993); an kinds system, aggressive weapon in interspecific fighting (Brown, 1868; Beddard, 1900; Lowe, 1906; Geist et al., 1960) or self-defense against predators (Buckland, 1882; Gray, 1889: Freuchen, 1935); and and contrast paper, a tool used for breaking the ice (Scoresby, 1820; Tomlin, 1967), digging (Freuchen, 1935; Pederson, 1960; Newman, 1971), or resting on ice (Porsild, 1918). Of Thesis. Many studies describe the tusk as a secondary sexual characteristic used in aggressive encounters or intraspecific display (Lowe, 1906; Norman and Fraser, 1949; Miller, 1955; Silverman, 1979) associated with tusk fracture and + research papers, head scarring (Porsild, 1922; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980), and to establish social hierarchy amongst males (Scoresby, 1820; Hartwig, 1874; Mansfield et al., 1975; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980; Gerson and Hickie, 1985). Examining the narwhal tooth organ system through a multidisciplinary approach that combines studies of anatomy, morphology, histology, neurophysiology, genetics, and diet gives a more comprehensive view of its functional significance and highlights sensory ability as an added functional attribute. Narwhal teeth have unusual anatomical features. Among them are (1) a sinistral spiral morphology (Worm, 1655; Scoresby, 1823); (2) an extreme degree of tooth asymmetry in males, with a single left tusk expression and embedded right tusk (Sonnini and kinds system, Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (3) an extreme expression of sexual dimorphism, with the male having an erupted left canine tusk reaching 2.6 m and college essays, the female commonly with right and left embedded tusks, often less than 33 cm (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (4) a unique form of tooth asymmetry in a double-tusked expression, since the morphology of the spiral remains sinistral for both left and of thesis, right antemeres, and the left tusk is essay often slightly longer than the right (Worm, 1655; Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (5) a horizontal direction of system eruption in both erupted and and the american, unerupted tusk forms (Linné et al., 1792: Egede and Wood, 1818); and (6) perforation of the tooth through the of thesis system upper lip (Hampe, 1737; Brisson, 1756; Crantz, 1767; Donndorff, 1792).
Though narwhal teeth share many anatomical characteristics with other tusked animals including a lack of enamel (Ishiyama, 1987), the presence of cementum, dentin, pulpal tissue and their associated structures (Seltzer and Bender, 2002; Berkovitz et al., 2002), and the presence of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve associated with tooth innervation (Nweeia et al., 2009), they have many distinguishing features. Among them are a cementum layer overlying over wallach thesis the erupted canine (Nweeia et al., 2012) tusk, a patent network of dentinal tubules through the system full thickness of paper thesis dentin (Nweeia et al., 2009; Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and pulpal soft tissues, extending the full length of the tooth, diminishing only in diameter with age (Pederson, 1931; Dow and Hollenberg, 1977; Nweeia et al., 2009). Initial scanning electron micrographs of the erupted male narwhal tusk reveal patent dentinal tubules that extend the full thickness of the dentin and correspond to lumina on the tusk surface. The tubules radiating outward from the dentin-pulpal wall are similar to those of humans and other mammals in kinds system, diameter, though the spacing is three to essay, five times wider. Limited scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been completed for other odontocetes, but suggests dentinal tubules are well occluded within the erupted portion of the dentinal layer for system, most odontocetes (Boyde, 1980). Hanna. In cases where the dentinal tubules are patent through the full dentinal layer, such as the sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), they are covered by an enamel layer (Loch et al., 2012). Kinds. Dentinal tubules have been described for mobile + research, other marine mammals, including the rough-toothed dolphin ( Steno bredanensis ) (Miyazaki, 1977), pantropical spotted dolphin ( Stenella attenuata ) (Myrick, 1980), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ) (Hewer, 1964), hooded seal ( Cystophora cristata ) (Mohr, 1966) harbor porpoise ( Phoecoena phoecoena ) (Perrin and Myrick, 1980), short-beaked dolphin ( Delphinus delphis ) (Gurevich et al., 1980), bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ), and of thesis, pilot whale ( Globicephala melaena ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and the walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ), hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibious ), and killer whale ( Orcinus orca ) (Locke, 2008). Open tubules are associated with sensory ability in mammals (Cuenin et al., 1991; Johnson and Brännström, 1974; Panapoulos et al., 1983), though normally expressed only in springs essays, pathologic conditions for most other mammals. Studies of nerve-associated tissue in the pulp of odontocete teeth are limited, though helpful in understanding function (Holland, 1994). Sensory innervation of mammalian teeth includes small myelinated A fibers and of thesis, a majority of unmyelinated C sensory fibers (Seltzer and Bender, 2002).
The A fibers are associated with dentin and the odontoblastic layer (Kimberly and Byers, 1988; Ikeda et al., 1997), while the C fibers are more uniform, though more densely populated in peripulpal areas and along blood vessels (Wakisaka et al., 1987; Hildebrand et al., 1995). Both A and C fibers contain the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP (Silverman and Kruger, 1987; Fristad et al., 1994). In addition, C fibers contain the paper thesis neuropeptide substance P (Casasco et al., 1990; Wakisaka, 1990). The presence of sensory-associated genes in the pulp is an kinds of thesis, indicator for + research papers, sensory function in mammalian teeth. Though there is a lack of kinds system genomic information for the narwhal, techniques are available to and contrast paper, measure the gene expression profiles using a universal array platform to de novo sequencing that are informative to identify sensory-associated genes associated with the system pulp (Velculescu et al., 1995; Unneberg, 2003; Roth et al., 2004). Other techniques using sequenced genomes of marine mammals similar to the narwhal as well as humans are also useful.
Evolutionary patterns of mammalian tooth anatomy and morphology are driven by diet (Anapol and Lee, 1994; Jernvall et al. 1996; Teaford and Ungar, 2000; Evans et al., 2007; Thewissen et al., 2007; Lucas et al., 2008). Thus, comparing the foraging habits of male and female narwhals can potentially provide useful information about the erupted male tusk. Previous dietary studies comparing male and a compare paper for college, female narwhals from the Baffin Bay population have found no difference in stomach contents between the sexes (Finley and Gibb, 1982; Laidre and of thesis, Heide-Jørgensen, 2005); however, smaller sample size of phones + research papers female narwhals has limited these analyses, and stomach contents can be biased since they only provide information on the most recent meal from a specific foraging area. Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses provide long-term integrated dietary information to investigate if dietary differences exist between male and female narwhals in the Baffin Bay population. Both techniques investigate chemical signals in animal tissues which have incorporated isotopic and fatty acid values from kinds of thesis their prey over various time frames, depending on optometry, the tissue. The nitrogen stable isotope (δ 15 N) provides information on an organism's trophic level, while the carbon stable isotope (δ 13 C) provides information on the animal's spatial foraging location, benthic versus pelagic or inshore versus offshore (Peterson and Fry, 1987; Crawford et al., 2008; Newsome et al., 2010). Of Thesis System. Fatty acids are transferred relatively unmodified from prey tissues to optometry, predator tissues, and thus can also be used to determine and compare diet among groups of organisms (Iverson et al., 2004). Both analyses have been successfully used to investigate diet in marine mammals (Iverson et al., 2004; Newsome et al., 2010) including walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus ) (Dehn et al., 2007), bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus ), and system, gray ( Eschrichtius robustus ) whales, and a compare and contrast for college, the narwhal's closest relative, the beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) (Horstmann-Dehn et al., 2012). When the two analyses are used together and provide complementary results they can verify and confirm dietary interpretations, as was done in determining the primary prey for the beluga whale as arctic cod (Loseto et al., 2008, 2009) and for the bottlenose whale as Gonatus (Hooker et al., 2001).
Brännström's theory of dental sensitivity is the most widely accepted mammalian model to explain this sensory ability and function for teeth. Of Thesis. Changes to the interstitial fluid flow within dentinal tubules changes the conformation of odontoblastic cells connected to a pulpal nerve plexus which sends signals of education sensory perception to the brain (Brännström, 1966). Kinds Of Thesis. This theory explains the known ability of wallach teeth to kinds of thesis, sense environmental stimuli, and supports the evolutionary descriptions of tooth precursors as sensory organs (Lumsden, 1987). Human and other mammalian teeth are known to be capable of sensing external stimuli (Anderson, 1968; Haegerstam, 1976; Byers and Dong, 1983; Byers, 1984; Balam et al., 2005) such as temperature (Yamada et al., 1968; Jyväsjärvi and Kniffki, 1987; Ahn et al., 2012), pressure (Mengel et al., 1992), proprioception (Hassanali, 1997; Catania and Remple, 2002; Ozer et al., 2002), osmotic gradients, galvanic potential (Ramirez and Vanegas, 1989; Heyeraas et al., 1994), nocioception (Hu et al., 1978; Lisney, 1983; Narhi et al., 1984; Shigenaga et al., 1986; Byers et al., 1988; Iwata et al., 1998; Kawarada et al., 1999; Andrew and Matthews, 2000), and percussion (Ogawa et al., 2002; Watanabe et al., 2003). Sensory nerve fibers and associated nerve bundles are also found in the pulp of other toothed animals (Pischinger and Stockinger, 1968; Weissengruber et al., 2005). Optometry Admission. This sensory ability serves many different functions, such as protecting teeth against environmental insults and responding to age-related and pathological conditions (Hildebrand et al., 1995). Because narwhals expose these open tubules during normal function, they are capable of sensing one or more of these variables. The erupted male narwhal tusk exhibits sensory ability based on physiologic response of changing heart rate associated with tusk exposure to kinds, alternating solutions of fresh and salt water, and the presence of writing and contrast for college sensory nerve-associated structures. A complete model of tusk sensory function, from stimulus introduction to brain perception, is the primary objective of this investigation. In vivo testing of this model to verify physiologic response to an introduced stimulus helps to confirm sensory ability.
Demonstration of this model includes: (1) an anatomical description of open channels in a porous cementum layer covering the erupted tusk; (2) further and more complete imaging of of thesis a dentinal tubule network in various expressions of the thesis narwhal tooth organ system, including the male erupted tusk, male and female unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth in both sexes; (3) evidence of sensory-associated cells and tissue in of thesis system, the narwhal pulp and circumpulpal dentin; (4) detection of a compare paper sensory-associated genes and kinds system, antigens in the narwhal tusk pulp; (5) published findings of nerve connection at the base of the erupted tusk and continued connection to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to mobile papers, the brain; and (6) new results associating physiologic heart response in response to sensory stimuli of alternating fresh and of thesis, high-salt water solutions introduced to the tusk. An intact, erupted tusk (“A”) including pulp tissuetaken from a male narwhal in 2003, 48 km from make paper thesis Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, in kinds, the eastern portion of Eclipse Sound, 24 km southwest of Cape Graham Moore, Bylot Island [72N 36′ 53.1″, 75W 37′ 56.4]was sawn in the field into and the american dream 54 consecutive cross-sections measuring 3550 mm in axial length. Overall erupted tusk length was 218.4 cm, with diameter increasing from 14.8 mm at the tip to 57.4 mm at the base (Fig. 1A). Kinds. Segments were fixed in 70% ethanol. Segment A-12 was processed to examine neuronal structures at optometry admission the pulpal-dentin interface. Kinds. The midpoint of segment A-12 was located 45.7 cm from the tusk tip, with a 2.78 cm mean outer diameter and 0.87 cm mean pulp diameter. Segment A-12 was secondarily fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, decalcified in EDTA, post-fixed in formalin, and writing and contrast for college, paraffin embedded. Ten-micron-thick sections were mounted on SuperFrost slides for immunohistochemistry. (1A, top ): Sections A-12 and A-42 used in SEM dentinal tubule analysis and kinds system, surface imaging of cementum, taken from an erupted male narwhal tusk; (1B, bottom ): Pulp sections used in immunohistochemistry analysis. An intact dental pulp was extracted from deep springs a narwhal tusk harvested near redundant text Kakiat Point, Arctic Bay, Baffin Island, in 2003 [72N 40′ 51.2″, 86W 41′ 16.9″].
The pulp was fixed in 70% ethanol for 2 months, then suspended in 10% neutral buffered formalin at 4C under 20 g of tension to maintain extension. Overall dimensions of the heavily vascularized dark red pulp were: length, 142.2 cm; diameters 0.3 cm (tip), 1.5 cm (mid), and kinds of thesis system, 4.8 cm (base/apical tusk). The pulp base was bulbous and calcified. Ten-micron-thick paraffin sections were prepared from four separate segments of the pulp (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). Segment L represented the pulp tissue at the approximate base of the optometry admission erupted tusk that would be exposed to seawater (Fig. 1B). A fetus was also collected and kinds system, head dissected into separate maxilla and mandible sections and stored in make thesis, RNAlater ® solution (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and kept in ice until laboratory arrival. Tissue samples were brought under CITES Export Permits CA03FO1000005, CA05F01Q004, X0704-132/06, CA08F01Q0002, CA09F0W10001 and import permits 04US015415/9, 04US082589/9, 06US015415/9, US NMFS permits 932-1489-04 and 764-1703-00, and DFO transport permits A 02089, A 016505, 18469, 17378.
Examination of channels through a porous cementum layer and a dentinal tubule network patent through the full thickness of dentin was completed after sections were prepared. Samples for SEM were sectioned using a water-cooled diamond saw, and kinds, polished with a series of abrasives through 4000 grit with silicon carbide abrasive paper using a rotating metallography table. The surfaces were then cleaned to education and the american essay, remove surface debris, using a mild HCl acid etch followed by kinds of thesis system, rinsing in dilute sodium hypochlorite. The cleaned sections were then washed and dried in paper, a vacuum desiccator and kinds system, gold-sputter coated for SEM observation. Samples for wallach thesis, cementum examination were prepared by taking cross-sections of kinds of thesis system tusk segment A-42 sawn at 0.9-mm thickness with a precision low-speed water-cooled saw. Surface imaging of cementum was performed at 50× objective magnification using a Keyence super resolution digital microscope model VHX-S90BE, equipped with a VH-Z20R/Z20W lens and variable illumination adapter VH-K20. Reagents for immunohistochemistry of american dream neuronal markers included calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody (anti-CGRP, ab81887, abcam), 200kD neurofilament heavy antibody (ab17126, abcam), substance P antibody (#20064, Immunostar), and isolectin IB4-AlexaFluor 488 conjugate (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen). While specific for kinds of thesis, the indicated antigens in one or more mammalian species, none of these antibodies had previously been tested in narwhals, thereby precluding inference from negative findings. Sections were processed by microwave antigen retrieval for essay, 15 min in kinds of thesis system, citrate buffer solution, pH 6.0 (Antigen Unmasking Solution #H-3300 Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA).
Antibody localization involved peroxidase coupling and red color development with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (ABC kit and ImmPACT AEC Peroxidase Substrate kit, #SK-4206, Vector Laboratories). Primary antibodies were diluted 1/50 to 1/1000 for incubation and springs, were omitted for negative control sections; all sections were counterstained with aqueous hematoxylin. Slides were imaged by light microscopy with a Nikon Eclipse 80i at objective magnifications of of thesis 4× to 60× (oil). Since the narwhal has not been sequenced, a query of keywords “tooth” and “nerve” for springs college essays, the Tursiops truncatus genome was performed using the Ensembl database. The genes NGFR, DLX2, TFAP2A, and GLI3were the only ones that resulted from the search. Primers were created for all four using the Roche Universal Primer Design software, though the QRT-PCR assay for GLI3 failed. Kinds Of Thesis System. Another approach to identifying additional sensory genes was based on the human genome: FAM134B and WNK1 (formerly HSN2) genes have been shown to essays, be involved in kinds of thesis system, hereditary sensory neuropathy type II, which has a pathology for the reduction or loss of the sensory perception of hanna thesis pain, temperature and touch (Kurth, 2010). These genes were cross-referenced to kinds of thesis, the Tursiops truncatus genome, and to our surprise, based on admission, the Ensembl database search, there was a sequence similarity for these two genes.
The narwhal pulp tissue was stored in DNAgard (Biomatrica, San Diego, CA) and the control samples (muscle tissue around the blow-hole and gingiva from the inner portion of the mandible) were placed in RNAlater solution following the respective company protocol within 15 min of access to a fetus collected at kinds Kakiat Point, then all samples were stored at −20C until arrival at HC-LITT, where they were stored at −80C. Sections of these pulp and control samples were obtained from mobile papers multiple regions and system, weighed prior to homogenization. The Covaris t-PREP™ and S220 Focused-ultrasonicator (Covaris, Woburn, MA) were used to make thesis, homogenize the pulp and control samples. Kinds Of Thesis System. Prior to Adaptive Focused Acoustics™ on the S220 instrument, 250 μL of wallach thesis Qiagen Buffer RLT (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) was added to the samples. After processing, 750 μL of TRIzol LS was added to extract the RNA from the kinds of thesis system samples using the essays standard three-step phenol/chloroform extraction method according to the manufacturer's instructions and prior to making cDNA. cDNA was synthesized from 1.5 µg of total RNA for system, each sample using Roche reverse transcriptase. Papers. All assays were prepared using standard conditions in a master mix solution without any effort at kinds system assay optimization. Phones. For each data point, there were three replicates. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed based on the Tursiops truncatus and kinds of thesis system, Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively.
The Ensembl database (http://uswest.ensembl.org) was utilized to make, project transcripts involved in kinds, sensory nerve functions by make thesis, using the kinds system closest relative of the narwhal whose genome had been sequenced ( Tursiops truncatus http://uswest.ensembl.org/Tursiops_truncatus/Info/Index [Database version: 71.1]) (Hubbard et al., 2002; Flicek et al., 2012). The gene accession numbers were used in designing the primers for the housekeeping genes (Spinsanti et al., 2006). The Roche Universal ProbeLibrary probes and target-specific PCR primers were selected using the ProbeFinder Assay Design software (https://qpcr.probefinder.com/organism.jsp, “Other organism” selection) (Rozen and Skaletsky, 2002; Kuo et al., 2006). Please refer to Table 1 for primer sequences. The primers were used to confirm relative changes in mRNA levels by hanna wallach thesis, QRT-PCR using the Roche 480 LightCycler. Reactions were performed in microliter reaction volumes for six genes, using 1 μL of cDNA under the following conditions: 95C for 10 min, followed by 45 cycles of 95C for 10 s and 60C for 30 s (Kuo et al., 2006). Expression data for the sensory genes were normalized relative to the housekeeping genes (Murphy et al., 2003; Khimani et al., 2005). Kinds System. Raw data were obtained and make paper, analyzed using the SBI software (System BioSciences, Mountain View, CA). The comparative C T method (ΔΔ C t) was chosen to further calculate the relative expressions between the different groups. Carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) stable isotope analyses were performed on kinds, male ( n = 91) and female ( n = 91) narwhal skin samples collected by Inuit hunters in wallach, the Canadian High Arctic from 1982 to 2009. Narwhal skin subsections of of thesis approximately 0.5 g were freeze-dried, lipid-extracted, and analyzed at the University of Windsor for stable isotopes.
Burning of fossil fuels emits anthropogenic CO 2 that is depleted in 13 C, resulting in education and the essay, increasingly depleted C animal tissue signals over the industrial period: this pattern is known as the of thesis Suess effect (Sonnerup et al., 1999). Carbon values were corrected to account for deep college essays, this depletion by calculating the atmospheric carbon value ( C atm ) in 1982 (the oldest sample included in the analysis) using δ 13 C atm = −6.429 to 0.0060 exp (0.0217[ t −1740]), where t is the year (Feng, 1998). Atmospheric δ 13 C atm was calculated for each year samples were collected, and the difference between that value and the 1982 δ 13 C atm was subtracted from the kinds system measured δ 13 C to make thesis, obtain a corrected carbon value. For the analysis of fatty acids, blubber samples from female ( n = 56) and male ( n = 56) narwhals harvested near the community of Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada were used. Lipids were extracted from narwhal blubber samples for fatty acid analysis using the modified Folch procedure (Folch et al., 1957; Budge et al., 2006) and converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). FAME were analyzed using the Agilent Technologies 7890A GC system. T-tests were used to test for differences in of thesis system, δ 13 C and δ 15 N between male and optometry, female narwhals.
Fatty acid values were converted to kinds system, percentages, divided by the mean of the sample, and log-transformed (Kenkel, 2006). Mobile + Research Papers. A principal component analysis, which included 33 dietary fatty acids (Iverson et al., 2004), was followed by a multivariate ANOVA on the first five principal components (cumulatively describing over of thesis system 70% of the hanna wallach data) to determine if males and females differed significantly in their fatty acid values. All statistical analyses were conducted using JMP 7.0.1. Alternating high-salt (41 ppt) and fresh-water solutions were used as stimuli to kinds, test the physiologic response of the narwhal tusk to environmental sensory stimuli. Selection of the education american dream stimulus was based on the potential relevance and kinds of thesis, importance of salt ions to the narwhal's ocean environment. A tusk jacket was constructed from a 10.2 cm diameter by 45.0 cm length clear acrylic tube with a 0.64 cm wall thickness, which was cut in half longitudinally and hinged on one seam to facilitate immediate closure at the other seam.
At each end a 5.7 cm wide by deep springs, 3.8 cm thick piece of open-celled foam was glued to the inner surface of the tube, with an kinds of thesis, overall diameter of make paper thesis 10.2 cm and an inner open diameter of 2.8 cm, to kinds of thesis system, form a centering gasket around the education and the american tusk at the tube ends. A one-way hose valve was fastened to the center of the tusk jacket, and Versilic Formulation SPX-70 I.B. tubing connected the kinds of thesis system jacket to an MSR 6-L Dromedary solution storage bag. Quick-connect valves allowed easy exchange of solution storage bags filled with fresh-water or high-salt solutions. The Midmark Holter IQ electrocardiograph (ECG) with a five-lead montage and eight-second data averaging was used for the six male narwhal samples tested in Tremblay Sound (TS) near the mobile phones + research papers base of the kinds of thesis Alpha River outside Pond Inlet [72N 21′ 38″, 81W 05′ 59″], two each in years 2010, 2011, and 2012. Heart rate response was selected as a physiologic indicator, since sudden increases in salt ion concentrations would presumably be interpreted by narwhals as a sign that ice entrapment was threatening. Thus, during the introduction of high-salt solutions narwhal heart rate was expected to hanna wallach, rise due to physiologic response to rapid ice formation; conversely, heart rate was expected to fall during the introduction of fresh water, as this stimulus is associated with the waters of summer inlets where ice is melting and kinds of thesis, there are fresh-water run-offs. The narwhals were captured from land-based camps using an make paper, anchored net set perpendicular to the shore, and kinds, after capture brought to shore using standard techniques established for tagging (Dietz et al., 2001, 2008). Hanna. After the narwhals were stabilized, subdermal electrodes were inserted in a five-lead montage. Electrode leads for ECG data collection were Grass Technologies subdermal Model F-E7 right-angled, 10 mm, 30-gage monopolar needles with 244 cm lead wires. IQ Manager software with real-time signal collection was used with the Holter IQ. Eight-second interval averages were used in the final analysis.
Solutions of 41 ppt salt-water were made by adding Instant Ocean™ saltwater synthetic salt crystals to inlet brackish sea water (1822 ppt); salt concentration was confirmed using the Omega CDH-287 meter. Fresh-water solutions were gathered from nearby glacial run-off streams that were used as drinking water. Kinds Of Thesis. McCormick red and green food coloring dyes were added (10 drops/gallon) to identify the two different solutions, and to verify the clearing of one solution in the tusk jacket and displacement by the alternating solution. The two dye colors were interchanged between high-salt and fresh-water solutions to eliminate the deep springs college possibility of food coloring sensitivity as another variable detected by the tusk, or color dispersion observed by the animal. The ECG was turned on after electrode attachment. After a few minutes of heart monitoring, the tusk jacket was attached at or near the base of the tusk, and alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water were injected into the tusk jacket. Temperature of these stored solutions was kept at ambient sea water level by keeping them in Dromedary™ bags submerged in nearby seawater. Kinds Of Thesis. Time periods for the solution injections were varied between animals to account for optometry admission, any effect on changes in heart rate response linked to capture time. Kinds. Heart rate was monitored continuously during the solution exchange and dwell times until all experiments were completed. The Midmark Holter IQ™ instrument allowed real-time heart rate data to make paper, be stored and system, later segmented into 8-s averaging for the sample of education and the dream essay six male narwhals.
The data recording was electronically marked at the beginning of kinds of thesis each stimulus period to provide an accurate association of recorded heart rate to deep springs essays, stimulus. The five-lead montage provided a manageable configuration of electrodes for field use, and of thesis, very few interruptions in data were experienced due to paper for college, displacement of the subdermal electrodes. An ideal heart beat wave form was identified to correlate with data recording and kinds of thesis, analysis (Fig. 2). Animal health and safety is always the primary concern, and all experiments cease and the animal is released at a compare and contrast paper for college the first sign of kinds overt stress when indicated by the monitoring veterinarian. Fortunately, none of the animals exhibited problems requiring early release, and most experiments, tagging, and specimen collections were completed within 30 min.
Experiments and college essays, research were conducted under Canadian Department of of thesis Fisheries and Oceans' Animal Care Committee permits FWI-ACC-20082009-007 and FWI-ACC-2008-2009-008 and Animal Use Protocol permits FWI-ACC-2009-024, FWI-ACC-2010-008, FWI-ACC-2011-016, and FWI-ACC-2012-009. Paper For College. Research protocol was established in the United States under the Harvard Medical Area Standing Committee on Animals, Animal Experimentation Protocol 04384. The Hunters and Trappers Organization (HTO) in kinds of thesis, Pond Inlet, Nunavut voted to approve these research protocols in TS. A generalized least squares split-plot nested analysis was chosen to account for writing and contrast paper for college, the unbalanced experimental design where there was variation in the length of the stimulus periods, and kinds of thesis, there was a reasonable likelihood that residuals would correlate between stimuli within each individual animal. Statistical analysis on the six animals captured at TS was done with whales and education essay, water treatments as the primary fixed factors and of thesis system, split-plots nested within whales and water treatments, to determine parameter estimates and mobile phones + research, the significance levels of the fixed factors and factor interactions, fitting the of thesis system model: µ + W i + T j + (WT) ij k + ε ijkl + γ (ij). This model included both split-plot and random error to account for the unbalanced experimental design where treatment intervals were not equal in length or number.
The model also accounted for the assumption that residuals would be correlated within each individual animal. No attempt was made to writing a compare, identify or exclude outliers in the data, although a few data points appeared to be potential outliers. Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) simultaneous confidence intervals were generated at 95% to evaluate the sizes of the differences among the whales' mean heart rates. A Student's t 95% confidence interval estimate was constructed to evaluate the size of the difference between treatment mean heart rates. System. Statistical analyses were conducted using JMP Pro 10.0.0. Results confirmed multiple indicators that support the hypothesis of a sensory pathway in the erupted narwhal tusk. Scanning electron micrographs of patent dentinal tubule networks provide evidence of the pathway for sensory conduction in multiple forms of optometry admission narwhal tooth expression, including both male and system, female erupted tusks, unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth (Fig. Mobile Phones + Research Papers. 3). Narwhal electrocardiogram wave components from of thesis TS sample Whale 3. P wave = atrial depolarization. PR interval = time interval between onset of atrial depolarization and onset of ventricular depolarization. Hanna Wallach. QRS complex = depolarization of ventricles, consisting of the Q, R, and S waves.
QT interval = time interval between onset of ventricular depolarization and of thesis, end of ventricular repolarization. RR interval = time interval between 2 QRS complexes. T wave = ventricular repolarization. ST segment plus = ventricular myocardial depolarization. U wave = relaxation of ventricles.
Organized and open channels were observed in tusk cross-sections, providing direct communication between the outer cementum surface of the tusk and the dentin-cementum interface (Fig. Make. 4). System. The average channel diameter is 31 ± 14 (S.D.) μm, and the open areas comprise about 0.5% of the cementum. This sinusoidal channel network appears to deep springs essays, surround bundles of Sharpey's fibers, and represents a possible pathway for sea water conduction through the cementum layer to the underlying dentin. Scanning electron micrographs at 1000× showing dentinal tubule orifices for kinds of thesis system, ( A ) male unerupted tusk and ( B ) female erupted tusk and at 500× showing polished dentin sections of writing a compare ( C ) adult male tusk (inner third polished and etched), ( D ) adult female tusk and ( E ) unerupted tusk. (Orientation of micrographs B-D, pulpal surface to the left and outer surface to the right). Scale bars = 10 microns.
Putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and dentin were identified by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers. CGRP and kinds, substance P are neuropeptides expressed by neurons in a compare and contrast, dental pulp with important roles in physiology and pathology (Caviedes-Bucheli et al., 2006). CGRP+ fibers were found localized to peripheral pulp (Fig. 5), and while few were surrounded by kinds of thesis, connective tissue or adjacent to wallach, vessels, most were typically within 100 μm of the pulp margin. This outermost pulpal region borders the odontoblast layer. Antibody to 200 kD neurofilament heavy chain, another neuronal marker reported in human dental pulp (Henry et al., 2012), failed to kinds, localize to any structures in narwhal pulp (not shown). Organized channels traverse the full thickness of narwhal cementum. Scale bars = 500 microns. Left panel: numerous channels (white arrows) averaging 31 ± 14 µm in diameter are observed throughout the cementum layer in essay, this cross-section of system tusk specimen A-42 (see Fig. 1). The sinusoidal channel shape results in a segmented appearance in the image plane.
The outer surface of the tusk (black arrow) is optometry essay 6.3 mm from the cementum-dentin boundary at the right margin of this panel. Right panel: rotated image showing the kinds of thesis cementum-dentin boundary where the fluid-filled dentinal tubules are in close proximity to the channels. Sharpey's fibers (S) that anchored the erupting tusk to alveolar bone during development appear as dark, hypomineralized collagen bundles. Substance P was clearly present in the peripheral pulp (Fig. 5). We observed extensive tracts of red substance P+ granules with diameters of 0.52 μm (Fig. 6, panels A, B, D). Admission Essay. Substance P+ granules were found in four pulp segments representing the of thesis major linear dimensions of the pulp from tip to dream, base of the erupted tusk (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). Kinds Of Thesis System. In all pulp segments (where cross-sectional dimensions ranged from 0.4 to and contrast, 15 mm), the kinds of thesis substance P+ neurons were largely restricted to the outermost 200 μm of mobile + research papers circumpulpal tissue in closest proximity to the odontoblast cell bodies. Kinds Of Thesis. Consistent staining of small discrete loci always at the pulp periphery and in the exact same positions through consecutive serial sections help to confirm the accuracy and writing and contrast, precision of the technique. The granule distribution and of thesis, size is suggestive of hanna thesis parallel, oriented dendrites or peripheral processes of sensory neurons, which are similar to the boutons en passant (beads on a string) morphology of substance P+ neurons in the CNS (Behan et al., 1993).
The substance P+ granules provide strong evidence of peripheral innervation with potential for nociceptive transmission of excitatory impulses to kinds of thesis system, the CNS. Other roles could involve substance P-mediated regulation of pulpal blood flow and extravasation and other responses to paper thesis, inflammation. Substance P, a peptide product of the Tachykinin 1/TAC1 gene, acts on kinds system, its receptor NK1R (Tachykinin receptor 1/TACR1) expressed by neurons and endothelial cells. Substance P released from pulpal sensory nerves during experimental tooth pain is implicated in nociceptive pain transmission (Avellán et al., 2008) as well as inflammatory responses to pain, including increased pulpal blood flow (Kim, 1990). CGRP immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers (white arrows) in peripheral zone of narwhal pulp adjacent to circumpulpal dentin. Panel APulp Segment F; panel BSegment L, upper left arrow is margin of large artery with smooth muscle wall; panel CSegment F; panel DSegment L. Make Paper Thesis. Control sections with primary antibody omitted showed no red reaction product. Scale bars = 20 microns. We examined substance P expression in kinds, the layers of odontoblasts, predentin, and dentin immediately adjacent to the peripheral pulp tissue. Odontoblasts were not evident at the pulp surface (Figs. 4A and 6B) because they remained attached to the circumpulpal dentin when the intact pulp was forcibly withdrawn from the tusk.
Sections from thesis Segment A-12 of a tusk containing its pulp faithfully preserved this interface (Fig. Of Thesis. 6DF). There is evidence of substance P+ nerve fiber adjacent to admission, odontoblast cell bodies, and further evidence of kinds system substance P+ fibers in close proximity to make paper, odontoblastic processes in the zone of dentinal tubules (Fig. 6EF). This anatomical association supports the possibility of odontoblast-initiated sensory transmission in system, the narwhal tusk. Substance P immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers in hanna wallach thesis, narwhal pulp and dentin. Panel A, pulp segment L showing abundant red SP+ granules at kinds of thesis pulp periphery (arrow); panel B, segment I showing linear arrays of SP+ granules near pulp periphery (arrows); panel C, segment C showing small cluster (arrow) of red SP+ granules at mobile + research pulp periphery; panel D, segment I showing SP+ nerve fiber (arrow) adjacent to large artery with smooth muscle wall (sm); panel E, tusk segment A12 showing SP+ nerve (n) in peripheral pulp adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies (o) and dentin (d) with characteristic dentinal tubules (t); panel F, tusk segment A12 showing linear arrays of SP+ granules (arrows) in odontoblast (o) layer of dentin approximately 200 microns from the peripheral pulp. Kinds Of Thesis System. Scale bars = 100 microns (A, B, D, E) and 10 microns (C, F). Top : Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to muscle tissue. Springs College Essays. Bottom: Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to mandibular soft tissue.
All the genes were normalized using the housekeeping genes (GAPDH, RPL4, RPS18, and YWHAZ). The gene expression profiles for of thesis system, sensory genes were calculated based on fold-change. DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, and TFAP2A genes were highly expressed in the pulpal tissue when compared to both muscle and mandibular soft tissues (Fig. 7). A Compare And Contrast Paper For College. When compared with pulpal tissue, the fold-change ranged from kinds 1.64 (for FAM134B) to 21.03 (for DLX2), and three of the and contrast genes that had a fold-change greater than 16.5 when compared to of thesis system, muscle were highly expressed. Essay. Since the kinds of thesis system mandibular soft tissue might contain sensory nerves the mobile gene expression profiles were not as significant, and these genes had fold-changes greater than 2.5. The gene expression profile of kinds of thesis system WNK1 was marginally higher in pulpal tissue compared to muscle tissue, and mobile phones papers, slightly down-regulated when compared to mandibular soft tissue (Hubbard et al., 2002; Kurth, 2010; Flicek et al., 2012). On the other hand, NGF was the only gene that was down-regulated compared with both muscle and mandibular soft tissue; thus, the of thesis system expression was higher in both muscle and springs college essays, mandibular soft tissue than in the pulp. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and dietary fatty acid percentages are both biomarkers that provide an kinds, indication of diet. Hanna Thesis. Biomarkers were significantly different between male and female narwhals from the Baffin Bay (High Arctic) population, suggesting the sexes may have different foraging habits.
Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data were normally distributed, as described by normal quantile plots, and variances were homogenous (Levene's test: Carbon, F 1, 432 = 0.433, P = 0. Kinds. 51; Nitrogen, F 1, 432 = 0.28, P = 0.60). Education. Male narwhals ( n = 278) had significantly higher δ 13 C ( t -test: t = 4.82, P 0.0001) and δ 15 N ( t -test: t = 3.5, P = 0.0004) values compared to kinds, female narwhals ( n = 156). A multivariate ANOVA on the first five fatty acid principal components found there was also a significant difference between male and female narwhals (MANOVA: F 5, 106 = 2.42, P = 0.041, n = 56). This significant difference between stable isotope and wallach, fatty acid values for kinds of thesis, male and female narwhals supported divergent sexual foraging habits.
A plot of the actual versus predicted heart rates indicated that there may have been a few observations that were outliers, but these observations were not eliminated from the data set of hanna six male narwhals from TS (Table 2) since they had little impact on the overall analysis. A summary of fit of the actual and predicted heart rates resulted in an R 2 value of of thesis 0.87. A test of the fixed effects indicated that the difference among the whales was statistically significant ( P 0.0001) and a compare and contrast paper for college, that the kinds system treatment difference (high-salt versus fresh-water exposure) was significant ( P = 0.0008); however, there was no significant two-way interaction between the whales and treatment ( P = 0.36). A plot of the residuals showed a random pattern around zero, indicating that the admission essay assumption of kinds of thesis equal variances was likely met. The Tukey HSD set of confidence intervals of the differences (Table 3, bottom) indicated that there was no difference in the estimated mean heart rates between whales 1 and mobile phones, 2, whales 1 and 3, and whales 2, 5 and 6 at the 95% confidence level. Whale 4 was significantly different from all others. The least squares means differences in Student's t test of the salt and of thesis, fresh-water treatment conditions (Table 3, top) resulted in an overall mean estimated heart rate of 60.42 bpm for the 41 ppt salt-water stimulus and an estimated 52.56 bpm for hanna wallach thesis, the fresh-water stimulus (Table 4), and system, these were significantly different ( P = 0.0008). The estimated difference between the admission essay two means, with 95% confidence, was 7.86 bpm. The least squares means analysis of the whale-treatment interaction had a P -value of 0.36, indicating that all such confidence intervals of kinds of thesis system mean differences would overlap. These results demonstrated a significant and repeatable difference in heart rate, with higher heart rate being associated with the wallach thesis 41 ppt salt-water exposure and lower heart rate with the fresh-water exposure (Fig. 8).
This change in kinds, heart rate occurred in all six animals, though there were differences in the heart rates measured between the different animals. Make Thesis. The magnitude of change for the salt stimulus mean was between 3.7 and 12.0 beats per minute. Mean heart rate measured for each of the six male narwhals while the tusk is stimulated with either 41 ppt salt water or fresh water. Sensory model of the system erupted male narwhal tusk showing, from mobile papers bottom left, the introduction of water gradients penetrating cementum channels connected to patent dentinal tubules through the full thickness of the system dentinal layer, connecting to odontoblastic processes and cells at the base of the tubules and at the periphery of the pulp, which stimulate nerve tissue connecting the base of tusk tissue to the maxillary branch of the fifth cranial nerve to writing a compare and contrast for college, the brain. Also pictured at the bottom right are pulp peripheral nerve-associated substance P and CGRP. Human and kinds, other mammalian teeth have sensory function and exhibit a highly adapted ability to sense variables including temperature, ion concentration gradients, physical pressure during loading, and springs college essays, proprioceptive position. It is therefore reasonable to kinds, expect that this function of dentition is also found in the narwhal.
Anatomic form and springs, physiologic field results are consistent with Brännström's hydrodynamic theory of teeth, the most widely accepted theory of sensory and kinds, pain perception associated with exposed dentinal tubules (Brännström, 1966, 1967). The theory hypothesizes that interstitial fluid within these tubules can be influenced by variables of temperature, pressure, hydration status, and electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Solutions introduced at the tusk surface have the effect of penetrating a porous cementum outer layer through a series of open and organized channels that create fluid flow within the thesis dentinal tubules, outward during the exposure to high-salt solutions and inward after exposure to fresh water. Mechanical effects on of thesis system, odontoblastic processes within these tubules, and close associations of odontoblasts with nerve endings in the outer layer of deep pulpal tissue (Fig. 9), are involved in the initiation of sensory perception.
Direct exposure to the environment of the patent dentinal tubule network in narwhals is unusual. In contrast, the beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas )the closest relative to the narwhalexhibits the more characteristic occluded dentinal tubules within the dentin layer, preventing any fluid conduction from the enamel-covered tooth surface to the ocean environment (Sergeant, 1959 and 1973). Primer sequences used in QRT-PCR experiments lists the Roche Universal Probe number and corresponding forward, reverse and amplicon sequences for kinds of thesis, the Universal Probe Library reactions. Make Thesis. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed using the Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively. Tubules are present in all mammalian dentin and serve to supply the physiologic fluids that maintain the integrity of of thesis system collagen that forms the mobile phones + research papers collagen fibril network within dentin (Pashley, 1996; Kinney et al., 2003). It is well known that in of thesis, human root-canal-treated teeth, where the pulpal tissue has been removed and thus the internal supply of physiologic fluid, the dentin becomes more brittle and loses elasticity over time (Jameson et al., 1993; Papa et al., 1994). This same physiologic function of maintaining collagen toughness within narwhal dentin would be even more critical at the high bending stresses experienced within a tusk. Tensile stresses are greatest near the base and on optometry essay, the surface of a cantilevered beam, such as a narwhal tusk. Tissues with very high fracture toughness, such as the highly fibrous and collagenous dentin of the tusk, are best designed to respond to these stresses without fracturing. This tubular tusk structure of toughened dentin is a wonderful example of of thesis system evolutionary engineering, where environmental demands have resulted in essays, optimized organ design.
This explains the high density of tubules observed and the fact that narwhal tusks maintain a pulpal vascular network for nearly their entire length. The unique feature of narwhal tusk dentin, however, is the frequent and kinds system, normal communication of these tubules with the exposed surface of the a compare for college tusk. In other mammalian teeth, surface layers of enamel or cementum occlude tubules, and occluded tubules frequently occur within the dentin layer, so that exposure of tubules only occurs as a result of of thesis damage or pathology. The narwhal tusk has no surface enamel layer (Ishiyama, 1987), and the cementum observed on the surface is highly porous with a network of open and organized channels surrounding abundant Sharpey's fiber bundles of hypomineralized collagen, thus providing the patent communication needed to sense surface stimuli. Dissection and imaging of male and female narwhal heads reveal connection of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve from the brain to a compare, the tusk. This connection is supported by of thesis, intracranial dissections, tusk alveolar examination, and visible pathways of nerve conduction observed by dissection and optometry essay, radiographic imaging (Tyler, 2006; Nweeia et al., 2009). Narwhal pulp has been reported to have features similar to other mammals (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977).
Nerve-associated tissue discovered in narwhal pulpal tissue (Figs. 4 and 5) also provides evidence that the Brännström hydrodynamic theory of sensory function could apply to the narwhal tusk. Transmission of dental sensory or nociceptive (pain) signals to the CNS involves Aδ and C-type fibers. Of Thesis. Rapid, sharp pain is writing a compare and contrast associated with Aδ fibers, while dull, radiating pain typically involves C-type fibers, depending on of thesis system, the type of admission essay stimulus. The Aδ fibers account for the sensitivity of dentin, whereas C-type fibers are activated only if external stimuli reach the pulp proper (Narhi et al., 1992).
Hydrodynamic sensory perception in kinds of thesis system, the narwhal tusk is supported by our findings of extensive innervation and expression of substance P, a known nociceptive neurotransmitter, in deep essays, the peripheral region of the pulp. The close apposition of kinds odontoblasts and substance P+ fibers is education and the dream essay consistent with odontoblast-dependent sensory transmission initiated by fluid flow in dentinal tubules. Recent reports of mechano-sensitive ion channels such as TRPV14 and TREK-1 in odontoblast membranes, and PC1 and PC2 associated with the odontoblast primary cilia (Magloire et al., 2009, 2010), provide possible additional mechanisms for odontoblast-mediated sensory transmission. Significant presence and detection of a set of sensory-related genes in the pulp (including DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, TFAP2A, and NGF), either highly expressed or less expressed relative to control samples of kinds system muscle and writing a compare paper, mandibular soft tissue, suggest a genetic basis for sensory function. The results of stable isotope and of thesis system, fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Stable isotope values in large mammal tissues can reflect the previous year's diet (Sponheimer et al., 2006), whereas fatty acids in blubber have turnover rates on deep springs essays, the order of 1.53 months (Nordstrom et al., 2008). The majority of our samples were collected in July and August.
Thus, fatty acid signatures would reflect dietary habits during the late spring to early summer period, which may be after the breeding season in kinds of thesis, either mid-April (Best and Fisher, 1974) or May-June (Heide-Jørgensen and Garde, 2011). Fatty acid values varied between males and females, although much less strongly than stable isotopes, which may suggest males and females are foraging more similarly during the mating season or that both sexes limit feeding at essay this time. Kinds System. While more evidence is certainly needed, there remains the possibility that tusk sensory function could play a role in paper thesis, locating food sources. Physiologic data from six live-captured male narwhals suggest statistically significant sensory perception to high-salt and fresh-water solutions (Fig. 7). It is interesting to note that Whale 1 presented with one-third of its tusk broken off. Results indicate this tusk damage compromised the ability to distinguish between high-salt and kinds system, freshwater solutions. Whale 2 also presented with a broken tusk, but only a minor 23 cm loss of length, and thus sensation of salinity was only admission slightly compromised when compared to Whales 36. An established sensory pathway has thus been discovered from the external ocean environment through porous cementum, penetrating patent tubules conducting fluid shifts to sensory cells in the pulp, and transfer to system, the maxillary division of the make thesis fifth cranial nerve which connects to the base of the brain.
This anatomic model (Fig. 9), combined with field experiments showing sensitivity to high salinity gradients and associated increases in physiological heart rate response, show that the narwhal tusk organ has sensory ability. This is an organ with the ability to kinds of thesis system, sense characteristics of its external environment. More common associations of tooth sensitivity to their environment are linked to protection. Mobile + Research. Teeth sense stimuli that signal a threat to their function or integrity and the animal responds in of thesis, a normal “fight or flight” reaction to avoid or neutralize the stimulus. Writing And Contrast For College. Such stimuli are often episodic, appearing when the kinds threat is present and not as a normal part of the tooth's environment. Writing Paper For College. The narwhal is the only example documented where teeth are shown to have the ability to constantly sense environmental stimuli that would not necessarily be considered a threat.
Unusual tusk microanatomy provides a unique means of assessing the whale's environment by what appears to be their normal and kinds, commonly employed mechanism. The dentinal tubule network in the embedded (unerupted) tusk antemere opens the possibility that it may serve as a “reference tusk,” bathed in physiological fluid and used as a set point for make thesis, sensing “high” versus “low” salinity by the erupted “sensory tusk.” Tested sensitivities to high-salt and fresh-water solutions suggest that these dentinal tubules may also sense changes in of thesis, temperature, pressure, hydration status, and/or electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Further examination may likely reveal other variables that can be sensed and interpreted, according to Brännström's hydrodynamic theory, by this extraordinary tooth organ system. Future experiments that test additional stimuli would provide a better understanding of the broader capability of this sensory organ system. The current evidence suggests that the education and the american dream essay tusk may have a multitude of specific and perhaps interacting functions. Its microanatomy and sensory ability compellingly point to function as a sensory organ system.
Although erupted tusks may present in both sexes, they are mostly found in males and thus are more likely associated with sexual selection. Kinds System. The microanatomy of the deep college essays female tusk reveals a similar dentinal tubule network. However, their gross morphology of a more dense proportion of hard tissue with a very limited pulpal canal suggests that they may not have the same sensory ability. Other gross morphological differences in erupted female tusks, which are present in approximately 15% of the population (Roberge and Dunn, 1990), have also been documented (Clark, 1871; Pederson, 1931). No field experiments were conducted on females with tusks, as none were part of the sample caught during this investigation. The use of teeth in intrasexual selection or “male-to-male rivalry” and competition amongst odontocetes has been documented in system, the literature, and may have relevance to essay, narwhal tusk function.
New evidence of sensory ability suggests that intersexual selection or “mate choice” should be considered as a mechanism for sexual selection. Kinds Of Thesis System. Several hypotheses can be suggested for “mate choice” based on the sensory ability of the admission essay erupted male tusk. The first is that the tusk might detect waters where females in estrus may be gathered or attracted. System. A second is wallach thesis that the tusk could also detect waters where females are foraging, as observed from fatty acid and stable isotope results. As an expression of fitness, a third hypothesis is that some males may be better able to find sources of foods needed for newborn calves. The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Tusk sensory ability as a retained function from an evolutionary precursor is a fourth hypothesis; a fifth is that the tusk is a currently evolving sensory organ. Differences in tooth position and kinds, morphology suggest other functions such as species recognition, as they do in other odontocetes (MacLeod, 2000). Since behaviors linked to mating are difficult to collect throughout the year, and a significant time period from hanna late October to March can be forbidding due to of thesis system, weather and ocean conditions including moving pack ice within Baffin Bay in american, the early spring (Mansfield et al., 1975), observations of narwhal behavior will continue to be difficult to gather.
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Washington, D.C .: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. p. 227 228 , 233234, 238. Kinds Of Thesis System. Nweeia MT , Eichmiller FC , Nutarak C , Eidelman N , Giuseppetti AA , Quinn J , Mead JG , K'issuk K , Hauschka PV , Tyler EM , et al. 2012 . Vestigial tooth anatomy and tusk nomenclature for Monodon monoceros . Anat Rec 295 : 1006 1016 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 5 Ogawa T , Ishii N , Toda K , Soma K . Deep College. 2002 . Changes in of thesis, response properties of periodontal mechanoreceptors during tooth movement in rats . Writing A Compare. J Med Dent Sci 49 : 95 101 . PubMed Panopoulos P , Gazelius B , Olgart L . Kinds Of Thesis System. 1983 . Responses of feline intradental sensory nerves to hyperosmotic stimulation of dentin . Acta Odontol Scand 41 : 369 375 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 20 Papa J , Cain C , Messer HH . 1994 . Moisture content of mobile phones vital vs . endodontically treated teeth. Kinds Of Thesis. Dent Traumatol 10 : 91 93 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 80 Pashley DH . 1996 . Dynamics of the pulpo-dentin complex . Deep Springs Essays. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 7 : 104 133 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 181 Pederson A . 1931 . Mammals and birds along the east coast of Greenland. Medd.
Gronland 77:343506 (original in kinds, German). Fish Res Bd Can Transl Ser 1206: 412 417 . Perrin WF , Myrick AC, Jr. , Editors. 1980 . Age Determination of toothed whales and sirenians. International Whaling Commission, Report of the Workshop, p. 34 35 . Peterson BJ , Fry B . 1987 . Stable isotopes in ecosystem studies . Writing A Compare And Contrast For College. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18 : 293 320 . Kinds Of Thesis System. CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2560 Pischinger A , Stockinger L . 1968 . Die Nerven der menschlichen Zahnpulpa . Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie. 89 : 44 61 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of hanna wallach Science® Times Cited: 16 Porsild MP . System. 1918 . On “Savssats”: a crowding of arctic animals at make holes in the sea ice . The Geographical Review, Vol. VI, No. 3 (September) . Porsild MP . Kinds Of Thesis. 1922 . Optometry Essay. Scattered observations on the narwhal . J Mammal 3 : No. 1 , p 8 . CrossRef Ramirez F , Vanegas H . 1989 . Tooth pulp stimulation advances both medullary off-cell pause and of thesis system, tail flick . Neurosci Lett 100 : 1 3 , 153156.
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Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc., Illinois. Sergeant DE . 1959 . Age determination in make thesis, odontocete whales from dentinal growth layers . Kinds System. Norsk Hvalfangst Tid. 6 : 275 277 . Sergeant DE . 1973 . Biology of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Western Hudson Bay . J Fish Res Board Can 30 : 1070 1071 . CrossRef Silverman HB . 1979 . Social organization and behavior of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . in Lancaster Sound, Pond Inlet, and writing for college, Tremblay Sound, Northwest Territories. M.Sc. Kinds. thesis, McGill University, Montreal. Optometry Essay. Silverman HB and Dunbar MJ . 1980 . Aggressive tusk use by the Narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature 284 : 57 . CrossRef | Web of of thesis system Science® Times Cited: 43 | ADS Silverman J , Kruger L . 1987 . Hanna Wallach Thesis. An interpretation of dental innervation based on the pattern of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive thin sensory axons . Somatosensory Motor Res 5 : 157 175 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 143 Sonnini DMCNS , Buffon L . 1804 . Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des cétacés.
Paris. (Note: pages 227253 are section of interest). Spinsanti G , Panti C , Lazzeri E , Marsili L , Casini S , Frati F , Fossi CM . Kinds. 2006 . Thesis. Selection of kinds of thesis reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba ) skin biopsies . BMC Mol Biol 7 : 32 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 51 Sponheimer M , Passey BH , de Ruiter DJ , Guatelli-Steinberg D , Cerling TE , Lee-Thorp JA . Optometry. 2006 . System. Turnover of stable carbon isotopes in the muscle, liver, and breath CO 2 of alpacas ( Lama pacos ) . Rapid Commun Mass Spect 20 : 1395 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of wallach thesis Science® Times Cited: 47 Teaford MF , Ungar PS . System. 2000 . Diet and optometry essay, the evolution of the earliest human ancestors . Proc Natl Acad Sci 97 : 13506 13511 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 149 | ADS Thewissen JGM , Cooper LN , Clementz MT , Bajpai S , Tiwari BN . 2007 . Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in kinds of thesis, the Eocene epoch of India . Nature 450 : 1190 1195 . Make Thesis. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of of thesis system Science® Times Cited: 86 | ADS Tomlin AG . 1967 . Mammals of the U.S.S.R. Volume 9. Wallach. Cetacea. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translation. Tyler EM . Kinds System. 2006 . Visualization of the dental anatomy of the narwhal Monodon monoceros . A thesis submitted to the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine . p 36 . Unneberg P . 2003 . Transcript identification by analysis of short sequence tags influence of tag length, restriction site and transcript database . Nucleic Acid Res 31 : 2217 2226 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of deep springs college essays Science® Times Cited: 11 Velculescu VE , Zhang L , Vogelstein B , Kinzler KW . 1995 . Serial analysis of kinds of thesis gene expression. + Research. Science ( New York, NY ) 270 : 484 487 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 2877 Vibe C . 1950 . The marine mammals and marine fauna in of thesis, the Thule District (N.W. Greenland) with observations on ice conditions in 1939, 1940, and 1941 . Meddelelser om Grønland , 150 : 117 . Wakisaka S , Ichikawa H , Hishikawa S , Matsuo S , Takano Y , Akai M . Deep College. 1987 . The distribution and origin of caltionin gene-related peptide containing nerve fibers in kinds of thesis, the feline dental pulp . Histochemistry 86 : 585 589 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of make paper Science® Times Cited: 73 Wakisaka S . 1990 . Kinds. Neuropeptides in springs college, the dental pulp: distribution, origins and correlation . J Endod 16 : 67 69 . Of Thesis. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 37 Watanabe M , Tanaka E , Suemune S , Satoda T , Maeda N , Uchida T , Tanne K . 2003 . Expression of c-Fos protein in the trigeminal nuclear complex resulting from quantified force application to the rat molar . And The American Essay. J Oral Rehab 30 : 1128 1137 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of system Science® Times Cited: 11 Weissengruber GE , Egerbacher M , Forstenpointner G . 2005 . Structure and innervation of the make thesis tusk pulp in the African elephant . Kinds. J Anat 206 : 387 393 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Worm O . 1655 . Museum Wormianum. Seu, Historia rerum rariorum, tam naturalium, quam artificialium, tam domesticarum, quam exoticarum, quae Hafniae Danorum in aedibus authoris servantur. Make Paper Thesis. Adornata ab Olao Worm. Lugduni Batavorum, Apud Johannem elsevirium, Acad.
Typograph. Yamada M , Suzuta K , Higuchi H . 1968 . Sensitivity of the tooth to thermal stimulation . Japan J Physiol 18 : 310 325 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 9. Articles related to kinds system, the one you are viewing. 1 Robert W. Boessenecker , Danielle Fraser , Morgan Churchill , Jonathan H. Geisler , A toothless dwarf dolphin (Odontoceti: Xenorophidae) points to explosive feeding diversification of modern whales (Neoceti), Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 2017 , 284 , 1861, 20170531 CrossRef 2 E.K. Sawyer , D.K.
Sarko , Evolution of Nervous Systems, 2017 , 437 CrossRef 3 W. David Lambert , Eurybelodon shoshanii, an unusual new shovel-tusked gomphothere (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from the late Miocene of Oregon, Journal of admission Vertebrate Paleontology , 2016 , 36 , 3, e1091352 CrossRef 4 Ecology of North America, 2015 , 259 CrossRef 5 Annalisa Berta , James L. Sumich , Kit M. Kovacs , Marine Mammals, 2015 , 397 CrossRef 6 Kathryn Grandfield , Netta Lev-Tov Chattah , Sabra Djomehri , Naomi Eidelmann , Frederick C Eichmiller , Samuel Webb , P James Schuck , Martin Nweeia , Sunita P Ho , The narwhal (Monodon monoceros) cementumdentin junction: A functionally graded biointerphase, Proceedings of the Institution of of thesis Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine , 2014 , 228 , 8, 754 CrossRef. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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COLLEGE OF COMPUTER STUDIES: Capstone Projects and Thesis
Writing the of thesis The Market for 'Lemons': A Personal and Interpretive Essay. by George A. Akerlof. 2001 Laureate in Economics. I wrote The Market for 'Lemons,' (a 13-page paper for which I was awarded the Prize in Economics) during my first year as assistant professor at Berkeley, in 1966-67. * Lemons deals with a problem as old as markets themselves. It concerns how horse traders respond to the natural question: if he wants to make paper thesis sell that horse, do I really want to buy it? Such questioning is fundamental to the market for horses and used cars, but it is of thesis system, also at least minimally present in every market transaction. This is a personal story. I happened to be in springs college essays, the right place at the right time, and kinds system, therefore was extraordinarily lucky to have been able to write the first theoretical paper on this topic. But this story is more than personal since its history duplicates fractally, in college, miniature, the transition that was occurring on a macro scale in kinds system, economic theory from the 1960s to the 1990s. It also gives an example how the basic method of college economics, which is to emphasize some aspects of reality (especially transactors' attention to price) while putting blinkers on others, can leave major questions unanswered. That the question — how asymmetric information affects markets — was unanswered is just one of the ways in which I was tremendously lucky.
At the beginning of the kinds of thesis 1960s, standard microeconomic theory was overwhelmingly based upon the perfectly competitive general equilibrium model. By the 1990s the study of make thesis this model was just one branch of economic theory. Then, standard papers in economic theory were in kinds, a very different style from now, where economic models are tailored to specific markets and specific situations. In this new style, economic theory is not just the exploration of paper deviations from the single model of of thesis perfect competition. Writing A Compare Paper For College! Instead, in this new style, the economic model is customized to describe the salient features of reality that describe the special problem under consideration. Perfect competition is only one model among many, although itself an interesting special case. Since the Market for 'Lemons' was an kinds of thesis system early paper in make paper, this new style of of thesis system economics, its origins and history are a saga in that change. I received my Ph.D. from MIT in and the dream, 1966. Kinds System! I have heard this time described (mainly by MIT graduates of the time) as the hanna wallach golden years there, because of the many famous graduates. We were all good friends and there was considerable economic discussion amongst us.
I believe that there was a rather smug notion that the major economic problems had been solved, especially in macroeconomics, and maybe also in kinds system, microeconomics. Macroeconomics was by make, the neoclassical synthesis, which explained the existence of unemployment by money wages that were slow to change in response to excess demand for labor. Thus wages might be above market clearing, so that some labor would be unemployed. That left the following question unanswered: what were the kinds causes of economic growth. Two seminal papers in this field had been written by Robert Solow. Both of education and the american essay them showed that the kinds of thesis system previous view, that capital was a leading cause of economic growth, was likely to be false.
First, diminishing returns to mobile + research papers capital would eventually limit the system contribution of capital deepening to growth. (In the long run all new capital would be devoted to the equipping of thesis new entrants to of thesis the labor force, so there would be no increases in capital relative to labor.) Second, if capital and labor received their respective marginal products, then, empirically, there was a significant residual in the explanation of growth: capital could explain only a small fraction of increases in U.S. productivity. Growth theory after these two Solow articles was Galapagan, somewhere between the old economics and a new economics that has since come into being. The old economics was based on a variety of prejudices. The first of these was the primacy of the general equilibrium competitive model with complete information. That did not mean that all economists believed that this model was a particularly good description of markets and admission, how they operated, but it did give them a benchmark from which to measure the consequences of departures from of thesis, its strict assumptions. In this way economists used the competitive model as the major road map of their world. The second basic tenet of the economics of the time lay in the simplicity of the mathematics that described economics. That was all summarized in Paul Samuelson's Foundations (1947) as it could also be seen in textbooks like R.G.D.
Allen's (1938) Mathematical Analysis for Economists. This mathematics emphasized maximization of continuous differentiable functions of many variables subject to constraints. The growth theory of the time resulted in the emergence of deep springs essays a new and qualitatively different kind of kinds of thesis system modeling, with qualitatively different mathematics; but it was still accompanied by a stubbornly unchanged economics. (It was like some of those half-fish/half-lizards evoked by Charles Darwin). Such modeling emerged after Solow's two seminal articles when it was discovered that there could be a wide variety of possible growth technologies. Solow himself provided two different types: capital could be putty-putty, which meant that capital-labor ratios were just as malleable after they were installed as before, or capital could be putty-clay, where capital-labor ratios could be set at the time that capital was initially constructed, but not changed afterwards. In another variant of make a similar theme, Solow built systems in system, which new technologies could only be introduced as they were embodied in new capital.
These new systems introduced a mathematics that could deal with goods (in this case capital) that varied continuously in their quality. But Solow had only made the first beachhead in what would be modern economics. He had taken that first essential step out of the wallach thesis sea, but he failed to go further. Kinds Of Thesis System! The next step was to phones use the type of framework that he had developed to describe markets in which goods varied by quality. The development of peculiar assumptions had been particularly isolated in growth theory to the technological aspects of the problem. There was no analysis as to how different qualities of goods (in the system case of growth theory, different qualities of capital) would affect markets. Education And The Dream Essay! But the stage was set to analyze more generally the behavior of markets with many different types of product quality. Discovering Asymmetric Information. Growth theory set the kinds of thesis system stage in yet another way for the discovery of asymmetric information. It was believed that a significant part of the so-called growth residual, which is that part of growth that could not be accounted for by increases in capital or increases in hanna wallach thesis, the labor force, could be explained by the growth in education. Edward Denison's (1962) Sources of Economic Growth and the Alternatives Before Us, which followed Solow's methodology in calculation of growth residuals, made estimates of the effects of kinds of thesis increased education.
Denison used the differential in a compare paper for college, earnings of those with different schooling as a basis for kinds system, estimating how changes in education would affect productivity. But, as he acknowledged, his estimates were invariably polluted, since those with more schooling also on the average had greater natural ability, which would also contribute to their earnings. This made Theodore Schultz's (1963) The Economic Value of Education — with its exposition of the concept of human capital and its program of evaluating its returns — especially relevant. I remember in 1964-65 pondering the implications of Schultz's estimates for growth accounting. I asked myself: how could we know the extent to which returns to schooling reflected increased productivity due to education or the extent to which it merely acted as an egg-grader that sorted people into paper thesis, different ability classes. This thought, which I shared with my Prize co-recipient Joseph Stiglitz, was the of thesis initial step toward The Market for 'Lemons.'
I put this idea on optometry admission the back-burner, to be pursued in due course. It was a useful bit of structure, but how could it be applied more generally? What would constitute a paper? Perfect competition with perfect information was so useful precisely because it provided a framework for theoretical analysis: one could analyze in this framework the existence or non-existence of deviations from economic efficiency. The asymmetric information and the inefficiency of the egg-grader model of education might be interesting structure, but it would take some exploration before I could develop these thoughts into system, a useful paper. I turned my focus, instead, to the effects of asymmetric information in the automobile market. My interest in economics had always been in make paper thesis, macroeconomics.
I believed then, as I still believe today, that unemployment, with the financial hardship and of thesis system, the loss of identity that it entails, is a very major problem. This led me to essays consider the causes of the business cycle. At the time a very major factor in kinds of thesis system, the business cycle was the fluctuation in sales of new cars, leading naturally to mobile phones papers the question: why was there so much variation in new car purchases? In order to kinds of thesis system tackle this problem, I had to see why people purchased new cars, rather than rented cars, or purchased used cars. There, asymmetric information seemed to play a key role. I knew that a major reason as to why people preferred to purchase new cars rather than used cars was their suspicion of the motives of the sellers of used cars.
As mentioned earlier, this insight, of american essay course, had been central to the horse trading profession for of thesis, centuries, but I did not know that at the time either. I did not have the modeling ability to be able to american dream show what I really wanted. System! I really wanted to education and the american dream essay show that the informational advantage of kinds sellers of admission essay used cars over kinds of thesis, buyers of new cars, would force car buyers into the new car market and therefore exacerbate business-cycle fluctuations. 1 But I did see that I could give interesting examples in which the mobile papers market for used cars was diminished, possibly even to the point of kinds collapse, by the presence of asymmetric information. I also realized then that this phenomenon, which I had first perceived in the market for education, would extend to a large number of other fields as well, including insurance markets and the market for loans, where borrowers vary by risk. Indeed, I soon saw that asymmetric information was potentially an issue in any market where the quality of goods would be difficult to see by anything other than casual inspection. Rather than being a handful of markets, the exception rather than the rule, that seemed to me to include most markets. Thus the paper that I would write would give the automobile market as the example, its potential collapse as the theorem, and then I would discuss how this example would apply to essay credit and insurance. These ideas were at least somewhat well formulated at the time that I arrived at Berkeley as a new assistant professor fresh from graduate school in September 1966, and kinds of thesis, I had dinner with Tom Rothenberg, who was also new to mobile + research papers the Berkeley faculty.
Tom asked me what I was working on and I went down my list of different items. (I always keep a list of potential topics, partly because an idea is usually not useful on kinds its own, but only in deep college essays, combination with another, and also for psychological reasons, so that when one idea fails, I can turn without remorse to another). Tom tells me today that he is kinds system, quite sure that I knew that asymmetric information was at admission, the top of my agenda. I am not so sure. Of Thesis! In any case, he thought that the idea was quite intriguing and encouraged me to pursue it. Mobile Phones + Research! With today's customs, Tom and I would have agreed to work together on kinds this, and make paper thesis, it would probably have been a better paper if he had.
In any case, I wrote my first draft, with the example that the market for used cars would collapse. My style of proof came from mathematics (specifically, from topology). Tom assured me that this style would be a hard sell to economists. He suggested that I should present it in more palatable terms, which would involve deriving the of thesis supply for used cars by owners and the demand by potential buyers, and showing that the only equilibrium of this market would involve no trade at all — indeed a market collapse. Writing And Contrast For College! I followed his advice. By June of 1967 the paper was ready and I sent it to The American Economic Review for publication. I was spending the academic year 1967-68 in India.
Fairly shortly into of thesis system, my stay there, I received my first rejection letter from The American Economic Review. Make Paper Thesis! The editor explained that the Review did not publish papers on subjects of such triviality. In a case, perhaps, of life reproducing art, no referee reports were included. Michael Farrell, an editor of system The Review of Economic Studies, had visited Berkeley in 1966-67, and had urged me to submit Lemons to The Review, but he had also been quite explicit in giving no guarantees. I submitted Lemons there, which was again rejected on the grounds that the The Review did not publish papers on topics of such triviality. The next rejection was more interesting. I sent Lemons to the Journal of Political Economy, which sent me two referee reports, carefully argued as to why I was incorrect. After all, eggs of different grades were sorted and sold (I do not believe that this is just my memory confusing it with my original perception of the egg-grader model), as were other agricultural commodities. If this paper was correct, then no goods could be traded (an exaggeration of the claims of the paper). Admission Essay! Besides — and this was the of thesis system killer — if this paper was correct, economics would be different.
I may have despaired, but I did not give up. Mobile Phones + Research! I sent the paper off to the Quarterly Journal of Economics, where it was accepted. Copyright Quarterly Journal of Economics. I had had such a hard time getting this article published, that I was quite surprised, on system a trip to England in the fall of 1973, to discover that, not only education, had it been read, but even with considerable enthusiasm. Since that time many scholars have fleshed out the implications of of thesis system asymmetric information and its role in markets, especially Michael Spence and Joseph Stiglitz. I close with three lessons that might be drawn from education american dream essay, my tale. First, Lemons was much less of a break with the economics of the time than might otherwise be interpreted. It was the natural extension of the kinds system on-going intellectual activity at MIT. (I used the analogy of the Galapagan lizards advisedly.) Second, many people were tremendously generous at optometry admission, all stages, in the writing, editing, and refereeing of this paper, 2 and of thesis, also later, in exploring its further implications — thus illustrating the extraordinary commitment of academics in general, and of economists in particular, to seek truth and to advance knowledge. Finally, economics is a powerful tool, but like a microscope, it focuses attention on some aspects of reality (especially the role of prices in markets), while it also diverts attention from other aspects. The economists of the paper time felt that it would violate their methodology to consider a problem, such as the kinds system role of asymmetric information, that was out of its traditional focus.
There are still important areas of economics that are all but uncharted because of this limited focus. It is consistent with this interpretation that Daniel Kahneman, a leader in hanna wallach, changing the focus of economics and one of last year's prize winners, is not only a trained psychologist, but also, has special expertise in human optical illusion. * Akerlof, George A., The Market for of thesis system, 'Lemons': Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism. Quarterly Journal of optometry admission essay Economics, 84(3), pp. System! 488-500, 1970. Allen, R.G.D., Mathematical Analysis for Economists. Macmillan: London, 1938.
Denison, Edward F., The Sources of Economic Growth and the Alternatives Before Us. Supplementary Paper No. 13. The Committee for Economic Development: New York, 1962. Mishkin, Frederic S. Illiquidity, Consumer Durable Expenditure, and writing and contrast, Monetary Policy. American Economic Review, 66(4), pp. 642-54, 1976. Samuelson, Paul A., Foundations of Economic Analysis. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, 1938. Schultz, Theodore W., The Economic Value of Education.
Columbia University Press: New York, 1963. 1. Of Thesis System! Rick Mishkin (1976) later developed this argument. 2. Including those editors and referees who rejected, rather than accepted. Professor Akerlof has graciously provided the photographs of himself appearing in this essay. - Editor. First published 14 November 2003. MLA style: Writing the The Market for #039;Lemons#039;: A Personal Interpretive Essay. Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 3 Oct 2017. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/2001/akerlof-article.html
Find out if all countries in the world gain on trading. All you want to know about the Prize in Economic Sciences! This Prize was established in wallach, memory of Alfred Nobel.
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A Complete Guide to Hobbies in Your Resume: 8 Principles #038; 11 Mistakes. How Many Pages Should My Resume Be and 12 Principles Behind That - 18. December 2014. 24 Crucial Tips for kinds Work Experience Resume Section - 3. February 2015. Famous Last Words of a Resume: References Available upon Request - 2. March 2015. “I was on optometry admission essay, that ship when I was 15, so I’ll put that in a resume. I bet they’re going to ask me about sailing on an interview. Touche!
A point for me already. What else, let me see… Ah, yes, I went up that hill once. Mountain climbing it is. In the end, I’m going to write about these travels and kinds system reading things. Everybody loves that.
There you go! A perfect resume!” Did your chain of education dream essay thought ever go down that alley or somewhere similar? Come on, admit it. Yup, I can see that smile at the end of your lips. Ok, don’t be ashamed, the Hobbies and Interests section is by far the kinds of thesis system, most controversial and most polarized topic in the world of resume writing. Mobile. One group of authors claim that you should include hobbies, the other one is strictly against it. So, what are you going to do? How to kinds system know who’s right? Are your years of playing chess or thousands of collected stamps all in vain when it comes to your resume?
Let’s find out. So, Should You Include Hobbies or Not? It depends on who you ask. Talking with recruiters of all kinds I found out that they rarely care about admission your favorite pastime and interests. Their job is to find a candidate that will know how to do the job for the employer. They are not a part of the company and can’t really feel the company’s culture. This is how some recruiters look at your Hobbies section. So, regarding that, recruiters can’t know if you will fit in kinds of thesis system or not within corporate culture of a given employer no matter how much personality messages you convey to them. That’s why they usually don’t care for your hobbies. On the other side are hiring managers and HR people from admission within a company. They are insiders and, besides your technical skills, they want to kinds system know who you are and will you be a valuable part of hanna wallach thesis their internal community.
That’s why they are much more interested to find out what kind of a person you are. For example, if your skills check all required boxes but you’re shortlisted with another candidate who is system, more or less similarly qualified, the fact that you’re a squash addict may be crucial if a hiring manager also plays squash. There’s no general consensus on whether you should include your hobbies in a resume or not. However, it’s important to notice that no recruiter or hiring manager will see that part of deep essays your resume as something negative. In the worst case scenario they will not care and skip it altogether. In the kinds system, best case, they’ll be thrilled with your interests and it’ll come up in the interview and optometry give you a chance to impress the interviewer a little bit more. Besides, hobbies in a resume could produce a couple of benefits for you: It’s a chance for your resume to kinds of thesis system stand out, if you execute Hobbies section properly.
You have to stand out. Just make sure it#8217;s in a proper way. It can further illustrate your skills. If you list your hobbies and interests in a right way, it’ll pop up in the interview for sure. Besides the hanna thesis, fact that it’s a conversation starter and kinds system ice breaker, it gives you a further chance to connect to an interviewer and optometry admission leave a lasting positive impression. If somebody’s going to spend 40 hours with you per week, they will for sure look for candidates that have a life besides a job. It’s just common sense. Nobody can socialize with a robot. System. So, if you’ve got nothing to wallach lose and have room for that section in your resume, I don’t see why you shouldn’t include it.
Principles of Including Hobbies into Your Resume. If you decided to give your resume a human touch and try to express your personality through Hobbies section, there are some rules you must obey in order to convey the right message. As with everything resume related, it’s all in details. Let’s see the main principles of including hobbies into of thesis system, your resume: List down only relevant hobbies – When crafting your resume, you always have to think how any detail that you add provides additional value to the message you’re trying to convey. It’s completely the same with hobbies. If you want to add a Hobbies section, be sure that you’re going to list only hobbies that can illustrate a skill or an attribute required in the job advertisement. For example, collecting coins means little for a job of a truck driver. On the springs, other side, collector’s mindset can be easily utilized and of thesis system connected for the job in wallach thesis a comic shop.
Remember, you need to translate your hobbies into skills. Otherwise, the value of this section of a resume will drop significantly and kinds of thesis system it can be utilized only as a conversation starter. Customize – As with any part of make paper a resume, Hobbies need customization for every separate job application. You will definitely write about of thesis your weekly football session when applying for a job that needs a strong team involvement. Thesis. However, if you’re applying for a librarian position, football doesn’t play a big role. Be specific – If you list music as one of your occupations outside a job, you’ll fall into system, just 97% of other candidates. Everybody listens to education american dream essay music. From prehistoric tribal trance magic rituals till now. Got it? You need to differentiate yourself and to of thesis system list specific genre or an wallach, author.
Just then it puts some light to your personality. Be unique – The purpose of the whole resume is to explain to a recruiter or a hiring manager why to call you and kinds of thesis not someone else for an interview. If your resume is the same as hundreds of others, there’s simply no reason to end up in the “call for deep springs college essays an interview” pile. This applies to hobbies also. Try to present your leisure occupation as something unique and interesting. It will serve the purpose of making yourself memorable. Be relatable – Humans are social beings. They like to socialize and to exchange experiences with each other. Kinds Of Thesis. In order to achieve this level of deep springs college connection with a recruiter, your hobbies need to be something that he or she can find themselves in. For example, if you do a little research on your recruiter and find out system that he’s avid fan of papers fishing, it won’t do harm to your application if you mention that you like weekend sessions of fishing with your friends.
Of course, don’t even think of making thins up. Above all, stay honest. Just align your hobbies a little. Quantify achievements in hobbies – This is absolutely the same advice as you’ll get for your work experience. In order to of thesis illustrate how your interests support work related skills, list some of the hanna wallach, achievements you accomplished in your hobbies. Also, express them in numbers (percentages, amounts of kinds system money etc). By doing this you’ll show commitment and excellence in your side activities.
Every positive information counts and could contribute to your self-branding. Quantify your achievements in hobbies as you would in professional experience section. Paper Thesis. Align with company’s values – Do your homework properly. Kinds Of Thesis System. Find out essay what are the of thesis, basic values the company you’re applying to is built on and align your hobbies to essays that. It’s always useful for a hiring manager to know that future employer is already in the same line with the company. Include hobbies that represent variety of of thesis system characteristics – While overdoing this can be counterproductive, always have in mind that this section of your resume is there to hanna show the of thesis system, employer that you’re a well rounded person who has life outside of work.
If you talk only about basketball, for springs college essays example, in kinds system this part, you’ll present yourself as a one-dimensional character. Common Mistakes in Listing Hobbies in a Resume. If you decide to put hobbies in your resume, you need to do it properly. By my free judgment, 60-90% of resumes fail to comply with this. That’s good news for you. If you read and apply what you read here, your resume will automatically be in a top tier. So, without further delay, let’s see what you shouldn’t do with hobbies section in your resume: Do not call that section Hobbies, Interests, Leisure or something like that Sounds a little bit contradictory but always have in phones + research mind that your resume is, after all, a marketing brochure about your professional skills and capabilities. Kinds. Terms hobbies or leisure are not very connectable to the previous statement. Deep Springs Essays. So, name that section of kinds of thesis system your resume Additional Activities and you’ll be on a safe side. Work? Oh, yes, I like to work too.
Don’t lie – Have you ever thought that listing underwater photography or something like that would be an immediate ice breaker in an interview? Or you saw that your friend has running in thesis his interest section? Wouldn’t it be nice if you could write the of thesis system, same? Why wouldn’t you, how could the interviewer know? DON’T DO THAT. Imagine your interviewer is a passionate lover of underwater photography and and the american dream essay sends a couple of technical questions about it your way. Kinds Of Thesis System. How embarrassing would that be? Not to optometry admission essay mention that you would never get a job. Don’t be weird – Remember when I told you to be unique in kinds system the previous paragraph? Be careful with that. If your uniqueness means that you like to tattoo cats or to watch only horror movies with lots of blood, just skip it.
You don’t want to make paper thesis be seen as a weirdo, no matter how much you enjoy your pastime. Don’t be generic – On the kinds of thesis, other side, if you write that you enjoy traveling, music and reading, guess what? It’s better to leave it out of your resume. It’s directly opposite to mobile + research the principle of being specific in your hobbies section. Too much space – Always remember that your resume is a document about your professional capabilities. Half a page about hobbies on a one -page resume definitely doesn’t support your professionalism. Kinds Of Thesis. Be sure to essay stay concise, as you should be in the whole resume, by kinds the way. Just listed without explanation – On the other side of the previous mistake is just listing your hobbies and end there.
By doing this, you’re losing an opportunity to college essays show why your hobbies are important for this job and you’re neglecting the of thesis system, whole purpose of the section. Politics and american religion – These are really delicate and of thesis sensitive topics and it’s better to stay away from them. Unless you’re applying for a position in a political or religious institution, mentioning these in a resume is subject to possible discrimination law issues. Some recruiters and hiring managers tend to admission essay neglect these resumes completely, just to stay on a safe side. Polarizing topics – Topics as hunting, LGBT activism, weapons etc. are polarizing in general. You just don’t want to system risk finding out that the reviewer of your resume doesn’t share your opinion on the subject. Possible bad implications heavily outweigh positive aspects of mentioning these in your resume.
Just leave this out. Jargon – Depending on your hobby, there’s possibility that the + research, community around that activity uses a specific jargon. Since recruiters and hiring managers don’t have to know what it means, write in kinds plain language without jargon. It’s always better to phones papers explain something in person then to be misunderstood and never have the chance to land an interview. Too many hobbies listed – In the end, one of the most common mistakes.
Optimal number of hobbies that should be listed in your Additional Activities section is three to four. Everything over that gives a bigger emphasis on the section than it should. Remember, a resume is a professional document, after all. Kinds System. Listing risky activities – As much mountain climbing or sky- diving might look as an interesting hobby, try to hanna wallach leave that and other similar activities out of your resume. Your employer needs a healthy and of thesis system fit employee, not someone who can be injured half the time. Papers. You just don’t need to risk that kind of opinion on kinds system, you. I do this only in make the morning. In the afternoon I wrestle with tigers. Kinds Of Thesis System. Types of Hobbies to Include and What They Show. Ok, now you know how to include hobbies and college what not to do while including them. Kinds Of Thesis. It’s very important to align the message you’re trying to thesis convey with the job requirements you’re applying for.
Let’s see which hobbies send which kind of kinds system message to a prospective employer. Sports – In general, sports are treated very positively by employers. Essay. There are two main groups of sports that you need to kinds of thesis system emphasize: a) Team sports This is a very valuable hobby to list since it shows that you can function as a part of a team. It’s not important if it is american, basketball, football or any other team sport as long as it requires team involvement and coordination with other members. Kinds. It also shows your determination and commitment which are also very desirable attributes on all levels.
Be sure to mention any achievements you accomplished in team sports. Mobile Papers. b) Endurance sports – If you like to run, cycle, swim etc. don’t miss the opportunity to show that to your future employer. It shows that you possess determination and an inner drive which is larger then average. Very important for different kind of jobs. Sports? Damn it, I#8217;m a pro! Strategy games – Games like chess, go, backgammon etc. show your strategic way of thinking and kinds of thesis system your ability to see a larger picture. This is american, crucial for kinds of thesis system some positions placed higher in a hierarchical structure. Besides, hours of uninterrupted thinking about wallach your next move show a high level of kinds system concentration which can be very important for some other roles. Mobile Phones + Research Papers. Community activities – Any kind of system volunteering, community work or local council involvement are very precious for your resume. Essay. These kinds of activities show a wide palette of kinds skills including (but not limiting to) great communication abilities, excellent organizational skills and high level of optometry admission compassion.
These are all very welcomed abilities in every organization in almost every imaginable role. Social activities – When I say social, it doesn’t mean hanging out in a pub, drinking beer after beer. Ok, I mean that too, but you don’t want to emphasize that in your resume. What you want to stress out is a club membership, being part of kinds of thesis a band or a choir or any other group activity you participate in. That’s very important in illustration of your interpersonal, people skills. It shows that you function well in a group, which is a must for majority of jobs. Traveling – Be very careful when including this interest because you don’t want to send a message that you’re going to require a frequent Fridays and Mondays off because of your passion for long weekends in Europe. You need to explain how all of your travels gave you appreciation for other cultures and broaden your horizons. Deep Springs College. This works very well in of thesis system multicultural organizations. Reading – Reading is important, everybody knows that. That’s why everybody includes it into optometry essay, hobbies resume section.
If you want to stand out from the crowd, mention favorite genre, author etc. that you like to kinds of thesis system read. Remember, if something is generic, you need to be specific and to go into details to mobile + research differ from the rest of candidates. Of Thesis. Reading time. Creative activities – Activities like blogging, coding, painting, acting, photographing are a great showcase of your creativity. Listing one of these in your Additional interest section tells much more about your creativity than just simply writing “creative” somewhere in make thesis a resume. By the way, creativity is not desirable only for creative professions. It’s a crucial attribute for employees in general. It can help in solving day to day problems in an out-of-the-box way. Unusual – Listing unusual hobbies or activities you participate in could be a great way to stand out from the sea of other candidates. Just be sure not to write something weird which will induce recruiter’s negative feelings.
After you decided to include hobbies into your resume and which ones you are going to include, it’s time to deal with formatting of this part of your resume. Remember, all is in system details. That’s why you should be careful with listing your hobbies. Simply naming your interest in a bulleted list or, God forbid, a sentence won’t do it. Remember, your Additional activities section is education and the, there to support everything previously told in your resume. So, instead of just listing it, provide some details which will illustrate skills desired for the position. For example, blogging is fine but you should expand on that and of thesis write something like “successfully blogging for 3 years with a special emphasis on social media promotion of education american essay my blog which resulted in kinds xxx newsletter subscribers, yyy Facebook likes and zzz Twitter followers”. As in work experience section, everything is in a compare for college achievements and documented success of your activities.
We mentioned before that the final decision whether you should include hobbies into your resume or not is on you, after reading all data presented here. However, there are some categories of applicants that need to include hobbies more than others. On the other side, there are candidates whose hobbies absolutely don’t have a place in of thesis system their resumes. Let’s see both categories. Graduates and mobile phones papers undergraduates – When you’ve got no real work experience, every bit of information could be critical for your application. In that light, listing hobbies in your resume could be make it or break it for that internship or a job. Kinds System. Be sure to follow aforementioned rules.
Applicants for a job directly related to their hobbies – For example, if you blog frequently about and the current events in politics and you’re applying for a role of a journalist in a daily newspaper, this hobby could be even more important than your work experience. System. Applicants without proper experience – Same as with graduates, if you’re lacking experience, any information could be crucial. That includes hobbies as well. Who doesn’t need it: Very experienced applicants – If you’ve got enormous experience related to mobile + research papers the job you applied for, listing hobbies may seem unprofessional in a highly professional resume. Executives and other high management roles – If you’re applying for such an important function, leave hobbies out. It is important to be seen as a human being, but not even close as it’s to be seen as a perfect manager for that role. Hobby? I don#8217;t need a hobby.
Applicants who’s resumes are too long – If your resume is longer than two pages (there are exceptions, read about them in this comprehensive article on resume length), you definitely need to trim it down. Hobbies are the least important part of a resume, so guess who’s leaving the party? Applicants without hobbies – Don’t lie. I repeat, don’t lie. If you don’t have a hobby or some activity other than your work in which you’re investing a significant part of your time, ditch hobbies out of your resume. Of Thesis System. Not having hobbies listed is not a big deal, getting caught in a lie during the interview is. Admission. Now you’ve got all the relevant information on including hobbies into your resume. Always have in mind that you most probably won’t land an system, interview based on hobbies alone, but don’t neglect them if you’ve got relevant info to share with recruiters. It won’t do you any harm, that’s for sure. However, it’s always better to “prove” that you’re a team player by listing regular weekend football match with your friends then to simply write “team player” in phones + research papers your skills or some other section. If you’re short on space on your resume, don’t think twice, hobbies are going down first.
Nevertheless, if you’ve got the space and a relevant activity to show, be sure to list it as it will present you as a well-rounded human being, rather then robotic employee. That’s something of value. Kinds. Give me your thoughts on hobbies in a resume. What are your experiences? Do you list them in your resume? If you’re a recruiter or a hiring manager, how much do you take notice of hobbies in a resume?
Comments section is make, right below. Good luck with your job search! If you liked this post, sign up for Epic CV Newsletter to kinds system receive articles like this one right into your inbox . 24 Crucial Tips for Work Experience Resume Section. Famous Last Words of a Resume: References Available upon Request. Danger! Danger! Your Resume Summary Makes You Look Boring. New pieces of papers knowledge about your resume/CV directly in your inbox Infographics Free PDFs of our articles.
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Professor Johansen ENG 105 27 March 2015 Climate Change: Plastic Pollution Of the writing, 32 million tons of plastic . produced annually, only system, 9% of plastics are recycled globally. The question then becomes, where does all this plastic end up? The answer is our oceans. The United Nations has noted that there is an estimated 50,000 pieces of plastic in every square mile of the ocean (United Nations). Charles Moore first discovered plastic pollution in the ocean in 1997. Unlike the optometry admission, commonly believed fully covered. Atlantic Ocean , Fish , Great Pacific Garbage Patch 1006 Words | 5 Pages. Pollution: Polymer and Plastic Free Zone. * PLASTIC POLLUTION | | 0.0 (0) | Written by rashmi October 06, 2010 Hits: 368 0 Cash Credits: . 25.00 Editor: Deepti The pollution that is caused by kinds system organic polymer materials such as plastic on the environment thereby having harmful effect on human being is known as plastic pollution . Plastic mainly can be divided in two broader classifications namely. * Thermoplastics * Thermosetting plastics Both these varieties of plastics are not biodegradable that cannot. Plastic , Pollution , Polyethylene 804 Words | 3 Pages. ?OCEAN PLASTICS POLLUTION : A GLOBAL TRAGEDY FOR OUR OCEANS AND SEA LIFE Plastic never goes away.
And it’s . increasingly finding its way into our oceans and onto our beaches. And Contrast. In the Los Angeles area alone, 10 metric tons of kinds of thesis system, plastic fragments — like grocery bags, straws and deep springs college soda bottles — are carried into the Pacific Ocean every day. Today billions of pounds of plastic can be found in swirling convergences making up about 40 percent of the world’s ocean surfaces. Kinds System. Plastics pollution has a direct. Atlantic Ocean , Great Pacific Garbage Patch , Marine debris 1246 Words | 2 Pages. ?Cleaning up the plastic soup is a mission impossible The world population continues to grow. This is thesis a reason why the consumption of kinds of thesis, goods . increases and therefore the mobile phones + research, demand for plastic . Of Thesis System. The latter results in a greater pollution consist of american dream essay, 75 percent of plastic . The amounts of plastic waste end up largely in rivers that flow again to oceans and seas. The quantity of plastic that finally floats in oceans is called the plastic soup.
In order to maintain a responsible ecosystem, we should decrease. Great Pacific Garbage Patch , Marine biology , Marine debris 1224 Words | 2 Pages. Air pollution has become a major problem in the United States. The agricultural industry must help maintain air quality. By doing that the . Of Thesis. United States has started trying to make machines that will help reduce the pollution in the air which will help the environment. Hanna. One way the United States has tried stopping air pollution and that is to create a solar powered machine which decreases air pollution . But also there are some ways that the people of the United States can help stop air pollution . . Air pollution , Carbon dioxide , Environmentalism 900 Words | 3 Pages. The problem of air pollution in our society is best understood within the context of kinds of thesis system, Sean Lynn-Jones' and Steven Miller's book Global Dangers: . Mobile Phones + Research. Changing Dimensions of International Security. (Lynn-Jones and kinds Miller) In this collection of essays , it becomes clear that the deep springs, threat to the environment poses the greatest danger to the international community today. This is precisely why environmental security must now become the most important objective of kinds, all nations. Global Dangers reveals that, with the. Air pollution , Environment , Environmental science 1443 Words | 4 Pages. The haze is at constant phenomenon faced by Malaysia.
The haze is basically pollution of wallach, atmosphere, which is clogged with pollutants and other . substances from kinds of thesis system forest fires. The haze is direct effect of deep springs essays, forest fire in Kalimantan due to slash and burn method of kinds of thesis system, farming. The Indonesian authorities appear to have no power to control farmers from american dream practicing by most Malaysian. Kinds System. Open-field burning of paper thesis, rice straw by the rice planters and open burning of dried leaves and garbage done by kinds of thesis system the public are a few. Air pollution , Bibliography , Citation 537 Words | 3 Pages. Research Paper 16 April 2012 Essay III How Plastic Pollution is Out of Control Many individuals . underestimate the amount of plastic we use each day. According to the article “ Plastic Bags Wars”, “the world consumes 1 million plastic shopping bags every minute”. Plastic bags, along with many other types of plastics , have become a leading source of pollution worldwide (Doucette). Optometry. Captain Charles Moore, founder of the Algalita foundation states that we use two million plastic bottles in the United States.
Great Pacific Garbage Patch , Marine biology , Marine debris 2651 Words | 8 Pages. 4 January 2013 Plastics in Modern Society: Excess without Excuse All around us is plastic , and kinds system it plays a major part . in education american dream our society. Historically, the advent of plastic has coincided with significant advancements in society: modern means plastic . For example, it’s an essential component in kinds system computers, cars, planes, technology and medicine; they all rely heavily on plastic usage. Plastic is really beneficial to our society, but it is not beneficial to wallach our eco-system that is of thesis system slowly dying. Bisphenol A , Great Pacific Garbage Patch , Pacific Ocean 2065 Words | 6 Pages. Air Pollution Earth is the only place in the universe that can support human life. It is and the dream essay very important that we realize this fact . and take very good care of it. Various human activities cause the kinds of thesis system, destruction of earth. Human beings can live a few days without food and water however humans can last only deep college essays, a few seconds without oxygen. Various human activities lead to the aggravation of the quality of air. . Air pollution , Carbon dioxide , Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 1775 Words | 6 Pages.
perfectly maintained. Then why do we fail to keep our environment clean; maintenance of which is far more vital as compared to of thesis our home? The term . pollution means addition of mobile phones, any substance which alters the quality of the environment. Substances which cause pollution or alter the natural quality of the kinds of thesis, air, water and soil are called pollutants. Hence, pollution may be defined as the ‘contamination of the environment that causes harm to the health and survival of wallach, humans and other living organisms’. Kinds System. Therefore. Acid rain , Air pollution , Marine pollution 1523 Words | 5 Pages.
? Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the . Paper Thesis. form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the system, components of mobile phones + research, pollution , can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. TYPES OF POLLUTION Water Pollution As the kinds system, name suggests, “Water Pollution ” is the + research papers, type of pollution that involves the kinds of thesis system, contamination of various water bodies. Optometry Essay. Various aquatic creatures. Atomic bombings of of thesis system, Hiroshima and optometry admission essay Nagasaki , Nitrogen , Nuclear fission 750 Words | 3 Pages. Pollution Pollution is the addition to the ecosystem of someting which has a detrimental effect on of thesis system, it. One of the most important . causes of pollution is the high rate of optometry essay, energy usage by modern, growing populations. Different kinds of pollution are found. In this section we will discuss: 1. Air Pollution . 2. Of Thesis. Water Pollution . 3. Land Pollution . Air Pollution Air pollution is the accumulation in the atmosphere of substances that, in writing for college sufficient concentrations, endanger human health or. Acid rain , Air pollution , Oxygen 798 Words | 3 Pages.
Index Page Subtitle Pictures/ tables 2 What is pollution Pic 1 3-4 Water pollution Pic 2 5 Major water pollutants . Table 20-1 6-7 Solutions Pic 3 8 Air pollution Pic4 Table 2 9 The green house effect Pic 4 10 Land pollution Pic 4 Pic 5 / table 3 11 Conclusion 12 References What is pollution ? the contamination of of thesis system, air, water, or soil by substances that are harmful to living organisms. Pollution can occur naturally, for writing a compare and contrast for college example through volcanic eruptions. Acid rain , Air pollution , Oxygen 1093 Words | 6 Pages. POLLUTION Pollution is when something is added to the environment that is harmful or poisonous to people, animals and kinds of thesis system other . living things.in other words pollution is the contamination of the environment. Pollutants The agents or substances that cause pollution are called the pollutants. The major pollutants are sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, suspended particulate matter, smog, ozone, carbon monoxide etc.. There are two types of education and the american, pollution they are man-made pollution and natural pollution. Acid rain , Air pollution , Light pollution 1704 Words | 6 Pages.
?http://eschooltoday.com/ pollution /noise- pollution /sources-of-noise-pollution.html Environmental pollution is one . of the biggest problems the world faces today. It is an issue that troubles us economically, physically and everyday of our lives. Of Thesis System. The contamination of the optometry, environment is also being linked to some of the diseases that are around currently. Yet, most people do not know about this problem. This shows that environmental pollution is becoming an increasingly worse problem that needs to be. Oxygen , Pollution 1836 Words | 5 Pages. to face numerous serious problems associated with pollution . Pollution including air and water pollution may be . defined as the of thesis, result of human activities and natural factors has impacted on human health as well as environments (Wikipedia, 2010). This essay will discuss the a compare and contrast paper, rapid increasing pollution levels in the three cities of Bangkok, Bangladesh and Melbourne and analyze the kinds system, approaches related to dream essay the strategies of government to alleviate pollution . It will then present the actions and cooperation. Air pollution , Automobile , Developed country 817 Words | 3 Pages. Nowadays, the matter of the effect of plastic bags on of thesis, living environment is becoming more and thesis more serious. This problem seems to be rise with . the growth of population, development of industry and system causes many damages to our environment.
This essay will investigate the following problem in two aspects: the first is plastic bags can be harmful with the wildlife by killing animals and wallach non-biodegradable, the of thesis, second is admission they may turn into of thesis a prime reason for pollution because of their prerequisites to produce. Air pollution , Environmental movement , Environmentalism 1065 Words | 3 Pages. ?Marine Pollution Marine pollution has become a major global issue. It is now becoming a serious concern that the ocean will no . longer be a safe place for make thesis marine life and humans. There is a growing concern that pollution causes serious problems nowadays particularly health problems. This essay will argue that marine pollution should be addressed immediately. Firstly, the causes and the effects will be discussed, and some solutions to of thesis hoe marine pollution can be reduced. To begin with, marine pollution. Aquatic ecosystem , Arctic Ocean , Marine biology 922 Words | 3 Pages. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change.
Pollution can take the . form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the thesis, components of system, pollution , can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is writing often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution . Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from the prehistoric times when man created. Air pollution , Carbon dioxide , Global warming 886 Words | 3 Pages. Pollution is the introduction of kinds of thesis system, contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Hanna Wallach. Pollution can take the form . of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light.
Pollutants, the components of pollution , can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution . There are 6 (six) types of pollution that are going to be discussed in this site, namely air, water, noise, land. Environmental science , Marine pollution , Nuclear power 1330 Words | 5 Pages. ?WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION ? The most appropriate definition of kinds, environmental pollution would be the american essay, introduction of system, . different harmful pollutants into certain environment that make this environment unhealthy to live in. Education And The American Dream Essay. The most common pollutants are usually chemicals, garbage, and waste water. Environmental pollution is kinds happening in many parts of the world, especially in make form of air and water pollution . The best example for air pollution are some of China's cities, including capital Beijing. Air pollution , Environmentalism , Hazardous waste 1738 Words | 6 Pages. needs, but not every man's greed.” ? Mahatma Gandhi “Nature is not a place to visit.
It is system home.” ? Gary Snyder “Destroying rainforest for economic gain is . like burning a Renaissance painting to cook a meal.” ? Edward O. Wilson There's so much pollution in the air now that if it weren't for our lungs there'd be no place to put it all. Robert Orben Don't blow it - good planets are hard to find. Quoted in Time We never know the worth of water till the well is admission dry. Thomas Fuller, Gnomologia. Air pollution , Light pollution , Marine pollution 1666 Words | 7 Pages. Refuse single-use and disposable plastics The facts Plastic is forever Plastic creates toxic . pollution at every stage of its existence: manufacture, use, and disposal. Plastic is kinds of thesis system a material that the Earth cannot digest. Every bit of plastic that has ever been created still exists, including the and contrast, small amount that has been incinerated and has become toxic particulate matter. Of Thesis. Plastic poisons our food chain In the environment, plastic breaks down into small particles that attract toxic chemicals. Air pollution , Environmentalism , Incineration 346 Words | 2 Pages.
beach do you notice the plastic in deep springs college the water or on the sand? Do you ever think that something should be done about this? Plastic . pollution is something that’s hurting the environment and is growing more and more every year. Kinds System. Plastic pollution is caused by people using the ocean as a trash can. People are careless and would rather litter than throw the pastic bag away or recycle it. Convinenece to admission essay people is kinds system better for them than the essay, environment. Kinds Of Thesis System. Throughout the years the pollution has gotten worse. Make. In the. Human , Marine biology , Ocean 813 Words | 2 Pages. Marine Pollution Marine Pollution is a major problem that is among issues of discussions around the world today.
There is an of thesis system . American Dream Essay. increasing awareness made, especially across the Asia and pacific region these days. This problem is a major concern because the marine environment is a dumping ground of unwanted waste materials. This has initiated dialogue to system mobilize careful considerations in strategies of overcoming this problem. This essay will argue that marine pollution should be addressed immediately. Atlantic Ocean , Earth , Ocean 1001 Words | 3 Pages. ?PART B – Case Study Pollution is thesis a predominant issue that the world faces every day. Pollution is the release of harmful . substances or products into the environment. This essay will cover the topics of why polluters should pay the price for kinds of thesis system polluting, market failure in education essay relation to polluted stormwater, the of thesis, affects of pollution on the economy, local households contributing to stormwater pollution , the hanna, carbon tax is only for of thesis big polluters, the negative externalities, the marginal-cost and marginal-benefit. Cost , Economics , Environmental economics 2084 Words | 6 Pages. Exploratory Essay on Plastic Bag Ban. ? Exploratory Essay Since the last decade there has been a push on society, in the United States and and the elsewhere, to recycle, reduce and kinds system . Paper For College. reuse.
One resource that is used thousands times a day and billion times a year is the plastic bag. Yes the plastic bag, the one that is at grocery stores, clothing stores and even restaurants. Several cities have even started to system implement to some degree the thesis, plastic bag ban into their cities meaning the kinds of thesis, bags are banned from that city or there is a fine/ tax to. Bag-In-Box , Dallas , Downtown Dallas 1239 Words | 3 Pages. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to deep theecosystem i.e. Of Thesis System. . Phones Papers. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light.
Pollutants, the elements of pollution , can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Indoor amp; Outdoor Air Pollution . Acid rain , Air pollution , Air Quality Index 2147 Words | 6 Pages. A plastic shopping bag, the most known used product discovered by man. Data released by the United States Environmental Protection Agency shows . that somewhere between 500 billion and 1 trillion plastic bags are consumed worldwide each year (National Geographic News, 2006). Of Thesis. As the a compare and contrast paper, number of usage increases, the kinds of thesis system, rate of admission, plastic pollution grows eventually to be an kinds immeasurable environmental obstacle that is wallach difficult to control. Kinds Of Thesis. This essay will unfold the make paper, case of plastic bags to identify the kinds of thesis system, outcomes.
Bag-In-Box , Plastic bag , Plastic shopping bag 1099 Words | 3 Pages. What will the effects be if we don't stop plastic pollution in our oceans? Question: What effects will we see in make paper thesis the future if plastic pollution in our oceans does not stop? ABSTRACT . Plastic Pollution has become a global issue in of thesis system our oceans. Although we hear about phones papers, this from time to kinds system time the problem has grown tremendously beyond our knowledge. There are a growing number of wallach, animals dying each day due to plastic particles that either get stuck around their head, or that they swallow. If we do not stop plastic pollution in our oceans the ocean will eventually lose its habitats.
Atlantic Ocean , Fish , Marine biology 979 Words | 3 Pages. 2009 Research Project Air Pollution The average person breathes about three thousand gallons of air per day. Imagine if that air was . dirty? Most of us take for granted the air we breathe, and don’t even realize that we are breathing in toxins. Kinds Of Thesis System. Most of us aren’t even aware of how polluted the air is and wallach thesis how unhealthy it can be for the average person to breathe it in. It can make breathing difficult for of thesis system some people and it affects all living things. Air pollution is a major problem in admission essay the world. Acid rain , Air pollution , Cruise ship pollution 1144 Words | 4 Pages. CASE STUDY ON POLLUTION IN VELLORE: SOURCES AND MEASURES TO CHECK IT.
SOURCES AND METHODS TO REDUCE . POLLUTION IN VELLORE Shraddha Sahu and of thesis system Akshay Ahuja B.tech- Electronics and communication Engg., SENSE, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, Tamil Nadu – 632014 Email id- firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT: Vellore, also known as ‘fort city’ and a historical destination in southernmost India , is one of the. Environmentalism , Pollution , Recycling 1487 Words | 5 Pages. Title : AIR POLUTION Air Pollution is essay anything that goes into the air that is kinds system harmful. Writing And Contrast. Most air pollution is manmade. The . largest contributor to kinds of thesis air pollution is the burning of paper thesis, fossil fuels such as gas and coal.
Air pollution can also be said is the kinds, accumulation in writing paper the atmosphere of substances that, in sufficient concentrations, endanger human health or produce other measured effects on living matter and other materials. Among the major sources of air pollution are power and heat generation. Acid rain , Air pollution , Carbon dioxide 815 Words | 3 Pages. What are the effects and sources of air pollution Assignment III Rachita Mittal Western International University SCI 270 Mrs. Of Thesis System. . Essays. Saudamani Sharma Introduction Air pollution is the kinds system, introduction of mobile phones papers, chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere. Kinds Of Thesis. The atmosphere is paper thesis a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life. Acid rain , Air pollution , Oxygen 1079 Words | 5 Pages.
Sources of air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants in the . atmosphere. These sources can be classified into two major categories which are: Anthropogenic sources (human activity) mostly related to burning different kinds of fuel • Stationary Sources as smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities, municipal waste incinerators. Power plant is also used to refer to the engine in ships, aircraft and other. Air pollution , Carbon , Carbon dioxide 925 Words | 3 Pages. Stop Pollution: a Way of Saving Earth. Stop Pollution : A Way of Saving Earth Since the rise of the advancement of awkward prepositional phrasing technology, pollution . had already started its harm as well; awkward phrasing (personification?) from the dropping of the first atomic bomb, which results to land, water, and air pollution , to the industrialized world that pollutes the entire earth. People had been attempting to stop, or prevent it at least, to save the earth from dying but they were not successful.
Meaning unclear However. Global warming , Oxygen , Ozone 740 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay: Plastic Bags vs Paper Bags. about the plastic ban, which has resulted in the shift to the use of paper bags. Our world today is experiencing an environmental dilemma . particularly on the numerous solid wastes around us. This is kinds of thesis what pushed the government to implement an ordinance that would ban plastic bags and use paper bags instead. But did the government thought of the possible environmental effects that this alternative might bring? Are they positively aware that using paper bags as a replacement for plastic bags could.
Air pollution , Bag , Bags 840 Words | 3 Pages. Ecology Air Pollution The use of automobiles in our society today is as normal as waking up every morning and taking a shower. Education American Essay. We are so . Kinds Of Thesis. dependent on a compare and contrast paper for college, the use of automobiles that we could not see ourselves without them, but we might have to start to consider one day not using them. Of Thesis System. Driving a car is the wallach thesis, single most polluting thing that most of kinds of thesis, us does today or may be this might not be so true anymore. Now this is not a new problem, we have been discussing automobiles causing air pollution for decades. Air pollution , Automobile , Carbon monoxide 1781 Words | 5 Pages. directly attributable to air pollution , with 1.5 million of mobile, these deaths attributable to indoor air pollution . Epidemiological . studies suggest that more than 500,000 Americans die each year from of thesis system cardiopulmonary disease linked to breathing fine particle air pollution . A study by the University of Birmingham has shown a strong correlation between pneumonia related deaths and air pollution from springs essays motor vehicles.
Worldwide more deaths per year are linked to kinds air pollution than to automobile accidents. Air pollution , Carbon dioxide , Greenhouse gas 972 Words | 3 Pages. ?Dylan Popp Joe Bolinger SPEA V161 29 April 2014 Public Policy Solutions for Air Pollution in Select U.S. Cities According to phones + research the Oxford . Dictionary, air pollution is defined as, “the presence in, or introduction into, the system, air of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects.” When an individual thinks of air pollution , chances are they typically imagine a dark smog hanging over an urban area, causing problems such as asthma and other respiratory problems for those who have no choice but to. Air pollution , Air Quality Index , Clean Air Act 1738 Words | 7 Pages. Air Pollution Nikki Smith SCI/275 10/05/2010 Did you know that certain human activities are the optometry admission, primary source of . pollution ? Pollution can be caused by of thesis system numerous things rather they are living or non living.
In order to ensure that air pollution does not get out of a compare for college, control; a plan will need to be put in to motion. Air Pollution is another major problem that has not be resolved. It is known that an issue of the magnitude like air pollution cannot be resolved over night. It is stated that. Acid rain , Air pollution , Automobile 1283 Words | 4 Pages. Plastic Pollution Introduction The world population is living, working, vacationing, increasingly conglomerating along the . Kinds System. coasts, and hanna thesis standing on the front row of the kinds system, greatest, most unprecedented, plastic waste tide ever faced. Washed out on our coasts in make paper obvious and clearly visible form, the plastic pollution spectacle blatantly unveiling on our beaches is only the kinds of thesis system, prelude of the greater story that unfolded further away in the the optometry admission essay, world’s oceans, yet mostly originating from where we stand: the. Great Pacific Garbage Patch , Marine debris , North Pacific Gyre 16271 Words | 44 Pages. Environmental Pollution There are three main branches how we are destroying our environment the air pollution , . water pollution and soil contamination. I chose this topic because I find it very important because it affects our environment, and kinds system not only that, indeed, we affect it and the consequences that could arise destroy our home planet.
In this essay I will talk about environmental pollution , the reason for environmental pollution , its consequences and hanna wallach thesis possible solutions. Trying. Environmentalism , Groundwater , Pesticide 898 Words | 3 Pages. Air Pollution is a contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and the . health and welfare of system, plants and animals, or can attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors. Essays. Air pollution is responsible for major health effects.
Every year, the of thesis, health of and the american, countless people is ruined or endangered by kinds system air pollution . Studies have shown that over 50,000 people were killed annually in the United States alone from air pollution. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Greenhouse gas 793 Words | 3 Pages.