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Dedication to my husband


To my beloved husband Sarmad.

Dedicated to my beloved parents, my lovely husband - Shodhganga

Thesis dedication to husband

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Dedicated to my beloved parents, my lovely husband - Shodhganga

Science/ Black Holes term paper 19763. Thesis Dedication! The Search for Black Holes: Both As A Concept And An Understanding. Essays Reality Tv! For ages people have been determined to explicate on everything. Our search for explanation rests only thesis to husband, when there is a lack of questions. Our skies hold infinite quandaries, so the quest for answers will, as a result, also be infinite. Since its inception, Astronomy as a science speculated heavily upon discovery, and only came to concrete conclusions later with closer inspection. Aspects of the skies which at one time seemed like reasonable explanations are now laughed at as egotistical ventures. Time has shown that as better instrumentation was developed, more accurate understanding was attained.

Now it seems, as we advance on scientific frontiers, the new quest of the heavens is to find and narrative essay surfing explain the thesis dedication to husband, phenomenom known as a black hole. The goal of this paper is to explain how the concept of a black hole came about, and give some insight on how black holes are formed and might be tracked down in business plan, our more technologically advanced future. Gaining an dedication to husband, understanding of a black hole allows for a greater understanding of the concept of spacetime and maybe give us a grasp of both science fiction and science fact. Hopefully, all the clarification will come by the close of this essay. A black hole is probably one of the most misunderstood ideas among people outside of the astronomical and physical communities.

Before an understanding of how it is essay groove music, formed can take place, a bit of an introduction to stars is necessary. Thesis! This will shed light (no pun intended) on the black hole philosophy. A star is an enormous fire ball, fueled by a nuclear reaction at its core which produces massive amounts of heat and pressure. It is formed when two or more enormous gaseous clouds come together which forms the core, and as an dialogue, aftereffect the conversion, due to that impact, of huge amounts of dedication to husband energy from the two clouds. The clouds come together with a great enough force, that a nuclear reaction ensues. This type of energy is created by fusion wherein the atoms are forced together to form a new one. In turn, heat in excess of millions of degrees farenheit are produced. This activity goes on for eons until the point at write which the nuclear fuel is thesis dedication to husband, exhausted. Here is human, where things get interesting. For the entire life of the star, the nuclear reaction at its core produced an enormous outward force.

Interestingly enough, an exactly equal force, namely gravity, was pushing inward toward the center. The equilibrium of the two forces allowed the star to maintain its shape and not break away nor collapse. Eventually, the to husband, fuel for the star runs out, and narrative it this point, the outward force is overpowered by the gravitational force, and the object caves in on itself. This is a gigantic implosion. Depending on dedication to husband, the original and final mass of the research methods writing, star, several things might occur. A usual result of such an implosion is dedication to husband, a star known as a white dwarf. This star has been pressed together to research writing form a much more massive object. It is thesis dedication, said that a teaspoon of matter off a white dwarf would weigh 2-4 tons. Upon the first discovery of a white dwarf, a debate arose as to how far a star can collapse. And in the 1920’s two leading astrophysicists, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekgar and against reality Sir Arthur Eddington came up with different conclusions.

Chandrasekhar looked at the relations of mass to radius of the star, and thesis dedication concluded an upper limit beyond which collapse would result in something called a neutron star. This limit of 1.4 solar masses was an accurate measurement and in essays tv, 1983, the Nobel committee recognized his work and awarded him their prize in Physics. The white dwarf is massive, but not as massive as the to husband, next order of imploded star known as a neutron star. Often as the nuclear fuel is burned out, the star will begin to shed its matter in an explosion called a supernovae. When this occurs the essay, star loses an enormous amount of mass, but that which is left behind, if greater than 1.4 solar masses, is a densely packed ball of neutrons. This star is dedication, so much more massive that a teaspoon of it’s matter would weigh somewhere in essay surfing, the area of 5 million tons in earth’s gravity. The magnitude of such a dense body is unimaginable. But even a neutron star isn’t the extreme when it comes to a star’s collapse.

That brings us to the focus of this paper. It is felt, that when a star is massive enough, any where in the area of or larger than 3-3.5 solar masses, the collapse would cause something of a much greater mass. In fact, the mass of this new object is speculated to be infinite. Such an entity is what we call a black hole. Thesis! After a black hole is created, the essay groove music, gravitational force continues to pull in space debris and all other types of dedication matter in. This continuous addition makes the hole stronger and writing more powerful and obviously more massive. The simplest three dimensional geometry for thesis dedication a black hole is a sphere. This type of black hole is called a Schwarzschild black hole. Kurt Schwarzschild was a German astrophysicist who figured out the critical radius for a given mass which would become a black hole. This calculation showed that at a specific point matter would collapse to an infinitely dense state.

This is known as singularity. Tv! Here too, the thesis to husband, pull of dialogue essay music gravity is thesis, infinitely strong, and space and time can no longer be thought of in of any company, conventional ways. At singularity, the laws defined by Newton and thesis to husband Einstein no longer hold true, and a myterious world of quantum gravity exists. In the Schwarzschild black hole, the event horizon, or skin of the black hole, is the boundary beyond which nothing could escape the gravitational pull. Most black holes would tend to be in a consistent spinning motion, because of the original spin of the star. This motion absorbs various matter and an essay spins it within the ring that is formed around the black hole. This ring is the singularity. The matter keeps within the Event Horizon until it has spun into the center where it is concentrated within the dedication to husband, core adding to the mass. Such spinning black holes are known as Kerr Black Holes.

Roy P. Kerr, an Australian mathematician happened upon the solution to dialogue essay music the Einstein equations for black holes with angular momentums. This black hole is very similar to the previous one. Thesis Dedication To Husband! There are, however, some differences which make it more viable for real, existing ones. The singularity in the this hole is more time-like, while the other is more space-like. With this subtle difference, objects would be able to enter the black whole from regions away from the equator of the event horizon and not be destroyed. The reason it is called a black hole is dialogue essay groove, because any light inside of the singularity would be pulled back by the infinite gravity so that none of it could escape. As a result anything passing beyond the event horizon would dissappear from sight forever, thus making the to husband, black hole impossible for humans to see without using technologicalyl advanced instruments for plan company measuring such things like radiation. The second part of the name referring to the hole is due to the fact that the actual hole, is where everything is absorbed and dedication to husband where the center core presides. This core is the main part of the business plan of any, black hole where the mass is concentrated and appears purely black on dedication to husband, all readings even through the use of radiation detection devices. Essays Against Reality Tv! The first scientists to really take an in depth look at black holes and the collapsing of thesis dedication to husband stars, were a professor, Robert Oppenheimer and his student Hartland Snyder, in the early nineteen hundreds. They concluded on the basis of Einstein's theory of relativity that if the speed of light was the utmost speed over any massive object, then nothing could escape a black hole once in it's clutches.

It should be noted, all of this information is speculation. In theory, and on Super computers, these things do exist, but as scientists must admit, they’ve never found one. Essays Tv! So the question arises, how can we see black holes? Well, there are several approaches to this question. Obviously, as realized from a previous paragraph, by seeing, it isn’t necessarily meant to be a visual representation. Thesis Dedication! So we’re left with two approaches. The first deals with X-ray detection. In this precision measuring system, scientists would look for areas that would create enormous shifts in energy levels. Such shifts would result from gases that are sucked into the black hole. The enormous jolt in gravitation would heat the gases by millions of degrees. On Importance Of Discipline! Such a rise could be evidence of a black hole.

The other means of detection lies in another theory altogether. The concept of gravitational waves could point to black holes, and researchers are developing ways to read them. Gravitational Waves are predicted by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. They are perturbations in the curvature of spacetime. Sir Arthur Eddington was a strong supporter of Einstein, but was skeptical of gravity waves and dedication to husband is reported to have said, Graviatational waves propagate at the speed of thought. Essay Groove Music! But what they are is important to a theory.

Gravitational waves are enormous ripples eminating from the core of the black hole and other large masses and are said to thesis dedication to husband travel at the speed of light, but not through spacetime, but rather as the backbone of spacetime itself. These ripples pass straight through matter, and their strength weakens as it gets farther from the source. Research! The ripples would be similar to thesis dedication to husband a stone dropped in water, with larger ones toward the center and essay groove music fainter ones along the outer circumference. The only problem is to husband, that these ripples are so minute that detecting them would require instrumentation way beyond our present capabilities. Essay! Because they’re unaffected by matter, they carry a pure signal, not like X-rays which are diffused and distorted. In simulations the dedication to husband, black hole creates a unique frequency known as it natural mode of vibrations. This fingerprint will undoubtedly point to a black hole, if it’s ever seen.

Just recently a major discovery was found with the help of The Hubble Space Telescope. This telescope has just recently found what many astronomers believe to be a black hole, after being focused on a star orbiting an empty space. Several picture were sent back to Earth from the telescope showing many computer enhanced pictures of various radiation fluctuations and other diverse types of readings that could be read from the area in which the black hole is music, suspected to be in. Because a black hole floats wherever the star collapsed, the truth is, it can vastly effect the to husband, surrounding area, which might have other stars in it. It could also absorb a star and wipe it out of existance. When a black hole absorbs a star, the star is essays, first pulled into dedication, the Ergosphere, this is the area between the event horizon and singularity, which sweeps all the matter into the event horizon, named for it's flat horizontal appearance and critical properties where all transitions take place. The black hole doesn’t just pull the star in like a vaccuum, rather it creates what is known as an accretion disk which is groove, a vortex like phenomenom where the star’s material appears to go down the drain of the thesis to husband, black hole.

When the star is an essay on importance, passed on into the event horizon the thesis dedication, light that the star ordinarily gives off builds inside the ergosphere of the black hole but doesn’t escape. At this exact point in time, high amounts of radiation are given off, and with the proper equipment, this radiation can be detected and seen as an image of emptiness or as preferred, a black hole. Through this technique astronomers now believe that they have found a black hole known as Cygnus X1. This supposed black hole has a huge star orbiting around it, therefore we assume there must be a black hole that it is in orbit with. Science Fiction has used the black hole to come up with several movies and fantastical events related to the massive beast. Tales of time travel and of parallel universes lie beyond the hole. Passing the event horizon could send you on that fantastical trip. Some think there would be enough gravitational force to possible warp you to an end of the universe or possibly to a completely different one. The theories about what could lie beyond a black hole are endless. Write On Importance Of Discipline! The real quest is to first find one. So the question remains, do they exist?

Black holes exist, unfortunately for the scientific community, their life is restricted to formulas and super computers. But, and there is a but, the scientific community is relentless in their quest to build a better means of tracking. Already the advances of hyper-sensitive equipment is showing some good signs, and the accuracy will only get better. Word Count: 2172. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Thesis Dedication! Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is essay groove music, written from dedication to husband, scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of human sacrifice any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the thesis dedication to husband, writer throughout the entire process and will receive the human essays, paper by e-mail/download. Thesis To Husband! The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for a lifetime. The service is totally confidential and all client information is kept private.

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How to Write a Cover Letter 40+ Free Templates. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in the door, even if you have a weak resume. Thesis! This guide will help you to write the best letter possible. Cover Letter Examples. Professionally-written cover letter samples. Cover Letter Designs. Beautifully arranged cover letter designs. Cover Letter Builder.

Create your cover letter in 15 minutes. How to Write a Resume. Learn how to write a resume in 3 Steps. Are you looking for a follow up email or letter instead? Check out our comprehensive Follow Up Guide. This is a very simply written guide — follow it, and you will land interviews faster. Don’t forget to double check! Be sure to use our checklist to sacrifice essays easily find out what you may be missing on your letter.

It is free to thesis dedication to husband download. Click Here to Download. Our Cover Letter Checklist. Cover letters are one page documents that you send with your resume when applying for human essays a job. It is meant to: Introduce yourself to the hiring manager. Argue why you’d be a good fit for the job Fill in places your resume cannot describe Further explain other aspects of dedication your resume. By hitting those 4 aspects, your letter can be a convincing and powerful companion to a well-written resume. If you want to write on importance see how a cover letter in thesis to husband, your field should be written, then browse through our cover letter example library. To begin, include both the employer’s and your contact information. See the example below:

While the example above demonstrates the information you need to include in the section, there are various ways to format it. Check out the cover letter designs below to get more ideas on how you can structure this section. No spelling or grammar errors! This one really goes without saying. Spelling mistakes make an awful first impression. Put yourself in the hiring manager’s shoes for a second. Would you like to be addressed as “Dear Sir or Madame?” or “To whom it may concern?” “Dear Sir or Madame” makes you sound like you’re from the year 1865, and “to whom it may concern” is writing very irritating to hiring managers. You can easily avoid this problem by doing your research. Look through the company’s website, LinkedIn, or even give the company a call to ask for the hiring manager’s name. Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like you’ve made an effort.

In the thesis dedication, first paragraph, begin by telling the employer the position you are applying for and how you learned about the opportunity. The rest of this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself, including: degree, area of study/expertise, and your career goals in terms of how they align with the methods for thesis writing, goals of the company. The second paragraph should respond directly to the job description written by thesis dedication, the hiring manager. Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and abilities will allow you to meet the narrative essay surfing, company’s needs. Dedication To Husband! To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and phrases from the job description in your cover letters. No bombast!

The rule of human essays thumb is that you’re allowed to be as boastful as you want – so long as you have the evidence to back it up ! To go the dedication to husband, extra mile, do some research about the company, and write try to find out what they are doing — and why — given the current state of their industry. Dedication To Husband! In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into research writing that schema, and thesis to husband help push the groove music, company forward and dedication to husband achieve any goals you suspect they may have. The final paragraph is business plan company called the thesis, “call to action.” Inform them that you’d love to get interviewed. Tell them that you’ll be in contact with them in a week if you don’t hear back. Thank them for against reality spending the dedication to husband, time to read your letter. Aside from the content on the page, the actual look and feel of the document is also an sacrifice essays important aspect of the your letter.

Elements such as margins, font size and dedication style, and alignment all factor in to the hiring manager’s overall impression of you. Here are a few quick tips when styling your own: 1” – 1.5” margins are always a safe bet. If you are having trouble fitting everything on one page, there is some wiggle room, but be careful not to make the on importance, content look crammed together. Don’t go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary. Dedication To Husband! Anything below 12 can strain the eyes.

Font style is really a matter of preference. Surfing! Try to thesis dedication choose one that looks professional or that matches what the employer uses on their website. Keep in mind that different styles will change the size of the font. Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. We suggest keeping all paragraphs left-aligned. Formatting For Applicant Tracking Systems.

If you don’t know what an ATS is, you absolutely must read up on it before sending in your next job application. Applicant tracking systems are mostly designed to read through resumes, sifting through keywords and key-phrases to statistically determine whether to let you through to the next stage. 70% of jobs are filled via an applicant tracking system. Some ATS software is designed to read through letters as well, while others are not. You might as well be completely prepared. The good news is that simply by following the instructions we’ve written above, your letter should already be in good shape. If you’ve responded directly to the hiring manager’s job description, and included language from it in your own your letter, you already have a high likelihood of hitting statistically important keywords and phrases. Yes, someone will read it. Will they read it carefully?

It depends on the hiring manager. Some use the letters to “weed out” candidates out of a huge stack, while others believe that the candidate’s interview skills are more important. Either way, you’re going to plan of any company need to write a strong letter, in order to give yourself a higher chance of getting a job. Winning Cover Letter Templates for All – Copy, Paste, Fill in the Blank. Simply click the section that best reflects your current life situation and work experience, then choose the “tone” of cover letter that best suits your personality. Before you start – 5 tips for filling in these template letters: In our templates, you’ll be filling in the blanks that look like [this]. Here’s some help for filling in these trickier ones: [insert positive trait] – here’s a list of positive traits you can use to describe yourself [insert 1-3 soft skills] – here’s a list of soft skills you can use to describe your abilities [insert 1-3 hard professional skills] – our cover letter samples or resume by industry pages should help you brainstorm [insert GPA] – only insert if your GPA is above a 3.5 [insert your degree] – style it this way, including the parentheses – (BS Engineering) My name is [your name].

I am thrilled to be applying for dedication the [position] role in your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to fully engage with the role and develop professionally in a self-motivated manner. Human Sacrifice! Given these requirements, I believe I am the perfect candidate for thesis the job. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to leverage into the [name of open position] role at human sacrifice your company.

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I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by dedication to husband, my teachers and peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into company the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and competitive candidate you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and thesis dedication I look forward to human essays hearing from to husband, you soon. My name is [your name].

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My name is [your name]. Please accept my application for the open [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, I believe that I have the necessary skills and abilities to sacrifice fill the role. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and reliable candidate that you are looking for.

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I am a [insert positive trait] professional [(insert your degree] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my co-workers and essay groove management. Over the course of my [# of months/years of thesis dedication to husband experience] career, I’ve developed a skill set directly relevant to the [position] role you are hiring for, including [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. Overall, I have consistently demonstrated [insert 1-3 soft skills] abilities in essays against reality tv, every aspect of my [your current job title] role at [your current company’s name], and I invite you to review my detailed achievements in the attached resume. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and competitive candidate you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for thesis dedication a convenient meeting time.

Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is [your name]. I’m grateful for of discipline the opportunity to apply for to husband the open [position] role at human your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for to husband a versatile candidate to research methods for thesis writing handle the numerous and dedication varied responsibilities associated with this role. Given these requirements, I am certain that I can meet and exceed all expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] professional [(insert your degree)] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my co-workers and narrative management.

Over the course of my [# of months/years of thesis to husband experience] career, I’ve developed a skill set directly relevant to the [position] role you are hiring for, including [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. Overall, I have consistently demonstrated [insert 1-3 soft skills] abilities in every aspect of my [your current job title] role at essays [your current company’s name], and I invite you to review my detailed achievements in the attached resume. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of skilled and resourceful candidate you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how my varied skillsets and thesis dedication abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is [your name]. Please accept my application for the open [position] role at write an essay on importance of discipline your company. After reviewing your job description, I believe that I have the necessary skills and abilities to fill the role. I am a [insert positive trait] professional [(insert your degree] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my co-workers and thesis dedication management. Over the course of my [# of essay months/years of experience] career, I’ve developed a skill set directly relevant to the [position] role you are hiring for, including [insert 1-3 hard professional skills].

Overall, I have consistently demonstrated [insert 1-3 soft skills] abilities in every aspect of dedication my [your current job title] role at [your current company’s name], and I invite you to plan company review my detailed achievements in dedication to husband, the attached resume. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and reliable candidate that you are looking for. Human Sacrifice! I look forward to elaborating on dedication how I can help benefit your organization, and assist your business achieve its goals. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to essay music hearing from you soon. Download HR-Approved Cover Letter Template Designs.

We provide 8 free downloadable cover letter designs. Just click the any template below to download the one that best suits you. I have “Red Flags” in thesis, my work or personal history — should I address them in my Cover Letter? ‘Red flags’ are a critical consideration to make when writing your cover letter. A red flag is something in your professional or personal history that could negatively impact the way a hiring manager views your job application.

While many red flags should be directly addressed in human sacrifice essays, a cover letter, some others are best left for the job interview stage. The following list is of 8 of the biggest cover letter red flags. If any apply to thesis you, click to learn more about how to essay music effectively handle it so it doesn’t become a roadblock in your efforts to thesis dedication to husband secure your next job. i need cover letter for my resume. You can either write your own cover letter with the guide above or use our software to build one instead.

If you want to use our software just go to write of discipline our homepage at https://resumegenius.com/ What about dedication to husband references? Can they go on an essay of discipline the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for those? References should NOT be included on your resume — nor should you write “References Available Upon Request” on your resume. The hiring manager will request that information from you at a later date if they are interested in doing so. (Note: If the employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.) Thanks for thesis your question! This has given me a better understanding in the resume field!

Glad we could help! Good luck on essays reality tv the job hunt! thanks. you have explained clearly what i need to do. We are glad that the article could help! I just applied for a $14/hr job on Indeed. After 6 years of working for the same company for $10/hr….

I’m praying this cover letter is enough to dedication land me the job. I converted the “Sales Cover Letter” into a “Warehouse Manager” cover letter. Business Plan Company! Of course I tweaked it to my specifications and needs… but it turned out to be one professional piece of work when I was finished. I can’t thank you all enough for dedication this posting. I’ll be back to update if I land the job. We are happy to hear that as well! Hope to hear back from you soon. Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions.

Best luck on your job hunt! This was definitely helpful. Recently I came across a job opening and human sacrifice essays they had asked for thesis dedication to husband a cover letter. Research Writing! I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Googled it.. nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. #128578; We are glad that we were able to help you with your cover letter. We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in full-time employment. I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs?

Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for. The stay at home mom resume is one of dedication our most popular and has received a lot of positive feedback. Plan Of Any Company! We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for thesis a subscription with us. We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before. What title I need to put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Dialogue Groove! Good luck on the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out our “How to Write a Resume” writing guide. Thesis! (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question.

Very true and informative. Just googled it and an essay no doubt remains now. Cover letter will be easy for thesis to husband me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt! This was helpful. is it same for Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the narrative essay, student cover letter above could be reworked for thesis an internship application.

Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions.

Hey please i want to surfing apply for a post of an armorer in the ministry of thesis defense in our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Please lead me through… We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to lead you. Hi!

Do you have cover letter samples to for thesis apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. One small question though, what should I name the to husband, cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi!

I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a “work from an essay on importance of discipline, home” job–but, have no idea how to thesis write it. Essays! Please help! We have plenty of thesis to husband industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to write an essay hear that and thank you for your support. Please let us know if you have any question.

I remain stumped as to to husband how to address a cover letter in response to a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the person in charge of hiring. This is true of many job postings on Craigslist, for example. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue. When the posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and searching for it on Google.

You may find the job ad with the names included. Essays! If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. I’ve had issues where you call and dedication there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. If I ask the plan of any, employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.” I’m going to to husband forward this to a client of mine I was just talking to him about this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful.

I have done my resume and now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume – especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to research writing CL, because there is almost the same to write. please advise. Some of the dedication, contents from write an essay, your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to thesis dedication to husband give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for against tv a managerial position in the hospitality field.

However, I do not see any examples. We are in thesis to husband, the process of human sacrifice adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in the list. In the meantime, follow the guide above and download one of cover letter templates. Thesis Dedication! Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction.

Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for dialogue and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the dedication, letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an essays tv appointment for an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****.” Then double space and dedication type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name. Human Sacrifice! You’ll be signing in the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and get my license back with my first paycheck.

Should I explain this on thesis dedication to husband my resume or by plan company, telephone or in person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to thesis to husband pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for narrative essay a re issue. All about the money. which I happen to be in short supply of. Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to thesis dedication the position you are applying for. On Importance! Best of luck!

I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of them in. I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on dedication cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the for thesis, tips written above. That should get you started. Best of luck! How to address gaps in thesis to husband, employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005.

I was incapacitated by depression and unable to work from 2005-2008. An Essay Of Discipline! Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at dedication home mom. Ready to go back to writing work again. How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. Thesis Dedication! I’ve searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for narrative essay surfing the kind words.

One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think. To Husband! Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on a positive note. So in research methods writing, that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in thesis dedication to husband, a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given. Narrative Surfing! Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. I’m not applying for to husband a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out human sacrifice, to. I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right?

Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in to husband, the same exact role. I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and research experience) about a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. To Husband! The skills and experience you gained over sacrifice essays the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Good luck!

Hi, I am trying to thesis dedication help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to essays reality discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job. I just turned 62 and want to retire from my current job, but not ready to to husband retire. Human Essays! Any suggestions on how to “put my best foot forward” when applying for a new position in thesis dedication to husband, an industry I’ve never worked in before? When applying for a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the essay, relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in thesis to husband, your cover letter and resume. Essay! Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the mining company has different projects.

Would I have the company’s address or the thesis to husband, project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is surfing being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the to husband, company’s address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Narrative Surfing! Through this i had to pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of dedication great help through the way to methods write a winning cover letter. Great information!

My question is I have been out of the work force for about a year and a half due to birthing children and staying home for thesis dedication them. I am wondering if this is something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in narrative surfing, work history or is dedication this information to personal to include? Great question! If your work gap is longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an explanation in human essays, your cover letter. Thesis To Husband! Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though.

Remember that you want to keep the focus of your cover letter on your experience and qualifications. You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and methods for thesis writing how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so. To Husband! You can use that phrase for narrative essay surfing maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to take a break, so to thesis to husband speak. Essays Against Tv! Good luck! I’m a college dropout and I couldn’t decide on dedication to husband which template to use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year.

We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates. If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in write an essay on importance of discipline, such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Thesis To Husband! Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an human idea of dedication to husband what the employers is an essay on importance looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter.

Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to dedication be careful when sending out personal information. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to dialogue essay the Resume Genius Terms of thesis Use and Privacy Policy.

Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the essay surfing, quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Dedication! Put your skills to the test, and learn how to write an essay on importance of discipline make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is thesis a couple yards short of a touchdown.

There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to human essays Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for dedication a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for dialogue essay groove music a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs.

LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on thesis to husband some of the research methods writing, world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and thesis HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to narrative help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and thesis dedication Blunders Ever. People write the strangest things on their resumes, sometimes downright hysterical. Against Reality! Why should only thesis dedication, recruiting managers get to narrative essay surfing, laugh at these? The Top 10 are at thesis to husband, the bottom. Enjoy! #8220;Career break in sacrifice essays 1999 to renovate my horse#8221; #8220;1990 1997: Stewardess Royal Air Force#8221; Hobbies: #8220;enjoy cooking Chinese and Italians#8221; #8220;Service for old man to check they are still alive or not.#8221; Cleaning skills: #8220;bleaching, pot washing, window cleaning, mopping, e.t.c#8221; #8220;Job involved#8230;counselling clientele on accidental insurance policies available#8221; #8220;2001 summer Voluntary work for taking care of the elderly and vegetable people#8221; #8220;I'm intrested to here more about that.

I'm working today in a furniture factory as a drawer#8221; #8220;I am about to enrol on a Business and Finance Degree with the Open University. I feel that this qualification will prove detrimental to dedication, me for essay, future success.#8221; #8220;Time is very valuable and thesis dedication to husband it should be always used to achieve optimum results and I believe it should not be played around with#8221; #8220;I belive that weakness is the first level of narrative essay, strength, given the thesis to husband, right attitude and driving force. My school advised me to fix my punctuality#8230;#8221; From Careerbuilder.ca's 10 Wackiest Resume Blunders: Candidate included a letter from write, his mother. Candidate stated the ability to persuade people sexually using her words. Candidate wrote resume as a play Act 1, Act 2, etc. Candidate included naked picture of thesis dedication, himself. From Amy Joyce on Resume Bloopers: #8220;Skills: Strong Work Ethic, Attention to Detail, Team Player, Self Motivated, Attention to Detail#8221; Woman who sent her resume and cover letter without deleting someone else's editing, including such comments as #8220;I don't think you want to say this about yourself here#8221; From Ask Annie's article about reality resume blunders: #8220;an applicant ghosted a headshot as the thesis to husband, background to her resume#8221; Other Interests: #8220;Playing with my two dogs (They actually belong to my wife but I love the dogs more than my wife)#8221;. #8220;One applicant used colored paper and drew glitter designs around the border#8221; Hobbies: #8220;getting drunk everynight down by the water, playing my guitar and smoking pot#8221; Why Interested in Position: #8220;to keep my parole officer from putting back me in essay jail#8221; A woman had attached a picture of thesis, herself in a mini mouse costume Hobbies: #8220;Drugs and writing girls#8221;. Under #8220;job related skills#8221; for a web designer #8220;can function without additional oxygen at to husband, 24,000 feet#8221;.

My sister-in-law misspelled the tv, word #8220;proofreading#8221; in her skill set. The objective on one recent resume I received stated that the thesis to husband, applicant wished to pursue a challenging account executive position with our rival firm. Essays! Objective: #8220;career on the Information Supper Highway#8221; Experience: #8220;Stalking, shipping receiving#8221; #8220;I am great with the thesis dedication, pubic.#8221; A candidate listed her e-mail address as pornstardelight@*****.com The applicant listed her name as Alice in the resume but wrote Alyce on the onsite application. One candidate's electronic resume included links to human essays, her homepage, where the dedication to husband, pictures were of her in the nude. #8220;#8230;sent out groove my resume on the back side of a draft of thesis dedication to husband, a cover letter to another firm#8230;#8221; #8220;My duties included cleaning the restrooms and research methods for thesis writing seating the thesis dedication, customers.#8221; One applicant for a nursing position noted that she didn't like dealing with blood or needles. Essays! Achievements: #8220;Nominated for prom queen#8221; I once received a resume with a head and shoulders picture in the top left of the thesis dedication, first page. Essay! The picture was of a lion's head, wearing a coat, shirt, and dedication tie. a resume#8230; was printed on the back of the person's current employer's letterhead. Sacrifice Essays! One resume that came across my desk stated how the individual had won a contest for building toothpick bridges in middle school.

A resume#8230; had several grease stains and thesis dedication a smudge of chocolate on it Hobbies: #8220;Having a good time#8221; From Careerbuilder.com's Top 12 Wackiest Resume Blunders: Candidate explained a gap in employment by human sacrifice essays saying it was because he was getting over the death of his cat for three months. Candidate's hobbies included sitting on the levee at dedication, night watching alligators. Candidate explained an arrest by stating, #8220;We stole a pig, but it was a really small pig.#8221; Candidate included family medical history. From Mainejobs.com's Avoid These Resume Bloopers: #8220;nine-page cover letter accompanied by a four-page resume#8221; #8220;One applicant tried to make an impression by using four different fonts, three ink colors and a variety of highlighting options on her resume#8221; From ResumePower.com's Ten Classic Resume Bloopers: #8220;Revolved customer problems and inquiries.#8221; #8220;Consistently tanked as top sales producer for new accounts.#8221; #8220;Planned new corporate facility at $3 million over research methods for thesis budget.#8221; #8220;Seeking a party-time position with potential for advancement.#8221; From HotJobs' Real-life Resume Blunders to dedication to husband, Avoid: #8220;I often use a laptap.#8221; #8220;Able to say the ABCs backward in tv under five seconds.#8221; #8220;I am a wedge with a sponge taped to it. My purpose is to wedge myself into someone's door to absorb as much as possible.#8221; From Fortune Magazine via HumorMatters.com: #8220;Finished eighth in to husband my class of ten.#8221; #8220;Received a plague for Salesperson of the Year.#8221; #8220;Reason for leaving last job: maturity leave.#8221; #8220;Failed bar exam with relatively high grades.#8221; #8220;Am a perfectionist and business of any company rarely if if ever forget details.#8221; #8220;It's best for thesis dedication to husband, employers that I not work with people.#8221; #8220;Let's meet, so you can #8216;ooh' and against reality #8216;aah' over my experience.#8221; #8220;I have an excellent track record, although I am not a horse.#8221; #8220;You will want me to be Head Honcho in no time.#8221; #8220;I have become completely paranoid, trusting completely no one and absolutely nothing.#8221; #8220;Personal interests: donating blood. To Husband! Fourteen gallons so far.#8221; #8220;Marital status: often. Children: various.#8221; #8220;I am loyal to my employer at all costs..Please feel free to respond to my resume on my office voice mail.#8221; #8220;Instrumental in ruining entire operation for a Midwest chain store.#8221; Job Duties: #8220;Answer phones, file papers, respond to customer e-mails, take odors.#8221; Interests: #8220;Gossiping.#8221; Favorite Activities: #8220;Playing trivia games.

I am a repository of worthless knowledge.#8221; Skills: #8220;I can type without looking at thekeyboard.#8221; Employer: #8221; Myself; received pay raise for high sales.#8221; Objective: #8220;I want to play a major part in watching a company advance.#8221; Experience: #8220;Chapter president, 1887-1992.#8221; Experience: #8220;Demonstrated ability in multi-tasting.#8221; Experience: #8220;I'm a hard worker, etc.#8221; Languages: #8220;Speak English and Spinach.#8221; Reason for leaving: #8220;I thought the world was coming to an end.#8221; Additional skills: #8220;I am a Notary Republic.#8221; Objective: #8220;So one of the main things for essay music, me is, as the movie #8216;Jerry McGuire' puts it, #8216;Show me the money!'#8221; Skills: #8220;I have integrity so I will not steal office supplies and take them home.#8221; Objective: #8220;To hopefully associate with a millionaire one day.#8221; Skills: #8220;I have technical skills that will take your breath away.#8221; Qualifications: #8220;I have guts, drive, ambition and heart, which is probably more than a lot of the thesis dedication to husband, drones that you have working for you.#8221; Objective: #8220;I need money because I have bills to narrative essay surfing, pay and I would like to dedication, have a life, go out partying, please my young wife with gifts, and have a menu entree consisting of of discipline, more than soup.#8221; Qualifications: #8220;Twin sister has accounting degree.#8221; Experience: #8220;Have not yet been abducted by aliens.#8221; Skills: #8220;Written communication = 3 years; verbal communication = 5 years.#8221; Objective: #8220;I would like to work for a company that is very lax when it comes to tardiness.#8221; Education: #8220;I possess a moderate educatin but willing to learn more.#8221; Education: #8220;Have repeated courses repeatedly.#8221; Salary requirements: #8220;The higher the better.#8221; Salary desired: #8220;Starting over thesis dedication due to recent bankruptcies. Write An Essay! Need large bonus when starting job.#8221; Bad traits: #8220;I am very bad about time and don't mind admitting it. Having to arrive at a certain hour doesn't make sense to me. What does make sense is that I do the thesis to husband, job. Any company that insists upon rigid time schedules will find me a nightmare.#8221; References: #8220;Bill, Tom, Eric.

But I don't know their phone numbers.#8221; Work experience: #8220;Two years as a blackjack and baccarat dealer. Strong emphasis on customer relations a constant challenge considering how much money people lose and how angry they can get.#8221; Personal: #8220;I limit important relationships to people who want to do what I want them to do.#8221; Objective: #8220;Student today. Essay Music! Vice president tomarrow.#8221; Accomplishments: #8220;Brought in a balloon artist to entertain the team.#8221; Application: Why should an thesis dedication employer hire you? #8220;I bring doughnuts on Friday.#8221; Achievements: #8220;First runner-up for Miss Fort Worth, 1982.#8221; Reason for human essays, leaving: #8220;Pushed aside so the vice president's girlfriend could steal my job.#8221; Special skills: #8220;I've got a Ph.D. in dedication human feelings.#8221; Reason for leaving last job: #8220;Bounty hunting was outlawed in my state.#8221; Experience: #8220;Any interruption in employment is due to essays reality tv, being unemployed.#8221; Objective: #8220;To become Overlord of the Galaxy!#8221; Objective: #8220;What I'm looking for in a job: #1) Money #2) Money #3) Money.#8221; Hobbies: #8220;Mushroom hunting.#8221; Experience: #8220;Child care provider: Organized activities; prepared lunches and thesis snakes.#8221; Objective: #8220;My dream job would be as a professional baseball player, but since I can't do that, I'll settle on being an accountant.#8221; Awards: #8220;National record for eating 45 eggs in two minutes.#8221; Heading on stationery: #8220;I'd Break Mom's Heart to Work For You!#8221; #8220;I am a #8216;neat nut' with a reputation for being hardnosed. I have no patience for sloppywork, carelessmistakes and theft of companytime.#8221; Experience: #8220;Provide Custer Service.#8221; Experience: #8220;I was brought in as a turnaround consultant to help turn the surfing, company around.#8221; Strengths: #8220;Ability to meet deadlines while maintaining composer.#8221; Work experience: #8220;Responsibilities included checking customers out.#8221; Work experience: #8220;Maintained files and to husband reports, did data processing, cashed employees' paychecks.#8221; Educational background: #8220;Highschool was a incredible experience.#8221; Resume: #8220;A great management team that has patents with its workers.#8221; Cover letter: #8220;Experienced in all faucets of accounting.#8221; Objective: #8220;I am anxious to reality, use my exiting skills.#8221; Personal: #8220;I am loyal and know when to keep my big mouth shut.#8221; Job duties: #8220;Filing, billing, printing and coping.#8221; Application: #8220;Q: In what local areas do you prefer to work? A: Smoking.#8221; Reason for thesis dedication, leaving: #8220;Terminated after saying, #8216;It would be a blessing to be fired.'#8221; Personal: #8220;My family is willing to relocate. Essay Groove Music! However not to New England (too cold) and not to to husband, Southern California (earthquakes). Indianapolis or Chicago would be fine. My youngest prefers Orlando's proximity to Disney World.#8221; Resume: #8220;I have a lifetime's worth of narrative essay, technical expertise (I wasn't born my mother simply chose #8216;eject child' from the special menu.#8221; Resume: #8220;Spent several years in the United States Navel Reserve.#8221; Qualifications: #8220;I have extensive experience with foreign accents.#8221; #8220;I am fully aware of the king of attention this position requires.#8221; References: #8220;Please do not contact my immediate supervisor at the company.

My colleagues will give me a better reference.#8221; #8220;Worked in a consulting office where I carried out my own accountant.#8221; Accomplishments: #8220;My contributions on thesis to husband, product launches were based on dreams that I had.#8221; Career: #8220;I have worked with restraints for the past two years.#8221; Experience: #8220;My father is a computer programmer, so I have 15 years of computer experience.#8221; Education: #8220;I have a bachelorette degree in narrative computers.#8221; Application: How large was the department you worked in with your last company? #8220;A: 3 stories.#8221; (Resumania) A resume listed a skill as #8220;being bi-lingual in three languages#8221; (Ask Annie's) Background: #8220;28 dog years of experience in sales (four human).#8221; (Resumania) In the section that read #8220;Emergency Contact Number#8221; she wrote #8220;911.#8221; (Ask Annie's) Candidate drew a picture of a car on the outside of the envelope and dedication said it was the hiring manager's gift. (Careerbuilder.com) Languages: #8220;Fluent in English. Also I have been heard muttering Gibberish in my sleep.#8221; (Resumania) #8220;Directed $25 million anal shipping and business plan receiving operations.#8221; (ResumePower.com) On one of our applications, a girl wrote #8221; I'm 16, I'm pregnant and dedication I can do anything.#8221; At the business plan company, same time she turned in her application, her boyfriend handed in his. Thesis Dedication To Husband! On his: #8220;Felony for against reality tv, breaking and dedication to husband entering.#8221; (Ask Annie's) #8220;One candidate included clipart on their resume of two cartoons shaking hands.#8221; (Ask Annie's) Application: #8220;On the line that asked what #8220;sex#8221; he was, he wrote #8220;occassionally#8221;.#8221; (Ask Annie's) Still giggling? Subscribe to JobMob via RSS or email and follow me on Twitter for methods for thesis writing, more laughing matters in your job search. Job Search Expert, Professional Blogger, Creative Thinker, Community Builder with a sense of humor. I like to help people. The Idiot’s Guide to thesis dedication, Finding a Job in Israel. Funniest Strangest Job Titles Ever. #128540; 33 Funny Cover Letters and Job Applications That are Actually Real. Business Of Any Company! haha. good stuff. These are hilarious and thesis dedication horrifying if you were the author. Plan! It#8217;s always a good idea to have someone else proofread your stuff. Dedication To Husband! Haha that#8217;s hilarious! i enjoyed reading your commentaries especialy on business company, blunders that prospective employees make on their resumes, it was quite informative. may you please send me information on thesis dedication, how to write the resume(especialy the lay out and how to present it.

Hi Goldman, glad you enjoyed the read. You can find more tips from the JobMob archives about dialogue groove resume writing. Also, we#8217;ve bookmarked some great links in the JobMob del.icio.us account. People outside recruitment don#8217;t understand we can not make this stuff up! I dont understand what is funny about thesis dedication Resume Hell No 2. Dialogue Music! Recruitnik- I know. Great, isn#8217;t it? You guys are lucky, not everyone gets such comic relief on thesis dedication, the job. Bernard- It#8217;s the visual of human sacrifice essays, a stewardess in thesis dedication to husband the fighter cockpit. Dialogue Groove! 29.

Work experience: “Two years as a blackjack and baccarat dealer. Strong emphasis on thesis dedication to husband, customer relations a constant challenge considering how much money people lose and methods for thesis how angry they can get.” Even though it could have been worded differently, I find his one to be a pretty decent qualification. “Skills: Strong Work Ethic, Attention to Detail, Team Player, Self Motivated, Attention to Detail” This one is thesis, just perfect. Oh boy these are really funny! Anna #128578; PS got your blog link from Robyn#8217;s Brain Based Biz. Glad you laughed, Anna. Of Any Company! Thanks for telling me about Robyn#8217;s site, I just Stumbled it. To Husband! Her article is groove, also funny. This one is thesis dedication to husband, supper.. #8220;Let’s meet, so you can ‘ooh’ and essays tv ‘aah’ over my experience#8221; Taking comment by dedication to husband Mullah rather too literally. “We are all sons of God.” A couple of essay, years ago, when applying for a job designing electronic surveillance equipment, I included in my application letter the fact that I had just obtained a pilot#8217;s licence. They offered me the job! Sometimes, adding something unusual to a job application can help.

In my case, I was trying to to husband, prove that, at 49, I wasn#8217;t yet #8220;over the hill#8221;, and I could manage stressful situations. I have had a wonderful giggle at some of the business plan of any company, above. Good fun to read. Thank you for letting us enjoy them. Thesis Dedication To Husband! Very funny, made my afternoon!

Clive- great success tip, thanks! caro- glad you enjoyed the list. Narrative Surfing! I had a lot of fun putting it together. I#8217;m sure you#8217;ll also enjoy some of the other funnies under the #8216;Best Of#8217; tab here above on the right. Ermm#8230; I#8217;ve already heard or seen most of these, and I#8217;m not in recruitment. Then I#8217;m the guy in the office with Dilbert on my cubicle walls. Thesis Dedication To Husband! Expand and organize, there#8217;s a whole lot more stupidity going out there on resumes. “I am a ‘neat nut’ with a reputation for plan, being hardnosed.

I have no patience for sloppywork, carelessmistakes and theft of companytime.” I think this guy worked for thesis to husband, me at my last job. Essays! Nice collection.. Thesis Dedication To Husband! Interesting read #128578; good times, good times! Some people are just too much, this is hilarious! LOL. LOL, looks like they took several of those bloopers from my Resume! LOL. very funny, appart from the fact that the business plan, RAF does acutally have stewardess, they serve on the RAF#8217;s Tristar fleet. “1990 1997: Stewardess Royal Air Force” I don#8217;t understand why 1990 1997: Stewardess to the royal air force is thesis to husband, funny?

There are stewardess#8217; in an essay of discipline the air force. Yes, I think you will also find they are in the Royal Canadian Airforce as well, the RAF#8217;s Tristar fleet is dedication, used to do troop transport to locations like the Falklands, Belize etc and sacrifice operates form Brize Norton. it operates almost as a scheduled airline, it is thesis to husband, just operated by the military In fact if you visit the Falklands and plan of any company travel by air you will actually travel CrabAir #128578; OMFG, With all these people out thesis dedication to husband there, no wonder I get so many call backs on my resume. babino and sacrifice essays Tom it#8217;s just the dedication to husband, visual of having a stewardess for a fighter pilot. why not, there are women on plan company, the front line now, and thesis dedication the israelis have had active combat women for years, and essays reality damn good they look too. #128578; I also love mushroom hunting. To Husband! If you#8217;re quick with the essays, old rifle you can sometimes bag 2 of the little suckers at the same time before they manage to scarper off behind a tree. Tom, I know, most of to husband, my Israeli army unit (not Air Force) were good-looking women. And Israel has female fighter pilots and male stewards, but there#8217;s still no room for against, anyone to carry peanuts around in an F-16 or Harrier cockpit #128521; CrabAir, what a great name if your planes tend to crash in the sea. Hey! #41 from thesis, Resumania#8217;s Archive is on importance of discipline, #8220;mushroom hunting,#8221; which is dedication, totally fun and has nothing to do with hallucinogenics.

Basically you walk around the woods looking for edible mushrooms, which is great if you#8217;re like me and you enjoy walking around in the woods. I just went and found 3 morels on Saturday. I sauteed them in butter and they were delicious. The season#8217;s almost over! REALLY GOOD THING!! All hilarious, but what#8217;s depressing is I could see myself putting some of these in mine, since my art school insisted that we inject some personality in the #8220;Interests#8221; section. some of these are obviously jokes or little witty remarks to make the hiring manager laugh and get his attention, they shouldn#8217;t be listed under #8220;blunder#8221; Hahaa, I think one of those is mine. Great list. I loved reviewing resumes at my last job.

Some of the things people wrote were just hysterical. Research Methods For Thesis! My favourite was between the guy who wrote an dedication to husband 8-page resume/essay in full paragraph style or the guy who wrote about the porn store he used to own. Research For Thesis Writing! I worked for dedication to husband, a staffing company as a supervisor, so I saw a LOT of bad resumes. My favorite was from a college-aged girl named Candace. She had written her name vertically on her resume (where the work experience section normally is) and had written an adjective for each letter of her name, with an explanation.

C can do anything. Methods Writing! A attentive to thesis to husband, detail. N not afraid to go the against, extra mile. D delightful to work with. A always on time. It cracked the thesis to husband, whole office up.

I wanted to frame it and put it on the wall, but my boss wouldn#8217;t let me. Plan! #128578; My wife was the human resource director at a bank and they are always hiring tellers. One candidate#8217;s cover letter stated that her previous experience in a retail store was a plus in that it gave her the opportunity to thesis dedication to husband, have #8220;extensive intercourse with the public#8221;. Classic! whats so weird about mushroom hunting? its a fun hobby actually. Groove! i really liked this one. Hobbies: “getting drunk everynight down by the water, playing my guitar and smoking pot” i mean#8230; come on, most peoples hobbies would just include *layin on a couch all day watchun telly*. at least this guy is somewhat poetic. Thesis Dedication To Husband! Great post some of these made me laugh out loud!

Malarkey, ptitz there#8217;s nothing wrong with mushroom hunting, but it does sound funny. I used to put #8220;mixology#8221; in my resume#8217;s Personal Interests but stopped doing it because it was having more of a negative impact than positive, and your resume should only leave a positive impression of you. In both cases, people were more apt to misunderstand the real meaning. Amy awesome. Human Essays! I love the C for Clean. Steph I should add your examples to to husband, the list#8230;better yet, I#8217;ll make another one #128578; dodddddddd- the best way to get a hiring manager#8217;s attention is by for thesis writing having a resume that corresponds to exactly what she#8217;s hoping for, not by having her think you#8217;re funny (unless that#8217;s important for to husband, the job, of course). Like it or not, that#8217;s reality.

Greg- a lot of dialogue essay groove, people give out that advice, but they don#8217;t finish telling it all. To get serious for a moment#8230;a resume is a sales document, the thesis dedication, point of which is to get you an interview. Everything on it should be there to sell you to the hiring company. Business Of Any Company! If you think that company wants to know about your art (for example), put it on there. If not or unsure, leave it off. And you should ask yourself those customization questions pretty much every time.

Amy: I saw one like that recently too. This guy had his surname vertically, faded into the background, with words like that (I don#8217;t have the CV here, so I couldn#8217;t tell you the details). His email address was also vertically down the side of the page, meaning that I had to thesis, go through it letter by letter to write on importance, figure out what it actually said. Dedication! The CV itself was a flow-chart. I had to essays reality tv, search through the boxes for the #8220;previous experience#8221; section to dedication to husband, even figure out what kind of essay music, job this guy was applying for. Dedication! Needless to say, we had a bit of a laugh about it, and, while I left it with the methods for thesis, people who deal with this kind of thing, I seriously doubt he#8217;ll be hearing anything back. Very good knowledge for job seekers.Detailed and descriptive one. Hugh, your example sounds like one of the most time-consuming time-wasting resumes ever. A worst-case scenario. Glad you guys at least got a laugh out of it.

If you have a scanned copy I#8217;d love to post it here on dedication to husband, JobMob after anonymizing it of course. No wonder this has 93 comments now. Business Plan Of Any Company! I loved myself sick. Dedication! “Responsibilities included checking customers out.” Well, I guess we could all put that one on essays, a resume#8230; The best! #8220;Am a perfectionist and rarely if if ever forget details.#8221; I wonder what was the position they were applying for . I had a resume come postage due! He got my attention! I hired him!!

Very funny! HR staff must really enjoy their job, having to meet such interesting people who are completely nuts. I was interviewed once by a guy who looked and sounded exactly like Spicoli from #8220;Fast Times At Ridgemont High#8221;. I thought somebody was playing a joke on me, so I decided to treat the interview as such. He asked me what my greatest weakness was. I said #8220;really good chinese food#8221;. He laughed for about 30 seconds and then offered me the dedication to husband, job. this is one is the best . “I am a wedge with a sponge taped to essays tv, it. My purpose is to dedication to husband, wedge myself into someone’s door to absorb as much as possible.” This just get funnier and funnier.

One an HR friend shared with me: #8220;Yesterday I couldn#8217;t spell executive. Business Plan Of Any Company! Today I are one.#8221; I was hiring high school teachers when I encountered a resume that included #8220;torturing middle school students#8221; in its experience section. Thesis Dedication! She got the job. Before you laugh your coyote#8217;s off, we are all human.

Look at an essay, our president. Okay I just got this one and had to thesis dedication to husband, post: This was the subject line of the essays, email#8230; [NAME DELETED] Resuem for thesis dedication to husband, Technical Writer. Great post. My favorite is number 24, repeating courses again again. I once said during an interview that I always double check and triple check all of groove music, my calculations. I heard later on that I almost didn#8217;t get the job because of thesis, that one statement.

One of my friends went in for a job interview. They asked him why he wanted the job. He said, #8220;I need money.#8221; hahaha. Well, at least he was honest lol. Interviewer: Do you ever get angry with co-workers?Interviewee: I don#8217;t get angry, I get even. Essays! sorry bt can u pls tell me what#8217;s wrong abt hell resume # 2?? cz i ddn#8217;t get ur point#8230; PLSSS.. Thesis Dedication To Husband! if i send u mine, will u correct it?? lady mira- it#8217;s just the image of a stewardess in dialogue essay groove a fighter jet. It would be just as funny if it said #8220;Steward Royal Air Force#8221;. About your question- if you#8217;re a JobMob subscriber and send me your resume, I will give you some free tips on how to improve it. There are instructions on how to send it to thesis to husband, me here. I have two favorites from my personal experience: (1) man in his forties wrote on his resume #8220;Just completed an early midlife crisis and am anxious to write of discipline, reenter the workforce.#8221; (2) woman wrote that her last employer was Pitney Bowels. Hhmmm#8230;wonder if that had anything to do with her departure from the company!

Hard to believe what many people write in the application. Very great work of this article. Thanks for to husband, the list. Those are pretty good. Essays! I love the. Experience: “Stalking, shipping receiving” Nice collection really funny. I loed some of the thesis dedication, blooper..I liked the one cleans bathrooms and write an essay seats people. I don#8217;t want a job like that. Number 4 Hobbies getting drunk every night down by the water,playing my guitar and dedication to husband smoking illrgal drug#8217;s. I just couldn#8217;t belive someone would put that on a resume the though of research for thesis writing, it is silly. #8220;finished 8 out of thesis dedication, 10#8221; classic, ha! #8220;Languages: “Speak English and business plan Spinach.” I thought this one was the best, i couldn#8217;t help but laugh the to husband, whole time. Oh this is too funny!

First rule, proof read!! Some of those are absolutely brilliant. When is the book coming out? Duncan- you#8217;re right. I should look into making a book of sacrifice essays, these. Thanks for dedication, the suggestion. 2# “1990 – 1997: Stewardess – Royal Air Force” is not to bad, she just made the against reality tv, mistake of translating the companies name ( never a good idea) But she#8217;s just saying that she worked for KLM. As the Founder/CEO of a reputable Web Design and Internet Marketing Agency, I browse articles related to various business verticals frequently.This was a very interesting read.

I enjoyed it very much#8230;. Well done! Hysterical! I love to read funny things like this#8230;can#8217;t believe what some people put on their resumes. Yikes!

That is quite a long time to to husband, mourn the loss of a cat! In a resume for an entry level attorney job: #8220;Intern with the pubic defender#8217;s office.#8221; I do not speak English, but i enjoyed a lot . ha,ha#8230; #8220;Detail orientated#8221; (so many people say #8220;orientated#8221; instead of essay surfing, #8220;oriented#8221;, but I usually never do). What a brain fart (or cosmic intervention). I put that in a resume once (way back when before computers were big, hair WAS big, and long before I learned Prof. Harmon#8217;s rule on #8220;marinating#8221; your writing before re-checking. I wondered why out of to husband, 13 interviews only surfing, 12 gave me an offer until I re-read this one. Then again, the thesis dedication, job was 100+ stories up at sacrifice essays, the World Trade Center so#8230; One should learn from others mistakes. Funny mistake (VERY common one the even best writers make) I did in class I can laugh about now-the misuse of the possessive #8220;their#8221; when the thesis dedication, subject of the sentence is singular. Now, this blunder annoys the crap out of me because a Prof (whose class I CALI#8217;d but assumed I failed just before graduation), great guy, learned a lot but scary in write on importance class, stopped me in the middle of me even though I was answering a very concept no one else in the class could grasp well, I was called on a lot more than anyone else (even after I raised my hand a lot).

He asked #8220;#8230;do I have the thesis dedication to husband, right to proper Eng in my class#8230;I answered yes#8230;then he said that I misued this twice in a couple of minuts and had to business company, stop me. He corrected me on a VERY common mistake I have read/heard USSC judges, esteemed writers, etc. Thesis Dedication To Husband! use -misue of the possessive #8220;their#8221;. If the subject is singular so is the possessive. Example #8220;It is the father#8217;s responsibility to their#8230;therefore it is their right whether to#8230;#8221; No-#8220;father#8221; (subject) is singlular. If you have to, re-write the sentence to dialogue essay groove music, avoid the awkward he or she and do NOT write #8220;their#8221; there. You should have seen me turn beet red, sweat#8230;Now it annoys me more than #8220;He don#8217;t have no money#8221;, #8220;I could care less#8221; (instead of the thesis dedication, proper #8220;I couldn#8217;t care less#8221; or using #8220;myself#8221; to essay, try and soound #8220;fancy#8221; (#8220;Dancing with myself#8221; #8220;Playing with myself#8221;- all proper english (and not that there is anything wrong with that) BUT #8220;It was just my client and to husband myself in the room#8221;-NOT OK. Carol Ryder- thanks for against reality tv, sharing. Funny story and thesis we learned something from it.

Nice. Resume blunders can be devastating and in reality causes a loss of income that could have been avoided. It#8217;s better to learn from other#8217;s mistakes than create your own. Hi, I am having difficulties loading your post. Just more or less 50 percent of this post appears to load, and plan company the remaining is just blank. I am not really certain why#8230;. but you may want to take a look. Thesis! I#8217;ll check back later on, this could be just a temporary server error. Dialogue Music! I work at an animal hospital.

The best one I ever received was from a gentlemen that wrote under experience. #8220;I worked with hores. I gave them shots and dedication to husband trained them#8221; I was at an interview which had my ex as the interviewer#8230;well we didnt talk about the job..we talked about old times..and I told her because of our past relationship I wouldnt feel good taking up the job..so I declined it..but we re-connected..and I#8217;m still with her..I got a job shortly afterwards too..Interesting world we live in. Groove! #8220;I finished ninth in thesis dedication to husband my class of nine.#8221; What I#8217;d like to hear from Sotomayor. Plan! A resume blooper from thesis dedication to husband, old days as a manager#8230; #8220;sorted and disturbed all incoming mail.#8221; i was just on a network computer at my appt building and just found this very funny. 1100 Philadelphia Ave. Gilbertsville, PA 19525. Narrative Surfing! Pretty much in thesis Zerns. Seeking challenges that test my mind and human essays body, since the two are usually inseparable. My goal is to thesis, be a meteorologist. But since I possess no training in meteorology, I suppose I should try the essay groove music, flooring field. To Husband! I am trying for a entry level position? Maybe even laborer but I’m not crazy about working to hard and it really chaps my ass.

My primary goal is to be recognized and business plan of any company have my skills and ethics challenged on dedication, a daily basis. Research Methods For Thesis! Objective: I want a base salary of dedication, $50-$60,000 dollars, not including bonus. And some decent benefits. Like a retirement plan, health insurance, personal or sick days. I get sick a lot. Why you’re holding the resume of essay groove, a truly outstanding candidate: Previous experience: Self employed …a fiasco. • My intensity and focus are at inordinately high levels, and with my ability to thesis, complete projects on write on importance, time is to husband, unspeakable. • Excellent memory; strong math aptitude; excellent memory; effective management skills and very good at math. • Transformed #8220;difficult#8221; customers into “irate” customers. It’s best for essays reality tv, employers if I don’t work with people. • I’ve had exposure to the Germans for dedication, two years, but many words are inappropriate for business. • I am a pit-bull when it comes to analysis. • Reason for leaving last job, The owner gave new meaning to the word paranoia. Sacrifice Essays! I prefer to elaborate privately. Thesis! • My ruthlessness terrorized the competition and plan can sometimes offend. • To hand build a classic cottage from the ground up using my ex father-in-law. • Successfully played #8220;Chop Sticks#8221; on a toy piano with my big toes. EDUCATION: Graduated top 66% of my class.

1/2001-1/2002: Match.com (Don’t Judge me) • Getting rid of unruly clients. • Experienced with transforming numerous office machines into dedication to husband things such as a coffee maker and can I make great lattes! • I#8217;ve got a Ph.D. in human feelings. • Operated Pitney Bones machine. I vow to fulfill the goals of the human sacrifice, company as long as I live. You will want me to be Head Honcho in no time. Looking for an employer that believes in prompting from within. Yes, mushroom hunting is a real thing, but it still belongs on this list. The lesson here is if you have anything on your resume that#8217;s not COMPLETELY common knowledge within the given industry, rephrase it, explain it, or remove it! I just had one where the thesis dedication, applicant referred to essay groove music, himself in the 3rd person throughout out the resume. Quite surreal. i luv tha#8217; simsons! #8221;Career break in 1999 to renovate my horse#8221; #8221;Career break in 1999 to renovate my horse#8221; Hilarious post, the crazy answers must keep the thesis to husband, HR managers from plan of any, falling asleep! Can#8217;t see what#8217;s wrong with “1990 – 1997: Stewardess – Royal Air Force”. The job exists in the UK and could involve stewarding for many senior personnel including the monarch or Prime Minister. Thesis! There must be similar positions in the US Air Force on board Air Force One etc.

These are fantastic. This was my favorite: Other Interests: “Playing with my two dogs (They actually belong to my wife but I love the dogs more than my wife)”. I know how that guy feels! I laughed so hard, tears came out, but bad spelling always makes me cry. Narrative Essay! Just the other day, I looked over a resume that said #8220;Referees available upon request.#8221; That was their way of inferring their hobbies #038; interests #128578; Where#8217;s the problem in leaving 911 (or whatever number it is for dedication, your countries emergency services?) #8220;Oh yes, I#8217;ve broke my leg!#8221; #8230; #8220;Do you want an ambulance?#8221; #8230; #8220;No, just call my Aunty!#8221; #128578; Oh hell no! [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and essay surfing Blunders Ever by Jacob Share [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever by thesis dedication to husband Jacob Share [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and essay groove Blunders Ever by thesis dedication to husband Jacob Share [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and business Blunders Ever by Jacob Share [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever by thesis dedication Jacob Share [#8230;] [#8230;] stole a pig, but it was a really small pig.aˆ? From ResumA© Mistakes, Bloopers, and essays reality Blunders, a line I could not resist [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and dedication Blunders Ever by Jacob Share Funny stuff and it must have taken a long time to write an essay on importance of discipline, compile. Thesis! BTW, I#8217;m currently looking for someone fitting this description: #8220;I am great with the pubic.#8221; [#8230;]

[#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever by Jacob Share [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and business of any Blunders Ever by Jacob Share [#8230;] [#8230;] Bunn List Of Why Blogs Are A Female Gender by Domtan 100 Things to do Before I Die by to husband Joseph Gibbs 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and narrative essay Blunders Ever by to husband Jacob Share 10 Productive Ways for Moms to aˆ?Relaxaˆ? by Neena 10 Tips on How to Watch a Horror [#8230;] [#8230;] Bunn List Of Why Blogs Are A Female Gender by human essays Domtan 100 Things to do Before I Die by Joseph Gibbs 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever by dedication to husband Jacob Share 10 Productive Ways for business of any, Moms to aˆ?Relaxaˆ? by Neena 10 Tips on How to Watch a Horror [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever by Jacob Share Just plain funny [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever by thesis to husband Jacob Share [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever by Jacob Share [#8230;] 150 Funniest, Dumbest Things Ever Written on a Resume#8230; We#8217;ve all made horrible spelling mistakes on resumes at one time or another but these people take the cake. #8220;I am great with the pubic.#8221; Or how about #8220;28 dog years of narrative, experience in dedication sales (four human).#8221; Or maybe your favorite hobby is also #8220;enjoy #8230; [#8230;] compiling the sacrifice, 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes Ever, I came upon the following anecdote and thesis to husband it was too funny not to pass [#8230;] [#8230;] I saw the message on dialogue essay music, the gas pump, I first thought of all these funny resume blunders. Since Robyn another blogger in thesis dedication this group writing project already mentioned them in her [#8230;] [#8230;] Why should only recruiting managers get to laugh at these? The Top 10 are at the bottom. Dialogue Essay Music! Enjoy! read more | digg [#8230;] [#8230;] sometimes downright hysterical. Why should only recruiting managers get to thesis, laugh at these? [150 Funniest Resume Mistakes] Tags: bloopers, mistakes, resume, stupidityPosted in Funny [#8230;] [#8230;] acabo de pegar una panzada de reir despues de leer #8220;150 Funniest Resume mistakes#8220;, un articulo donde recogen algunas de las barbaridades que la gente mete dentro de sus [#8230;] [#8230;] Funniest Resume Mistakes (Story) [#8230;] [#8230;] JobMob has a funny collection of resume blunders from human, various websites. Dedication To Husband! Here are some of write an essay of discipline, my favorites. [#8230;] [#8230;] fotos en bolas, nin contes as tuas experiencias sexuais, nin des un correo dunha conta porno. En 150 funniest resume mistakes atopas todo un resume dos gazapos que se tenen cometido nos curriculums. Thesis Dedication! Via [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever | JobMob [#8230;] [#8230;] Objective: Fail Lists of resume blunders. “I am a wedge with a sponge taped to it. Essays Reality Tv! My purpose is to thesis dedication, wedge myself into essay surfing someone’s door to [#8230;] [#8230;] Drop June 2, 2008 5 second rule put to thesis to husband, the test [Asylum] And you thought your resume was bad [JobMob] Maxim magazine founder tells how to get rich.

Sort of. [BusinessWeek] DV#8217;s International Babe of human essays, [#8230;] [#8230;] eso, os traigo unos cuantos consejos que se desprenden de los 150 errores #8220;graciosos#8221; (aqui estan todos, pero en ingles) que han ido cometiendo la gente hoygans y otros personajes del mismo estilo al enviar un [#8230;] [#8230;] Lists of resume blunders. “I am a wedge with a sponge taped to it. My purpose is to thesis dedication, wedge myself into write an essay someone’s door to absorb as much as possible.” [#8230;] [#8230;] First, congrats to Jobmob on getting their post dugg. Great post. Dedication To Husband! [#8230;] [#8230;] un articulo que describe algunos de los errores mas sorprendentes escritos en curriculums vitae (resume in English). Methods! Gracias a Ruben y su portal Online.com.es las podemos leer traducidas a [#8230;] [#8230;] What Not To Put On Your CV June 3, 2008 Posted by liverpoolchamber in Top Tips, World Wide Web. Tags: Bloopers, CV, Humour, mistakes, Resume trackback Writing an attractive and thesis useful CV can be hard. No-one likes to narrative essay surfing, condense their life to thesis dedication, two sides of narrative surfing, A4 in to husband the pursuit of career advancement.

But let#8217;s hope none of narrative essay surfing, us have committed any of the blunders found on this list over at the Jobmob website. [#8230;] [#8230;] June 3, 2008 in dedication Funny signs, world wide whackTags: cv, employmeny, funny, job tips, mistakes, resume Imagine if you are on an essay on importance, a hiring committee and you have to dedication to husband, read thousands of covering letters and CVs. It can be a really dull and narrative essay surfing painful job. Thesis Dedication! But when you get these jewels, it makes those hard times sort-of worth it. Copied shamelessly as-is from business company, JobMob. [#8230;] [#8230;] got a side business going, you#8217;re probably always looking out for dedication, new clients as well. JobMob has a long list of resume blunders, either typos that were inadvertantly funny (Skills: Strong Work Ethic, Attention to Detail, Team [#8230;] [#8230;] Lists of resume blunders. “I am a wedge with a sponge taped to dialogue essay, it. My purpose is to wedge myself into someone’s door to absorb as much as possible.” [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever (tags: CV humor) [#8230;] [#8230;] #8220;150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and thesis dedication Blunders Ever#8221; [JobMob] People write the strangest things on their resumes, sometimes downright hysterical. Why should only recruiting managers get to laugh at of discipline, these? The Top 10 are at the bottom. To Husband! Enjoy! (tags: Jobs) [#8230;] [#8230;] Errores no intencionados en los curriculums [EN] [HUMOR]jobmob.co.il/blog/funniest-resume-mistakes/ por Tanatos hace pocos segundos [#8230;] [#8230;] sabes ingles, podes leer mas en 150 Funniest Resume mistakesResumaniaResume hell10 dumbest resume blundersTen Classic Resume Bloopers Know Them So You [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Blunders [#8230;] [#8230;] process up.

The reason I am bringing this up is a article I came across today that listed the 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers, and dialogue groove music Blunders Ever. Its quite funny, here are some good ones: “Time is very valuable and it should be always used [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever | JobMob This entry was posted by Nathan on thesis to husband, June 5th, 2008 at 2:47 and is filed under Links. You can leave [#8230;] [#8230;] Most Popular 50 Funniest Short Job Descriptions Ever Funniest Strangest Job Titles Ever 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and business of any Blunders Ever Top 10 Best Job Ads of the World The Funniest Rejection Letter Ever 51 Funny Craigslist Job [#8230;] [#8230;] en curruculums He encontrado en la red: “150 Funniest Resume mistakes“. Dedication To Husband! Un articulo donde recogen algunas de las barbaridades que la gente mete dentro de sus [#8230;] [#8230;] has compiled a list of the 150 Funniest Mistakes made on resumes. Business Plan Company! The list was gathered from other webistes like ResumeHell, CareerBuilder, and [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and thesis dedication to husband Blunders Ever Haha. [#8230;] Jacob Share created JobMob to plan of any, bring together job seekers and jobfinders to find jobs in Israel and thesis to husband all over the world.

The blog is essay surfing, filled with straight-talking advice based on real world experience and thesis to husband lots of narrative essay surfing, humor thrown in, so you should subscribe now to JobMob via RSS or email if you#8217;re looking for a better job or just want to laugh about thesis it with articles like the human sacrifice essays, 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever. [#8230;] [#8230;] social bookmarking site with users (#8221;diggers#8221;) known for dedication to husband, their funny comments. When the 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and against reality Blunders Ever became popular on Digg, many diggers had a lot of funny resume stories to [#8230;] [#8230;] those of us that are Digg challenged to dedication to husband, a hilarious post over at JobMob entitled #8220;150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers, and Blunders Ever#8220;. Aside from business of any, invoking my favorite Homer Simpson image (#8221;insert brain here#8221;), it [#8230;] [#8230;] those of us that are Digg challenged to a hilarious post over at JobMob entitled #8220;150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers, and thesis dedication Blunders Ever#8220;. Aside from invoking my favorite Homer Simpson image (#8221;insert brain here#8221;), it [#8230;] [#8230;] Hola a todos,Ahora que estoy en proceso de buscar nuevos horizontes, mis companeros me enviaron un website sobre 150 cosas que no se deben escribir.La pagina esta en ingles, y es:http://jobmob.co.il/blog/funniest-resume-mistakes/No-ta-ble.Saludos! [#8230;] [#8230;] If you liked this, you#8217;ll love the on importance, 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever. [#8230;] [#8230;] Calinadas em Curriculum Vitae Publicado em Outubro 26, 2008 por ovigia The Job Mob#8217;s Resume Mistakes Page [#8230;] [#8230;] This well-designed logo definitely had a hand in the success of Luciano Passuelo#8217;s Lists group writing project over on Litemind. To Husband! The notepad ties in perfectly with the theme, the image has matching colors, the name of the group writing project is essay groove music, easy to thesis dedication, read. I participated in this gwp with 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever. [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever [#8230;] [#8230;] #8212; Yesterday I stumbled across a hilarious list of narrative essay, 150 resume mistakes, bloopers, and blunders that had me laughing out thesis loud. How funny are they? Well, let#8217;s put it this way: “I am a [#8230;] [#8230;] estos fallos son reales como la vida misma. Podeis ver algunos mas en online, hasta 150 en el articulo original (en ingles) y tambien en esta entrada que le dedique hace casi un ano a este mismo [#8230;] [#8230;] for visiting!Need a break this weekend from your usual job search routine? Check out the #8220;150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever.#8221; And please, have multiple people proofread your resume!

Share and [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever [#8230;] [#8230;] http://jobmob.co.il/blog/funniest-resume-mistakes/ Unemployed To Do List And for the record, this isn#8217;t my to do list. Mine would have included snapping a picture of the pastries at The Coffee Shop to post to my blog! [#8230;] [#8230;] giving it to dialogue essay groove music, anyone. There are a variety of mistakes people make when developing their resume. One blooper may be enough to move your resume from the interview pile to thesis to husband, the circular file. Check out a few [#8230;] [#8230;] has the whole shebang of the 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers, and methods writing Blunders Ever just to thesis dedication, brighten up your day while you sort out your resumes if you are a recruiter or thinking of business of any, [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes [#8230;] [#8230;] Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and dedication to husband Blunders Ever! The best argument for proofreading I’ve seen anywhere, although [#8230;] [#8230;] found a list of the ‘150 funniest resume mistakes’. Dialogue Essay Music! When reading it, you will quickly learn that not proofreading your resume will keep you [#8230;] [#8230;] great news, folks! Hey, that means that even THESE people might be able to thesis, get a [#8230;] [#8230;] also worth your time to check out the rest of these hilarious entries.

You can view them all here. Tagged with: Cover Letters, First Impressions, How to find work, How to Network, Human [#8230;] [#8230;] List of research, funny (or pathetic) resume errors and typos. I think I have a degree in unclear physics, [#8230;] [#8230;] jobmob.co.il/blog/funniest-resume-mistakes Possibly related posts: (automatically generated)Making profit from user-generated contentYou’ve Got Good Content — But How Are You Presenting It? [#8230;] [#8230;] a professional resume writer, at least consider getting it proofread. Thesis! Some of the entries in the 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes have clearly been written by against tv someone with a sense of humour. To Husband! Others are simply odd but many have [#8230;]

[#8230;] 150 Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever [#8230;] [#8230;] View the original here. Share and surfing Enjoy: [#8230;] [#8230;] neat web site was brought to my attention that I just had to share. It#8217;s a blog post entitled 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and thesis dedication Blunders Ever #8212; it#8217;s definitely worth a [#8230;] [#8230;] 25th, 2010 | Author: Trevor Wilson Here#8217;s a little humor to brighten your day. The 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever should provide a much needed [#8230;] [#8230;] Other sources: Resumes-Funniest-Mistakes [#8230;] Social comments and narrative analytics for this post#8230; This post was mentioned on Twitter by A_Stro: @cc_chapman 150 ways not to get a job http://bit.ly/t07OM. Dedication To Husband! Thought I#8217;d share the laughter :-)#8230; [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers, and Blunders Ever. http://twurl.nl/6q3sm7.

very funny @TouroLawCSO 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers, and Blunders Ever. Essay! http://twurl.nl/6q3sm7. Thesis Dedication! [#8230;] or updating your resume. After reading this you will want to check over it just one more time. http://jobmob.co.il/blog/funniest-resume-mistakes/ Leave a [#8230;] [#8230;] So there you have it, the groove music, do’s for writing your resume. Happy resume writing, GoMarket yourself, and hopefully you’ll never make it on this list: 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and thesis dedication Blunders Ever. [#8230;] [#8230;] with his resume, a letter of recommendation from against tv, his mom. See the dedication to husband, hilarity for yourself at http://jobmob.co.il/blog/funniest-resume-mistakes [#8230;] [#8230;] received a tweet from someone sharing a humorous listing from the website JobMob called 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever.

Having seen many of these myself, I enjoy reading similar lists for surfing, a quick chuckle. But I [#8230;] [#8230;] Jobmob has put together a list of 150 ridiculous mistakes that job seekers make on their resumes, cover letters, and applications, culled from various sources. Thesis Dedication To Husband! [#8230;] [#8230;] a little levity was in order to lighten our spirits in research methods these unsettling times. So I went back to JobMob#8217;s 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever, and grabbed a few more from Jacob Share#8217;s [#8230;] [#8230;] night, I tripped across this site, 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes. Are they funny? Yes, depending on which side of the dedication, resume you happen to be on. What#8217;s not [#8230;] [#8230;] was put in the #8220;no#8221; pile. Here are some of my favorite resume bloopers I found via Job Mob, Resume Hell, and Zimbio. Human Sacrifice Essays! Obviously spell-check isn#8217;t all it#8217;s cracked up to [#8230;] [#8230;] ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???????. Dedication To Husband! [#8230;] [#8230;] was put in methods writing the #8220;no#8221; pile. Here are some of my favorite resume bloopers I found via Job Mob, Resume Hell, and Zimbio. Obviously spell-check isn#8217;t all it#8217;s cracked up to [#8230;] [#8230;] these well-educated students need to Pause before they post.

See a full list of 150 Resume Mistakes here, or read 5 that the dedication, eBranding Me team chose to share below. [#8230;] [#8230;] at my resume, I did a little searching for dialogue essay, tips and advice, and thesis found this list of JobMob#8217;s 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes. These are from actual resumes, and include such gems [#8230;] [#8230;] a Good Laugh#8230; Click here to read the 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever on [#8230;] 150 Funniest #Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders Ever http://su.pr/224JyC #jobsearch #jobhunt #careeradvice #career #employment #naj. 150 Funniest #Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders Ever http://su.pr/224JyC #jobsearch #jobhunt #careeradvice #career #employment #naj. 150 Funniest #Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders Ever http://su.pr/224JyC #jobsearch #jobhunt #careeradvice #career #employment #naj. 150 Funniest #Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders Ever http://su.pr/224JyC #jobsearch #jobhunt #careeradvice #career #employment #naj. 150 Funniest #Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders Ever http://su.pr/224JyC #jobsearch #jobhunt #careeradvice #career #employment #naj. 150 Funniest #Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders Ever http://su.pr/224JyC #jobsearch #jobhunt #careeradvice #career #employment #naj. RT @PRJobsAtlanta: 150 Funniest #Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders Ever http://su.pr/224JyC #jobsearch #jobhunt #careeradvice #ca #8230; 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes: http://bit.ly/Kl8PY #jobhuntchat. 150 Funniest #Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders Ever http://ow.ly/2WZQ0 #prjobs #publicrelationsjobs #HAPPO #entrypr #PRYoPRo. Groove! RT @jacobshare: 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever http://bit.ly/aKmaFI Some of them are hilarious! 150 Funniest #Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders Ever http://ow.ly/2WZQ0 #jobsearch #jobhunt #careeradvice #career #employment #naj.

RT @prjobsnyc: 150 Funny Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders http://ow.ly/2WZQ0 See Jobs: http://bit.ly/NYC-PR-Jobs #prssa #prstudchat. RT @laurenkgray: RT @prjobsnyc: 150 Funny Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders http://ow.ly/2WZQ0 See Jobs: http://bit.ly/NYC-PR-Job #8230; Loved this! RT @laurenkgray: RT @PRJobsNYC: 150 Funny Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders http://ow.ly/2WZQ0 #prstudchat #prssa. 9 page cover letter?! Major overkill RT @jacobshare: 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever http://bit.ly/aKmaFI. Resume mistakes from Fortune Magazine: Failed bar exam with relatively high grades.” http://jobmob.co.il/blog/funniest-resume-mistakes/ 150 Funny Resume Mistakes, Bloopers Blunders http://ow.ly/2WZQ0 See Jobs: http://bit.ly/LA-PRJobs #prjobs #losangeles #la #entrypr.

150 worst resume blunders. Thesis Dedication To Husband! E.g.) “can function without additional oxygen at 24,000 feet” #resumeblunders http://bit.ly/2592cp. [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever | JobMob. Business Plan Company! [#8230;] [#8230;] about your hobbies and outside interests.For more examples of mistakes to avoid, check out these funny resume errors and bloopers.Final WordA competitive job market means that first impressions matter, and thesis dedication you must avoid mistakes [#8230;] [#8230;] errors but proofreading can save you from research for thesis writing, ours of embarrassment. Get it? Double check for silly mistakes that can rule you out immediately such as addressing the letter to thesis to husband, a different company, like I [#8230;] [#8230;] can spend hours reading examples of resume blunders on the Internet. Besides being entertaining, they also serve as a warning to essay surfing, the [#8230;] [#8230;] a resume can be downright hilarious at times. Or, it can be pretty [#8230;] [#8230;] the job opportunity, you may also end up on a list of funny resume mistakes, such as this one on JobMob. Here are a few of thesis dedication, my favorite funny resume errors from the [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and essay surfing Blunders Ever [#8230;] [#8230;] Scraped bits either from #8220;WOW Guide Blog#8221; (January 14, 2011) or 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever#8220;. [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and dedication Blunders Ever [#8230;] [#8230;] via 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and narrative essay surfing Blunders Ever | JobMob. Thesis Dedication! [#8230;] [#8230;] Read more funny resume bloopers on JobMob [#8230;] [#8230;] seem like painfully obvious ‘don’ts’ when it comes to compiling your CV but they are real examples of what people have included in plan of any company their application for a position. Dedication To Husband! Their blunders were then shared [#8230;] [#8230;] Business Insider JobMob Forbes [#8230;] [#8230;] 9) 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever [#8230;] [#8230;] doesn’t catch everything. You don’t want your prospective employer to read about how you, “revolved customer problems and inquiries” instead of resolving [#8230;] [#8230;] READ NEXT: Our original classic, 150 Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever [#8230;] [#8230;] Here are a few examples from Job Mob. Reality Tv! [#8230;] [#8230;] hopefully these resume#8217;s, bloopers, and these have scared you into thesis dedication to husband the proper way to write a resume cover [#8230;] [#8230;] on your resume, but there are also many things you don#8217;t want on research for thesis, it.

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combat medic resume For the References cited in footnotes, click here. The question of women soldiers has generated substantial historical research, but of mixed quality. This paper -- from a chapter of War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa (Cambridge, 2001) -- comprehensively reviews the historical performance of women combatants in war, across history and cultures. Women's participation in combat, although rare, demonstrates potential capability roughly equal to to husband men's – though women on average may fight less well than men. Narrative Essay! Women have proven to to husband be capable fighters in female combat units, in sacrifice mixed-gender units, as individuals in dedication to husband groups of men, and as leaders of male armies.

Notably, the 19th-century Dahomey Kingdom and the Soviet Union in WWII both mobilized substantial numbers of women combatants, and thereby clearly increased their military effectiveness. Yet these successes were not copied elsewhere. Domestic political structures and ideologies appear central to narrative the Dahomey and Soviet deployments of women soldiers. To Husband! These factors may explain why so few states employ women combatants despite states' recurring need to maximize military capabilities. The question of narrative essay women combatants has generated substantial historical research in recent years, sparked by feminist scholarship#146;s interest in uncovering the previously ignored roles of thesis dedication to husband women in social and political history. Several accounts chronicle the dialogue essay groove, role of individual women soldiers in a variety of societies and time periods. Historian Linda Grant De Pauw writes, #147;Women have always and everywhere been inextricably involved in thesis to husband war, [but] hidden from history#133;. During wars, women are ubiquitous and highly visible; when wars are over and the essay groove music, war songs are sung, women disappear.#148; 1. Unfortunately, several recent overviews mix well-documented cases with legends, so the subject requires some sorting out. In particular, John Laffin#146;s 1967 Women in Battle contains almost no documentation, and the caveat that the stories therein were #147;difficult to to husband acquire and even more difficult to verify.#148; (Laffin#146;s own opinion is that a #147;woman#146;s place should be in the bed and not the battlefield.#148;) Yet Laffin#146;s stories turn up as fact in Jessica Amanda Salmonson#146;s 1991 Encyclopedia of Amazons #150; a confusing mix of historical and mythical cases #150; and David Jones#146;s 1997 Women Warriors , among others.

Linda Grant De Pauw is more reliable and provides good documentation on US and dialogue groove music European history, despite accepting too uncritically some unsupported claims concerning prehistory, anthropology, and non-Western countries. Thesis To Husband! De Pauw groups women#146;s roles in war into four categories: (1) the dialogue essay groove, classic roles of victim and of instigator; (2) combat support roles; (3) #147;virago#148; roles that perform masculine functions without changing feminine appearance (such as warrior queens, women members of home militias, or all-female combat units); and (4) warrior roles in which women become like men, often changing clothing and other gender markers. 2. The evidence on women soldiers and that on women political leaders in wartime seems to support liberal feminists; women can perform these roles effectively. I review women#146;s participation in to husband each of several settings in turn #150; female combat units, mixed-gender units, individual women in groups of men, and women military leaders of male armies. Is it workable to for thesis writing organize sizable military combat units with only female participants? The answer is thesis to husband a qualified yes #150; it has been tried only a handful of times in all of narrative surfing history, but the results show the possibility of success, defined as strengthening the military#146;s effectiveness in war. These cases, although few, demonstrate the dedication, possibility of effective women combatants. Dahomey in the slave-trading era. The eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Dahomey Kingdom of West Africa (present-day Benin) is the only documented case of a large-scale female combat unit that functioned over against reality tv, a long period as part of a standing army.

The Dahomey Kingdom arose in the late sixteenth century when an aggressive clan conquered its neighbors and thesis dedication to husband expanded its territory. The economy of Dahomey was fundamentally based on the slave trade #150; go to narrative surfing war against dedication neighboring societies to capture slaves; trade the slaves to of any company Europeans for guns; use the guns to go to war. Interwoven with these wars were extreme acts of large-scale human sacrifice, torture, and cannibalism, practiced on to husband prisoners captured in war. Dahomey was one of the most successful military organizations ever in its region, and was rightly feared by human essays, its neighbors. It grew up with the slave trade #150; which expanded after 1670 and eventually exported 2 million people from the area #150; and ended when France conquered it in 1892, at the end of the slaving era. To Husband! The kings of Dahomey enjoyed showing off the essay, Amazon corps to visiting Europeans (Dahomey#146;s slave-export customers) who were always interested in the phenomenon, and thus we have direct reports from English visitors in 1793, 1847, and 1851. Stanley Alpern has documented the case well. Dedication To Husband! 3. The #147;Amazon corps#148; appears to have originated in 1727 when Dahomey faced a grave military situation. King Agadja armed a regiment of females at plan company, the rear, apparently just to make his forces appear larger, and thesis to husband discovered that they actually fought well.

Subsequently, the tv, king organized the Amazon corps as a kind of palace guard. The corps#146; size, which varied over time and dedication to husband is in some dispute, apparently ranged from company, about 800 women early in the nineteenth century to over 5,000 at thesis, the mid-century peak, several thousand being combat forces. Women comprised a substantial minority of the Dahomean army, varying from under one-tenth to over one-third of the total. Some of the women were native-born, while others were captured in research writing war and showed surprising loyalty. In one instance, a girl who had been captured young and raised in Dahomey was recaptured while fighting in thesis dedication the Amazon corps but refused to go back to plan of any company her parents, insisting on returning to Dahomey instead.

4. The women soldiers were armed with muskets and swords. They drilled regularly and resembled the men in thesis to husband dress and activities (see Figure 2.1). They stayed in business plan of any top physical condition and to husband were fast and for thesis writing strong. To Husband! In the sacrifice essays, field, the Amazon corps carried mats and bedding on their heads, along with powder, shot, and dedication to husband food for a week or two. Some writers describe the women as rather large and strong. However, this physique is common to the other countries of West Africa, none of dialogue groove which used women as soldiers. 5. Figure 2.1 Dahomean Amazon, as drawn by dedication, English visitor, 1850. [Forbes 1851, plate 2. Smithsonian Institution Libraries. © Frank Cass #038; Co.]

The women showed at least as much courage as the men #150; more, by on importance, several accounts #150; and had a reputation for cruelty. There was no known case of women warriors fleeing combat, although men often did so. One European observer concluded that, #147;if undertaking a campaign, I should prefer the females to thesis to husband the male soldiers.#148; 6. The women of the Amazon corps said: #147;We are men, not women!#133; Our nature is changed.#148; They dressed, ate, and behaved as the men did. Research For Thesis! The Amazon corps members were technically married to the King (but did not have sex with him), were extremely loyal to dedication to husband him, and were forbidden to have sex with men (at the risk of death for sacrifice essays both, although some observers thought the rule was frequently broken anyway). Thesis! Several thousand lived in the palace, along with civilian wives (perhaps 2,000 of business plan of any company them) and female slaves. According to one report, female prostitutes were employed in the palace to serve the Amazon corps, although this is unclear. The Amazon corps was totally segregated from dedication, men. Outside the palace, its approach was announced by a ringing bell.

Everyone had to turn their backs, and males had to move away. 7. The Dahomean army was not primarily female. Males were counted and mobilized first, then females were counted, and military service was required of men but voluntary for women. A village could send women in plan of any place of men who did not want to serve. The army was divided into two parts, the left and the right, and each was in turn divided into a male and female component #150; a division which somewhat reflected the organization of Dahomey political administration. To Husband! 8. Although not in the majority, the women soldiers played a key role in the Dahomey army, and performed admirably in combat. In a battle in 1840, an research methods for thesis enemy force routed the male Dahomean soldiers and only a rally of the Amazon corps prevented disaster.

Using female soldiers had some drawbacks, however. Dedication To Husband! In 1851, 10,000 males and write on importance of discipline 6,000 females faced 15,000 defenders in to husband a neighboring society. The defenders were #147;infuriated#148; by the discovery #150; as they were preparing to castrate a prisoner of war #150; that some of the Dahomean soldiers were women. Essays Against Reality Tv! They redoubled their efforts, with their own women acting as supply troops, and repulsed the Dahomey attack with 2,000 to 3,000 Dahomey killed. To Husband! In 1890#150;92, France conquered Dahomey, but it required several bloody attempts (showing that Dahomey was the essays tv, strongest military power in West Africa at the time). In the first major battle, in dedication to husband 1890, Dahomey women soldiers took part and several were found dead on the battlefield, to the surprise of the French soldiers.

In a later battle, the write an essay, French commander noted that the to husband, Amazon corps, about research methods 2,000 strong, led the attack in the presence of the king and showed remarkable speed and boldness. Thesis! 9. Dahomey probably turned to women soldiers in part because, unlike its neighbors, it faced a severe military manpower shortage for against reality three reasons. It was exceptionally warlike and lost men in thesis war. It depended on a slave trade that gave preference to selling off able-bodied men. Sacrifice! And it faced a hostile neighbor ten times larger than itself. Firearms had only dedication to husband recently been introduced to the region, but this does not explain the methods for thesis, Amazons (by equalizing men#146;s and women#146;s strength) as Marvin Harris claims. Although muskets were basic weapons, they were crude and to husband often ineffective.

A machete-like sword was decisive. Women effectively used this and a variety of weapons including daggers, bayonets, battle-axes, bows and arrows, clubs, and a giant folding razor (with a blade over 2 feet long) apparently used mainly for decapitation but possibly for research for thesis castrating enemies as well. Dedication! 10. Dahomey is a critical case because it shows that women can be physically and emotionally capable of essay participating in dedication to husband war on a large-scale, long-term, and well-organized basis. Far from sacrifice, being weakened by the participation of women, the army of Dahomey was clearly strengthened. Thesis! Women soldiers helped make Dahomey the preeminent regional military power that it became in the nineteenth century. Yet Dahomey is virtually the only case of its kind.

The puzzle is why this successful case was not emulated elsewhere. 11. The Soviet Union in World War II. Among modern great-power armies, the most substantial participation of women in combat has occurred in the Soviet Union during World War II. Following a rapid, forced industrialization of the Soviet economy in the 1930s under Stalin, in which women were drawn into nontraditional labor roles, the Soviet Union faced a dire emergency when it was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1941. Over the business plan of any company, next three years, the Soviets would count tens of millions of war dead, and large parts of their country would be left in ruins. In this extreme situation, the Soviet Union mobilized every possible resource for to husband the war effort, eventually including women for combat duty. In the first year of the war, women were mobilized into industrial and other support tasks, not into the military.

These tasks included those women were already doing #150; they were already 40 percent of the industrial labor force at the outset #150; as well as new occupations that had been all male, such as mining. Human! Women also dug trenches and built fortifications for the Soviet military. 12. Beginning in 1942, faced with manpower shortages, the Soviet Union drafted into the military childless women not already employed in war work. By 1943 women reached their peak level of participation throughout the Soviet military. Their main areas of involvement were in medical specialties (especially nursing) #150; these were often front-line positions #150; and antiaircraft units which #147;became virtually a feminized military specialty.#148; 13. Clearly, hundreds of thousands of women participated in the Soviet military during World War II. However, sources #147;are distressingly vague#148; on the actual number. The official figures state that about 800,000 women participated in the Red Army and about another 200,000 in partisan (irregular) forces. These figures put women at thesis to husband, about 8 percent of overall forces (with 12 million men).

Of the total of dialogue essay 800,000, about 500,000 reportedly served at the front, and about 250,000 received military training in Komsomol schools. Most were in their late teens. 14. All the information regarding Soviet women#146;s participation in dedication World War II comes to us through #147;a mass of hyperbolic and patriotic press accounts and memoirs.#148; Playing up the contributions of women helped the formidable Soviet propaganda machine to raise morale in a dispirited population, and spur greater sacrifices by the male soldiers. Human! These data problems mean that we should treat both quantitative data and particular heroic narratives with a certain skepticism. The #147;majority of women did not serve in thesis direct combat.#148; 15. Despite all that, clearly women participated on against reality a substantial scale #150; hundreds of thousands of thesis dedication to husband individuals, a nontrivial minority of the total forces. Even if we reduce the extent and heroism of female participation from the official version, we are left with an important historic case of large-scale women#146;s participation in combat #150; probably the largest such case in modern history.

The overriding impression left by the case is that women performed a very wide range of combat tasks and sacrifice essays #147;proved themselves#148; in those tasks, eventually gaining the #147;acceptance and even admiration#148; of Soviet military men who had been #147;initially skeptical or hostile.#148; I will summarize each of the thesis dedication to husband, main areas in human sacrifice which women took part, in rough order of the dedication to husband, importance of female participation to that area #150; front-line medical support, antiaircraft, combat aviation, partisan forces, infantry, and armor. 16. Medical support tasks in the Soviet military were integrated with combat to an unusual degree. Doctors and nurses served at the front lines under intense fire. All nurses and over 40 percent of doctors in the Soviet military were women. Many of the essays against tv, heroic stories about thesis dedication to husband these women #150; some of which appear to be true even if some are exaggerated #150; revolve around their actions in research for thesis dragging and thesis carrying wounded male soldiers to safety on research methods for thesis the battlefield, sometimes by the dozen. In other cases, women medical soldiers joined and thesis dedication even commanded infantry units when the male ranks were decimated. Reportedly, Vera Krylova enlisted as a student nurse in 1941, was sent to the front, and dragged hundreds of wounded comrades to safety under fire.

When her isolated unit was ambushed and of discipline its leaders killed, in to husband the chaos of the German advance of August 1941, the wounded Krylova jumped on a horse, took command of the company, and led a two-week battle through encircling enemy forces to rejoin Russian forces. The next year, fighting with a different unit which was retreating from a tank battle, Krylova moved forward to collect hand grenades from wounded comrades being left behind, then single-handedly charged the essays against reality tv, German tanks with grenades, slowing the advance enough for the Russians to evacuate their wounded. Such tales, although not verifiable in particular cases, reflect an thesis dedication overall reality #150; that many thousands of Soviet women served as front-line medical workers and some also participated directly (and effectively) in combat. 17. Antiaircraft units were staffed and commanded entirely by women #150; apparently hundreds of thousands in essays all. (British forces in World War II included women in dedication antiaircraft units but had men fire the guns. US home-territory antiaircraft defense, though not needed in the end, also relied on research methods for thesis women.) One German pilot is quoted as saying that he would rather fly ten times over thesis, hostile Libya than #147;pass once through the fire of Russian flak sent up by female gunners.#148; One reason cited for the women#146;s success was that, in research for thesis writing these all-female military units, a #147;military female subculture#148; emerged which did its work in a warmer and more casual way than in men#146;s units. 18.

In the Soviet air force, three women#146;s regiments were formed #150; a small fraction of the total force but a useful test of all-female combat units. The women pilots were organized by Marina Raskova, a kind of Amelia Earhart celebrity in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, who was flooded with offers by women pilots to volunteer in thesis dedication to husband World War II. She convinced Stalin of their potential value in the war effort, and went on to organize the regiments and lead one of them until her death (at age 31) in a crash en route to their first deployment in 1943. 19. The most famous was the 588th Night Bomber Air Regiment (46th Guards Bomber Regiment), sometimes called the #147;night witches.#148; It had over 4,000 members, and at its peak carried out hundreds of of any company sorties per thesis dedication to husband, night (officially, 24,000 missions in all). These pilots flew cheap, combustible biplanes (see Figure 2.2) #150; often unarmed, sometimes armed with a light machine-gun in back, to drop bombs on German positions at night (they could not have survived in daytime). They suffered substantial losses. Although the plane could land almost anywhere, the essays against reality, crew did not have parachutes, so a fire was often fatal.

At dusk the women would fly from dedication to husband, a rear base to sacrifice essays a temporary airfield near the dedication, front, then send one plane every three minutes out to human sacrifice and back from the target all night long, with each plane completing up to three missions in one night. Dedication To Husband! The system provided the Germans with no rest at night, but also let them anticipate the arrival of a plane and catch it in spotlights, making it an easy target. The pilots learned to slip-slide out of the spotlights and make their bombing runs with engines turned off until after they had dropped their six to eight bombs. Especially in winter, when nights were longest, #147;[t]he women #150; pilots and ground crews alike #150; lived on the verge of physical collapse, managing a bit of sleep or a meal whenever they could.#148; 20. Figure 2.2 Soviet night-bomber flown by human essays, women pilots, World War II. [Photo by Yevgeny Khaldei, courtesy of Anne Noggle.] The unit was the thesis dedication to husband, only truly all-female one #150; not only pilots and navigators but also most of the ground crew (e.g., mechanics and bomb-loaders) were women. (The other two regiments were commanded by for thesis, males who replaced the dedication, original women leaders, when Raskova died and another commander was recalled for ill health. The appointment of male commanders seems to have been an expedient measure under time pressure to get the regiments into service.) The night bomber regiment was famous during the war, receiving extensive domestic and international press. A second bomber regiment undertook tactical missions, bombing and strafing enemy positions by day. Led by Raskova until her death, the regiment flew difficult, high-performance dive-bombers.

Some of the ground crew, and some tail-gunners, were men, but all the pilots and navigators were women. Unlike the night bombers, this regiment received very little publicity during the war and operated under virtually the same conditions as the equivalent male bomber regiments. The commander said: #147;During the war there was no difference between this regiment and any male regiments. We lived in dugouts, as did the other regiments, and flew on the same missions, not more or less dangerous.#148; 21. The third regiment was an interceptor unit (the 586th). Also commanded by a man, it eventually incorporated a male squadron (ten planes) to join the two female squadrons.

Some of the ground crew were men, mainly because the sophisticated aircraft required skills beyond the rudimentary training of business company most women mechanics at that time. The regiment was assigned mostly to defense of Soviet targets against German air attack. Its role was to to husband drive away attacking planes rather than pursue them. For Thesis Writing! Therefore it recorded relatively few #147;kills.#148; In one episode recounted first-hand, two women pilots of thesis dedication to husband this regiment (in two planes) boldly attacked straight into the middle of 42 German bombers defended with machine guns, shooting down four and essay surfing turning back the rest before being forced down. Reportedly, by the end of the war women (including those in dedication mixed-gender units) made up 12 percent of the Soviet air fighter strength. 22.

Some individual women pilots also served in mostly male units. Raskova#146;s attempt to gather women aviators together did not entirely succeed. In 1942, eight women from the interceptor regiment were detached and assigned to male interceptor regiments to help in narrative the Battle of Stalingrad. In contrast to the defensive mission of the all-female interceptor regiment, these pilots aggressively sought out enemy planes. Two of these women became #147;aces,#148; each credited with about a dozen kills. One of them, Lilya Litvyak, was known as the #147;White Rose of Stalingrad.#148; In her perhaps-too-perfect story, the heroine starts as the #147;wingman#148; (supporting plane) to a male pilot, falls in love with him, is filled with fervor after his death, gets shot down multiple times, and is ultimately ambushed by eight German fighters at once, with her wreckage lost (it was reported found in 1989). 23. In the partisan forces #150; irregular guerrillas who operated in and around areas under German occupation #150; women played an important role, though not in all-female units.

By one estimate, about 27,000 women participated, making up over 8 percent of the total partisan forces (and 16 percent in the partisan stronghold of the Belorussian forests). The women performed various tasks, mostly #147;medical, communications, and domestic chores; but all were armed, and many fought.#148; The extent of women#146;s participation, and the degree of thesis (#147;clearly romanticized#148;) gender equality within the partisans, seem to have varied from place to place. One woman planted a bomb that killed the narrative essay surfing, German governor of Belorussia, but more typically women secretly distributed leaflets written by men. 24. No all-female infantry units were formed, but women served in dedication to husband integrated infantry units. Research Methods For Thesis! Several hundred thousand received training in firing mortars, machine-guns, and rifles. Thesis Dedication! A special school was established in 1943 which trained hundreds of human women snipers. Thesis! They #147;performed well#148; (except in throwing hand grenades and climbing trees).

One woman killed off an plan of any entire German company over 25 days, and thesis dedication another was decorated for killing over 300 German soldiers. Against Reality Tv! Although sniping takes place at a distance, it is thesis dedication to husband a personalized form of killing. The sniper targets a specific individual, shoots, and human sacrifice essays sees that person fall. Judging from the extensive use of Soviet female snipers, some women are quite capable of such cold-blooded killing in war. 25. A few women participated in tank warfare, but seemingly not on an organized basis. In one case, a woman commanded a tank and her husband served as driver and mechanic. In another famous case, a woman whose husband was killed in action bought her own tank, named it the #147;Front-line Female Comrade,#148; and was killed in a tank battle. 26. Overall, in Soviet forces during World War II, #147;women proved of equal competence in to husband those few moments when a fluid situation and the force of circumstances threw them into groove music, a central role.#148; They performed a wide variety of combat tasks effectively. It is difficult to discern the thesis dedication, overall picture amidst the romantic propaganda, and dialogue music the record is thesis complex.

For example, German sources sometimes were contemptuous of Soviet women#146;s ability and willingness to fight, while at other times they gave grudging respect to Soviet women fighters they had faced. Essays! The Soviet Union, faced with a dire emergency, mobilized women extensively into military tasks for which the culture had afforded them little experience and few scripts to follow. Some of the women floundered (as did some men), but clearly many rose to the challenge. In gender-integrated units, the women soldiers added to, more than they detracted from, combat effectiveness. This is why women kept being sent to those units. In all-female units such as the antiaircraft and thesis dedication combat aviation regiments, women performed their assigned tasks well. 27.

The Soviet case, thus, underscores the lesson of the Dahomey Kingdom, that women can be organized into effective large-scale military units. In neither case were women the majority, but in both cases the mobilization of business of any company a substantial minority of women soldiers increased the state#146;s military power. However, the Soviet case also underscores how extreme the threat to a society must be before it will use women in thesis to husband combat (see pp. 10#150;22). The Soviet Union of World War II #150; invaded, occupied, its cities decimated and besieged, its people starving #150; still mobilized over 90 percent men. Its women soldiers were rarely assigned to ground combat roles and, like today#146;s American women soldiers, fought mainly when circumstances thrust them into of any company, the line of fire. Thesis To Husband! The Soviet level of human essays participation was probably exaggerated somewhat for propaganda purposes, possibly reducing the female share of thesis Soviet forces from the official 8 percent. Against! Even that level of participation occurred only in the Soviet Union, of all World War II belligerents #150; a society that preached (albeit, hardly practiced) gender equality, and which had already integrated women into many traditionally male industrial jobs. None of that takes away from the main conclusion of the case, however: women participated in thesis dedication to husband combat in plan company large numbers, and their participation added to the Soviet Union#146;s military strength. Hundreds of thousands of women made good soldiers. Contrast with Nazi Germany Despite the cases of Dahomey and the Soviet Union, not every society obsessed with war, or even desperately fighting for its survival, allows women into to husband, combat.

For example, Germany in World War II contrasts with the Soviet Union. Germany#146;s position in both World Wars would seem to favor reliance on human sacrifice women, since Germany faced chronic shortages of #147;manpower#148; (lacking, among other things, the colonial populations of Britain and France). In World War I, when the thesis dedication to husband, expected quick victory turned to protracted war, German women entered industrial jobs (about 700,000 in munitions industries by the end of the research, war), and served as civilian employees in dedication to husband military jobs in rear areas (medical, clerical, and manual labor; women trained for jobs in the signal corps late in the war but never deployed). German women won the vote after World War I, and some kept their jobs in industry. 28. However, the Nazi ideology promoted a gender division, with women assigned to the home and the production of German children, while the men engaged in politics and war. Therefore Germany went into World War II with a different gender ideology than the Soviet Union, one much less conducive to the participation of women in war. Given a labor shortage, which became more severe during the business of any, war, Nazi Germany did draw on the work of thesis dedication women, but in ways that kept them away from combat, at human sacrifice essays, least until the final collapse. At the outset of the war, women were employed (as during World War I) as civilians performing various tasks at military bases. Thesis! However, these civilians were to be left behind when the business plan company, forces deployed in thesis wartime. 29.

The labor needs created by the war, especially as Germany found itself administering a large territory that it had rapidly conquered, led to the creation of a women#146;s Signal Auxiliary of radio and telephone operators (picking up from the underused World War I signal corps women). It had about dialogue essay groove 8,000 members in thesis dedication to husband the second half of the war. Research For Thesis! A Staff Auxiliary allowed about 12,000 women to carry out about one-third of the higher-level clerical jobs in rear areas throughout occupied Europe. The air force made most extensive use of women in an Auxiliary role #150; 100,000 by the end of the war. Most performed clerical, communications, and dedication to husband weather-related tasks, but many worked in essays reality antiaircraft units #150; not working with guns but staffing searchlight batteries (15,000 women running 350 batteries) and similar functions. 30. All these uses of women by thesis dedication to husband, the Nazi military aimed to free men soldiers for combat while rigidly separating women from combat.

Even the women#146;s auxiliaries #150; who served in write uniform, with rank, and under military discipline #150; #147;were neither trained in the use of arms nor were they allowed, under any conditions, to use them,#148; even as a last resort to prevent capture. (In practice, however, these women sometimes took up arms as fronts collapsed. Lacking official status as soldiers, they could be executed as guerrillas under international law if they fought.) German military leaders were #147;horrified#148; at thesis, the Soviets#146; use of women soldiers, and for thesis writing resisted arming women even late in the war as manpower demands became extreme. In the thesis to husband, last months of the war, Hitler reluctantly authorized creation of an experimental women#146;s combat battalion, and later a mixed-gender guerrilla organization, but neither unit was deployed before the dialogue music, end of the war. 31. The key factors that apparently opened the door for Soviet women in combat were desperation, total militarization of society, and an ideology that promoted women#146;s participation outside of traditional feminine roles. Nazi Germany was equally militarized, and eventually desperate, but had a radically different ideology that prohibited arming women. Several other historical cases show the dedication to husband, potential to essay groove music use women#146;s units in to husband combat.

These cases generally are smaller scale and of shorter duration than the tv, Dahomey and dedication Soviet cases. Russia in World War I During World War I, some Russian women took part in combat even during the Czarist period. These women, motivated by a combination of patriotism and company a desire to escape a drab existence, mostly joined up dressed as men. Thesis Dedication! A few, however, served openly as women. For Thesis Writing! #147;The [Czarist] government had no consistent policy on female combatants.#148; Russia#146;s first woman aviator was turned down as a military pilot, and settled for driving and nursing. Another pilot was assigned to active duty, however.

32. The most famous women soldiers were the #147;Battalion of dedication Death.#148; Its leader, Maria Botchkareva, a 25-year-old peasant girl (with a history of abuse by men), began as an individual soldier in the Russian army. She managed (with the research methods for thesis, support of an amused local commander) to get permission from the Czar to enlist as a regular soldier. After fighting off the frequent sexual advances and ridicule of her male comrades, she eventually won their respect #150; especially after serving with them in battle. Botchkareva#146;s autobiography describes several horrendous battle scenes in which most of her fellow soldiers were killed running towards German machine-gun positions, and one in which she bayoneted a German soldier to death. Dedication! After two different failed attacks, she spent many hours crawling under German fire to drag her wounded comrades back to safety, evidently saving hundreds of lives in the course of her service at the front. She was seriously wounded several times but always returned to her unit at the front after recuperating. Clearly a strong bond of comradery existed between her and the male soldiers of her unit. 33. After the February 1917 revolution, Alexander Kerensky as Minister of War in the provisional government allowed Botchkareva to tv organize a #147;Battalion of Death#148; composed of several hundred women. The history of to husband this battalion is a bit murky because both anti- and methods for thesis writing pro-Bolshevik writers used it to make political points. Thesis! (By contrast, the methods, earlier phase of Botchkareva#146;s military career is to husband more credible.) Botchkareva#146;s own 1919 account was #147;set down#148; by a leading anti-Bolshevik exile in the United States, who says he listened to her stories in Russian over several weeks and wrote them out simultaneously in methods for thesis English.

The narrative is dedication to husband just a bit too politically correct (for an anti-Bolshevik); the stories of her heroic deeds are a bit too consistently dramatic. The language and dialogue essay groove music analysis at times do not sound like the words of an illiterate peasant and soldier, and to husband the book explicitly appeals for foreign help for Russian anti-Bolsheviks. (Louise Bryant#146;s pro -Bolshevik account is equally unconvincing.) 34. Botchkareva was aligned with Kornilov#146;s faction, which wanted to restore discipline in the army and resume the on importance, war against thesis to husband Germany, contrary to the Bolshevik program of ending the war and carrying out immediate land reform and seizure of factories at home. Write Of Discipline! During mid-1917, army units elected #147;committees#148; to discuss and decide on the unit#146;s actions. Botchkareva insisted on traditional military rule from above in her battalion, and got away with it (though with only 300 of the original 2,000 women) because the unit was unique in thesis dedication the whole army. This endeared Botchkareva to many army officers and anti-Bolsheviks. Human! It also put her battalion at the center of the June 1917 offensive #150; she says that it was the only unit capable of dedication to husband taking offensive action. The battalion was formed in extraordinary circumstances, in response to a breakdown of morale and discipline in an essay on importance the Russian army after three horrible years of war and the fall of the Czarist government. By her own account, Botchkareva conceived of the battalion as a way to thesis dedication to husband shame the men into fighting (since nothing else was getting them to surfing fight). She argued that #147;numbers were immaterial, that what was important was to dedication shame the essays reality tv, men and that a few women at one place could serve as an example to the entire front#133;.[T]he purpose of the plan would be to dedication shame the men in the trenches by having the women go over the top first.#148; The battalion was thus exceptional and was essentially a propaganda tool.

As such it was heavily publicized: #147;Before I had time to realize it I was already in a photographer#146;s studio#133;. Methods! The following day this picture topped big posters pasted all over thesis, the city.#148; Bryant wrote in essay music 1918: #147;No other feature of the great war ever caught the public fancy like the Death Battalion, composed of Russian women. I heard so much about them before I left America#133;.#148; 35. The battalion began with about 2,000 women volunteers and was given equipment, a headquarters, and several dozen male officers as instructors. Botchkareva did not emphasize fighting strength but discipline (the purpose of the women soldiers was sacrificial). Thesis Dedication To Husband! Physical standards for enlistment were lower than for men. She told the women, #147;We are physically weak, but if we be strong morally and spiritually we will accomplish more than a large force.#148; She was preoccupied with upholding the moral standards and upright behavior of her #147;girls.#148; Mostly, she emphasized that the soldiers in her battalion would have to follow traditional military discipline, not elect committees to rule as the essays, rest of the army was doing. #147;I did not organize this Battalion to be like the rest of the army. We were to serve as an thesis example, and not merely to add a few babas [women] to the ineffective millions of soldiers now swarming over Russia.#148; When most of the women rebelled against her harsh rule, Botchkareva stubbornly rejected pleas from Kerensky and sacrifice others #150; including direct orders from military superiors #150; to allow formation of a committee. Thesis! Instead she reorganized the remaining 300 women who stayed loyal to her, and essay brought them to the front, fighting off repeated attacks by Bolsheviks along the way. The battalion had new uniforms, a full array of war equipment, and 18 men to dedication to husband serve them (two instructors, eight cooks, six drivers, and two shoemakers). 36.

The battalion was to open the offensive which Kerensky ordered in human sacrifice essays June 1917. (Since the February revolution, there had been little fighting and growing fraternization on the Russian#150;German front.) The Bolsheviks opposed the offensive, and dedication the tired, demoralized soldiers were not motivated to participate in essay it. By sending 300 women over the top first, Botchkareva envisioned triggering an dedication to husband advance along the entire front #150; 14 million Russian soldiers #150; propelled by the men#146;s shame at seeing #147;their sisters going into battle,#148; thus overcoming the men#146;s cowardice. When the appointed time for the attack came, however, the on importance of discipline, men on either side of the women#146;s battalion refused to thesis dedication to husband move. The next day, about 100 male officers and narrative essay 300 male soldiers who favored the thesis, offensive joined the ranks of the women#146;s battalion, and it was this mixed force of 700 that went over the top that night, hoping to goad the men on either side into advancing too. Locally, the tactic worked, and the entire corps advanced and captured three German lines (the men stopping at the second, however, to make immediate use of alcohol found there). As the an essay, Russian line spread thin, however, another corps which was supposed to move forward to relieve them refused to advance. A costly retreat to thesis dedication to husband the original lines ensued. Dialogue Essay! The shame tactic had failed, except for a local effect, which anyway may have been caused as much by seeing comrades under fire as by feeling shame about women going first. Dedication! Ultimately, Botchkareva concludes about the dialogue essay groove music, Russian army, #147;the men knew no shame.#148; 37. The battalion that actually fought on that day was rather different from the all-female unit first organized. To Husband! The battalion arrived at surfing, the front with 300 women and two male instructors.

Before battle, it received 19 more male officers and instructors, and a male #147;battle adjutant#148; was selected. During final preparations, a #147;detachment of eight machine guns and a [male] crew to man them#148; were added. Lined up in the trenches for the first night#146;s offensive that did not materialize, six male officers were inserted at equal intervals, with Botchkareva herself at one end and her male adjutant in the center. Thesis Dedication! In the force that actually went over the top the next night with 400 male soldiers and officers added, the #147;line was so arranged that men and essays women alternated, a girl being flanked by two men.#148; Botchkareva notes that in advancing under withering fire, #147;my brave girls [were] encouraged by the presence of thesis dedication to husband men on their sides.#148; Although the of any, women fighters clearly were brave, and one-third of them were killed or wounded, their effect (and indeed their purpose) lay not in their military value #150; 300 soldiers could hardly make a difference among millions #150; but in their propaganda value. However, this latter effect did not materialize as hoped. 38. Other women#146;s battalions were formed in several other cities #150; apparently less than 1,000 women in thesis dedication to husband all #150; but they suffered from a variety of problems, ranging from poor discipline to a lack of shoes and narrative essay surfing uniforms. These other units never saw combat.

There was not another offensive before the Bolsheviks took power in October and sent most of the women soldiers home, telling them #147;to put on female attire.#148; 39. The Battalion of Death, then, never tested an all-female unit#146;s effectiveness in combat. Nonetheless, on one day in 1917, 300 women did go over thesis dedication to husband, the top side by essay groove music, side with 400 male comrades, advanced, and overran German trenches. The women apparently were able to keep functioning in the heat of thesis battle, and were able to adhere to essay military discipline. These women were, of course, an elite sample of the most war-capable women in all of Russia. Nonetheless, they did it #150; advanced under fire, retreated under fire, and dedication helped provide that crucial element of leadership by which other nearby units were spurred into action, overcoming the reality, inertia of fatigue and committee rule. The Battalion of Death did this not as scattered individual women but as a coherent military unit of 300 women #150; instructed by Botchkareva that #147;they were no longer women, but soldiers.#148; 40.

Taiping Rebellion and thesis to husband other cases Very occasionally, all-female military units have cropped up elsewhere in the world for short periods of time. In the nineteenth-century Taiping Rebellion in China, the rebels formed and then later disbanded female units in their army. These units did participate in essay groove battle but left little record of thesis to husband their combat effectiveness. The rebellion #150; a massive uprising led by an essay, a Christian cult leader, with roots in the Hakka ethnic group of southern China #150; became perhaps the bloodiest civil war in history (tens of millions killed). The rebels captured southern China and were then suppressed by the imperial government with the help of foreign mercenaries. The Taipings#146; puritanical religious doctrine called for rigid gender separation, with men#146;s and dedication to husband women#146;s quarters in cities, and even married couples faced execution if found together. This segregation was abandoned after several years owing to write of discipline its bad effect on morale (especially since it had never been followed by top leaders). 41. Rumors of thesis dedication to husband female armies in ancient China are murky. Human Sacrifice Essays! I have been unable to find any historically documented cases. In times of siege, units of women, of children, and of old men were formed to help with defense, but in dedication to husband support rather than combat roles.

The Cambridge History of China makes a passing reference to China#146;s frontier region in the second century AD where #147;even Chinese women had been transformed into fierce warriors under the influence of the Ch#146;iang#148; ethnic group. The book#146;s description of the Ch#146;iang does not mention women fighters, however. The war participation of human sacrifice women in dedication second-century China, whatever its extent, appears to reflect the sacrifice, Wild West character of the region rather than the incorporation of women en masse in a regular army. Thesis! 42. Several other historical cases reportedly provide evidence of narrative all-female military units, but are poorly documented. In ancient India and Persia (and several places in South Asia several centuries ago), female armed guards reportedly protected kings. A Chinese art historian states that the Hsi-hsia army #150; in a non-Chinese state northwest of the Song dynasty in the eleventh to thirteenth centuries #150; used female shock troops and had a tradition of female warriors going back hundreds of years. Dedication! Reportedly, a female Danish unit fought against the Spanish army in the sixteenth century. Reality! A battalion of Montenegrin women reportedly took part in a 1858 battle with Turkey, as did Serbian women in the 1804 independence uprising. In the Congo in 1640, the thesis dedication, Monomotapa confederacy supposedly had standing armies of women. The first army in postcolonial Malawi in 1964 reportedly included an elite unit of 5,000 women to guard the Tanganyikan border. (Shaka Zulu#146;s army by one erroneous account had an all-female front-line regiment.

Scholarship on research methods Shaka#146;s military tactics makes clear that all the soldiers were men.) 43. In addition to the extremely rare cases of thesis to husband all-female military units, evidence of women#146;s combat potentials appears in cases where mixed-gender military units have engaged in combat. Although main combat-designated units are nearly always all-male, some units not designated primarily for combat have included women, in a variety of cultures and time periods. These units, trained in the use of arms, sometimes find themselves engaged in combat, with the women participating. Sacrifice! We have evidence from thesis to husband, guerrilla organizations, from the few NATO countries that currently allow women into combat positions, and write of discipline from the present-day US experience with gender integration. Guerrilla warfare provides a rich source of data on mixed-gender combat units. Women fighters are not uncommon in guerrilla armies (see Figure 2.3). From the Cold War and post-Cold War eras alone, scholars have illuminated women#146;s crucial roles in a variety of wars, including in to husband Vietnam, South Africa, Argentina, Cyprus, Iran, Northern Ireland, Lebanon, Israel, Nicaragua, and others. 44.

Figure 2.3 Kurdish women guerrillas, 1991. [AP/Wide World Photos.] In World War II, in addition to the Soviet partisans (see pp. 000#150;000), women participated in the partisan forces of other occupied countries as well #150; countries that did not allow women into regular military forces #150; including Italy, Greece, France, Poland, and Denmark. They took part in street fighting, carried out assassinations, and performed intelligence missions. Write Of Discipline! In Italy, reportedly 35,000 women were partisans, of whom 650 were killed. In the French Resistance, women were much more excluded from combat roles (although they played many dangerous support roles). Dedication! Only a few women were #147;full-time, gun-carrying women fighters.#148; Because of prejudice in methods France against women fighters, one of the few women who had a leadership position in thesis to husband combat often pretended to be a representative of a male leader when organizing the Resistance. For Thesis! Another was excluded from participating in armed attacks because the uniformed army of de Gaulle opposed giving guns to women, even though local Resistance men considered her an equal comrade.

45. Most notable among the World War II women partisans were those of Yugoslavia, a country where centuries of tradition allowed some role for women as fighters, and where conditions were nearly as desperate as in the Soviet Union. Dedication To Husband! Most women#146;s work in the mass resistance to Nazi occupation was in business of any traditionally feminine support roles. Nonetheless, just over 10 percent of the soldiers in dedication the National Liberation Army were women. They received the same kinds of essay minimal basic training as men (but first aid or medical training more often than men), and the official communist ideology declared them equivalent. Thesis To Husband! In practice, women tended to remain at low ranks and to be concentrated in an essay medical tasks. In one set of units studied, 42 percent of the women were #147;fighters#148; and 46 percent medics. #147;Clearly, the role of medic became #145;feminized#146;#133;[I]f there was a single woman in the [unit], she would be designated the medic.#148; Nonetheless, in guerrilla war even medics are usually fighters too. In one unit, casualty rates were roughly equivalent between medics and fighters. #147;Women partisans led the same life as men #150; they slept in the same quarters, ate the thesis, same food, and against wore the thesis dedication, same clothes.#148; The partisan force #147;severely discouraged#148; sexual relations in the ranks, although arrangements were made for sacrifice married couples. 46. Accounts of the effectiveness of the women soldiers, even taken in dedication the same cautious vein as the Soviet case (with allowance for essay surfing propaganda distortion), suggest that women made an important contribution overall.

By official count, 100,000 women were in the National Liberation Army and partisan units so thousands must have been fighters. Overall, women were killed at more than twice the rate of men (25 versus 11 percent). Despite the thesis to husband, limits on an essay their participation, the women of the thesis dedication to husband, Yugoslavian resistance acquitted themselves well in an essay on importance of discipline combat, showing above-average bravery and stamina. Thesis Dedication To Husband! When World War II ended, newly communist Yugoslavia quickly barred women from military service (although both girls and boys still received arms training decades later). 47. The Vietnamese communists#146; war against the French and business plan of any company Americans shares several features with the thesis dedication to husband, World War II Yugoslavia case #150; a communist-led #147;people#146;s war#148; in a country with some tradition of women warriors (see the Trung sisters, p. 121). This tradition was updated, in the #147;war of liberation#148; (1946#150;75), to an essay of discipline the picture of a Vietcong woman with a baby in one arm and a rifle in the other. As in Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, the image of women fighters symbolized the mobilization of the entire society for the cause. Behind the image, propaganda aside, was a hard reality of women#146;s participation. Thesis To Husband! One Vietnamese military historian estimates that 60,000 women were in the regular forces, over essays against reality tv, 100,000 in the volunteer youth corps, and over 1 million in militias and other local forces. In the People#146;s Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF) in dedication to husband the 1960s, a woman veteran of local uprisings was appointed deputy commander, and by one estimate 40 percent of all regimental commanders were women.

The women soldiers served in both all-female and mixed-gender units. Reportedly, the latter experienced some problems regarding male attitudes, and of any company the men often considered the women inferior in combat. Thus, the PLAF increasingly directed women into separate areas of work, especially transport and espionage. 48. North Vietnamese women were mobilized into the war effort in the mid-1960s, for support tasks rather than combat. Even those within the army itself mainly worked on medical, liaison, antiaircraft, or bomb-defusing tasks. Thesis Dedication! #147;It was general policy to discourage active combat for women.#148; Women did serve in local militia units in the North #150; working in the fields with rifles slung over essay surfing, their shoulders #150; but these areas were far from the #147;front.#148; Nonetheless women in the North played an important part in shooting down US airplanes and thesis to husband capturing pilots. In the essay surfing, South, meanwhile, more women were recruited by the communist army, but mainly for support functions. Women did apparently participate in combat during the 1968 Tet offensive. But as guerrilla war gave way to to husband conventional war, women were separated more from combat. #147;In the surfing, end, the to husband, role of women in the Vietnamese revolution was a significant but somewhat restricted one.#148; (In the narrative surfing, South Vietnamese government army, some women also fought.) 49.

Ideals of motherhood and feminine duty supported participation in the North Vietnamese war effort. Women participants in the war effort experienced it not in terms of glorious exploits but as a huge added burden on an already full basket of #147;women#146;s work.#148; Women carried most of the loads along the to husband, Ho Chi Minh trail to sustain the war effort. Although they might take part in fighting, especially in antiaircraft defense of their home communities, women#146;s main function in the war was to provide cheap labor. Women#146;s combat participation, although glorified during the war as a model of self-sacrifice for the nation, was downplayed and largely forgotten after the human essays, war, as in other countries. 50. The image of the woman holding a rifle and a baby is found in liberation movements across the dedication, third world. Essays! It combines the roles of dedication motherhood and sacrifice war, harnessing women for war without altering fundamental gender relations. Cynthia Enloe finds in the image an expectation that, after the war ends, mothers will put down the rifles while keeping the thesis dedication, babies. She asks: #147;Where is the picture of the male guerrilla holding the rifle and baby?#148; 51. The Sandinistas of Nicaragua resemble the essays, other communist revolutionary guerrillas.

Women reportedly made up nearly one-third of the Sandinista front#146;s military. After victory, the front#146;s founder praised women for dedication being #147;in the front line of battle.#148; Women were particularly attracted to human sacrifice the Sandinista front because, as a movement that grew up in to husband a feminist era, the front had a strong women#146;s organization which advocated policies that helped women. Nonetheless, after victory, the #147;defense of women#146;s role in the military failed. After their victory in methods for thesis writing July 1979, most women were demobilized, and the rest were placed in all-female battalions.#148; The director of Nicaragua#146;s leading military school explained the #147;need to train women separately#148; as being #147;not because of any limitations the dedication to husband, women have. In fact, you might say it#146;s because of failings on the part of some men#133;.[who] aren#146;t always able to relate to a woman as just another soldier.#148; However, apparently exceptions were made for women of superior military skill, who remained in their male army units. Women were not subject to the draft, although they still made up half of the militia units. 52. In some ways, the Sandinistas left traditional gender roles firmly in place.

Women were mobilized around the image of mothers protecting their children as part of a divine order. Plan! One Sandinista official said in 1980, #147;give every woman a gun with which to defend her children.#148; In fact, however, good mothers were expected to thesis dedication to husband be #147;Patriotic Wombs#148; that would provide soldiers for the revolution and happily send them off to company die for the cause. Thesis To Husband! The Sandinistas limited abortion and sterilization, among other measures to produce high birth rates, since a small nation at narrative essay surfing, war needed more people. To Husband! The FMLN guerrillas in next-door El Salvador in the 1980s also let women fight, but within a conceptual framework that upheld traditional gender roles. Cynthia Enloe highlights the story of a woman FMLN guerrilla in El Salvador who, with the end of the war there, is having her IUD removed #150; a transition from soldier to mother. Company! 53. In Africa, women guerrillas also have fought and dedication then been pushed aside. For example, Joice Nhongo was the #147;most famous#148; guerrilla in the ZANLA forces that overthrew white rule in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). She was known as #147;Mrs. Spill-blood Nhongo,#148; and sacrifice essays gave birth to dedication a daughter at write an essay on importance, the camp she commanded, two days after an air raid against it. After ZANLA took power, she became Minister of dedication to husband Community Development and dialogue groove Women#146;s Affairs #150; safely removed from military affairs. To Husband! (Reportedly, 4,000 women combatants made up 6 percent of ZANLA forces.

54 ) In South Africa in the 1980s, the armed wing of the narrative, African National Congress included women guerrillas. Thandi Modise was called the to husband, #147;knitting needles guerrilla#148; because she carried a handbag with a protruding pair of dialogue groove music knitting needles while traveling incognito. She reports that in to husband training camps, the women (under 10 percent of the trainees) received the write an essay, same uniforms and training, and were treated respectfully, as equals, by the men. She sees no contradiction in being a guerrilla and a mother, and dedication argues that #147;Marriage and against children are necessities, not luxuries.#148; Modise does, however, say that #147;As a woman I tried to avoid killing people.#148; Although male and female guerrillas received the same training, side by side, and women sometimes outdid men in discipline, sharpshooting, and running, women were excluded from traditional combat roles. As a male guerrilla put it, #147;Yes, a woman can be a soldier. Many women fight better than men. To Husband! But I wouldn#146;t deploy women in for thesis the front line#133;. Dedication! Men go to war to defend their women and children.#148; Manliness played an important role for South African black male guerrillas, and even Nelson Mandela once said that the business plan company, #147;experience of military training made me a man.#148; 55. It is thesis not only in communist revolutionary movements, such as in Yugoslavia, Vietnam, and Nicaragua, that women participate in local militias.

This phenomenon is plan of any widespread, because militias often constitute a last line of defense of home and family against external attack. For example, during the US Civil War, one town in Georgia formed a female militia unit when the men were all away at war. To Husband! They drilled, practiced shooting, and in an #147;apocryphal story#148; supposedly faced down Sherman#146;s cavalry which had planned to burn the town. 56. In Sri Lanka currently, women apparently constitute about one-third of the rebel Tamil Tigers#146; force of 15,000 fighters, and participate fully in both suicide bombings and massacres of civilians. The Sri Lankan military reportedly believes half of the core fighting force of 5,000 are women. (A claim that women are two-thirds of the force appears to human essays be overstated.) 57. In Iraq in the late 1990s, one of the main guerrilla groups operating against next-door Iran #150; with 30,000 soldiers, Iraqi backing, and thesis to husband $2 billion worth of weapons #150; is led by a 43-year-old Iranian woman and her husband. Writing! She is the #147;symbol of the struggle#148; and their candidate for transitional President of Iran if they should ever seize power. Reportedly, the group is led by mainly female officers, and includes women among its fighters #150; although how many women is unclear. Members live in gender-segregated quarters and married couples suspend marriages to function as #147;sisters and brothers#148; in thesis to husband the group.

The force engaged in combat in 1988, and 1991, and reportedly performed well. 58. The greater fluidity of gender roles in guerrilla as compared with conventional war is illustrated by the Republic of human essays Congo war in 1997. Guerrilla militias included women fighters and commanders. Some male combatants dressed as women, both to enhance their magical powers and to to husband disguise themselves in battle. 59. These examples of women in guerrilla warfare represent a fraction of the historical cases. Business! In guerrilla war, by contrast with conventional war, women#146;s participation is not rare.

One often finds combat units with a nontrivial minority of women in thesis the ranks. Business Company! These women, when they have participated in combat during guerrilla wars, have done so with good results. They have added to the military strength of their units, and sometimes fought with greater skill and bravery than their male comrades. Yet whenever their forces have seized power and become regular armies, women have been excluded from combat. Evidently, this exclusion is not based on any lack of ability shown by the women soldiers when they participated in dedication to husband the guerrilla phase of narrative war. 60. Present-day state armies. More than a dozen states #150; mostly industrialized countries that are US allies #150; currently allow women into official combat positions.

The exact number depends on how exactly one defines combat. A 1993 list includes Canada, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, and Britain. A 1997 work also includes Spain and dedication Australia, but not Britain. By 1999, in addition, France, Japan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Israel, and Russia had at least one woman fighter-jet pilot, and women served in navies in Portugal, South Africa, and others. In 2000, an Israeli law and a German court ruling promised to integrate women into write, more military jobs, though implementation is dedication unclear and ground combat will likely remain off-limits. Write On Importance Of Discipline! 61. Eritrea and South Africa had women in the infantry, owing to the recent integration of former guerrilla forces into dedication to husband, state armies there.

Eritrean women combatants have seen extensive combat #150; uniquely among present-day state armies #150; owing to the highly lethal ground war with Ethiopia in the late 1990s. Some reports put women at one-third of essay music Eritrean combat forces. Eritrea, however, has existed as a state for thesis to husband only a few years, and is still led by former guerrilla commanders, even though fighting a conventional, not guerrilla, war. Sacrifice Essays! 62. Women#146;s status in NATO militaries is evolving year by dedication, year, with the policies and numbers shifting continually towards greater women#146;s participation. The different countries are generally moving along a common path in integrating women, though at different speeds #150; from research for thesis, combat aviation, to combat ships, to submarines, to ground combat.

At any point in time, far more women participate in air and sea combat than in thesis dedication to husband ground combat. Women in essays against reality all these positions total only a few thousand (out of millions of combat soldiers today), but they provide further data points to assess the performance of women in combat. Also, other NATO countries such as Germany and Greece still completely exclude women from combat and generally limit their participation to traditional areas such as typing and nursing. Overall, women#146;s participation has been recent and the units in which they serve have seen little if any combat since being integrated. Women aviators did, however, participate in NATO#146;s 1999 air campaign against Serbia. Thesis! 63. Canada is furthest along the spectrum of write on importance of discipline NATO countries. Canada#146;s military has opened all positions to women, in theory. Furthermore, the military is actively recruiting women interested in thesis dedication to husband serving in ground combat positions.

New submarines are being built to accommodate women. Plan Company! Unfortunately we have scant information on the results of this policy because it is so new. Thesis Dedication! Canadian units have not seen combat since women joined them, although they have deployed on at least ten peacekeeping missions around the world. In the Gulf War, women served on write an essay a Canadian supply ship, but only thesis to husband 3 percent of dialogue essay groove music Canadian forces participating in thesis that war were women, compared with over 10 percent in the Canadian military overall at that time. In January 1998, women made up 11 percent of Canadian forces, though just over 1 percent of combat troops (165 women). Dialogue Groove Music! Sexual harassment and rape are serious problems in the gender-integrated Canadian military, and female soldiers #147;are often little more than game for thesis sexual predators,#148; according to one recent expose. An official army study in 1998 #147;said women in combat units commonly were referred to in coarse sexual terms.#148; 64.

Denmark, Norway, and France are nearly as gender-integrated as Canada. Danish women serve in tv tank crews, including those that were deployed for peacekeeping in Bosnia. (Although peacekeeping is not usually #147;combat,#148; Danish tanks had earlier battled Bosnian Serb forces.) Denmark#146;s decision to include women in thesis to husband all military roles resulted from extensive trials in of any company the mid-1980s to find out how women performed in various land and sea combat roles. #147;The trials proved very satisfactory, and today all functions are open to women#133;. Thesis To Husband! The trial results [show]#133;.that women can do the work just as well as their male colleagues.#148; 65. France allows women in plan air, sea, and ground combat, and plans to subject women to dedication to husband the draft starting in 2001. However, until recently France had quotas on the number of women in each position, with only a handful in ground combat. Women are still not allowed in essay the Foreign Legion, commando positions, or flying naval airplanes, although they no longer face quotas in other positions including flying combat aircraft. As recently as 1994, NATO summarized France#146;s policies on women in combat thus: #147;A woman#146;s role is to give life and not death. Thesis Dedication To Husband! For this reason alone it is essays against reality not desirable for mothers to take direct part in battle.#148; 66. In Norway, women serve on submarines, including one as a captain.

They are in infantry, artillery, tanks, and all kinds of aircraft. Two served as officers in to husband the UN peacekeeping force in the former Yugoslavia. None of the essays against reality, integrated units has seen combat. Belgium, the Netherlands, and Spain allow women in almost any position in theory, but only thesis a few women serve in practice, especially in ground combat. In the Netherlands, women can serve anywhere except in combat positions in the Marine Corps. The opening of positions to women in the Netherlands was driven in part by the abolition of the human, draft there. 67. Britain, Australia, and New Zealand allow women into air and sea positions. In 1999, Australia included submarines (which had been built to accommodate a mixed-gender crew). Women do not participate in thesis ground combat, with two exceptions: Britain opened field artillery to women in 1998, and Australia has qualified three women as commandos. These forces have not yet participated in combat.

The British found in business the 1982 Falklands War that it was hard to distinguish #147;combat#148; from #147;noncombat#148; ships, and to husband this may explain why Britain has opened all surface ships to women (about 700 women serve on British ships currently). Against Reality! 68. The Israeli experience In Israel, the thesis, persistent myth that Israeli women participate in combat is groove music false. Before the establishment of Israel in 1948, women did serve in the underground paramilitary forces, though even then they were often left behind for major operations. A few women also fought before the 1948 war, when isolated settlements came under attack. With independence and the creation of a regular army, however, women were immediately and permanently excluded from all combat roles. Women do serve in the Israeli forces, and thesis dedication are even drafted (though less often than men). Subsequent reserve duty is lifelong for men, but only to age 24 or motherhood, whichever comes first, for women. Over half of female draftees serve in secretarial and clerical jobs.

A women#146;s corps (its initials spell #147;charm#148;) administers the policies concerning Israeli women soldiers, including training them, overseeing their work in various units, and write operating some of its own units. A 1980 women#146;s corps brochure states: #147;Today#146;s Israeli female soldiers are trim girls, clothed in uniforms which bring out their youthful#148; These women serve as #147;sister-figure#148; or #147;mother-figure#148; in a unit. Regular Israeli combat units often include a few women, who do administrative work. These assignments are #147;highly sought after#148; by women. Dedication! But as soon as actual combat looms, the women are immediately evacuated from the unit. 69.

In the business of any, late 1970s, after the dedication, shock of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and under great manpower pressures, the dialogue essay music, IDF opened up new nontraditional specialties to women, including instructing men on the use of arms. The 1980 brochure states that women serving as platoon sergeants in all-male basic training #147;have succeeded outstandingly.#148; The brochure continues: #147;New recruits do not dare complain of muscle aches and pains or drop out of a long-distance run when it is being led by a female sergeant.#148; Women#146;s success as arms instructors shows that some women can wield weapons effectively #150; for example, driving tanks, firing guns, and dedication to husband deploying armed groups tactically. Tv! 70. The reasons given for dedication the exclusion of essays against reality women from combat in Israel revolve around their effects on male soldiers rather than their own combat abilities. For example, men in mixed units supposedly showed excessive concern for the well-being of the women at the expense of the mission. The actual evidence of such effects is very sketchy, however. 71. The US experience. The US military in recent years has compiled the most extensive experience in integrating women into regular military units #150; though generally not #147;combat#148; units.

As of 1999, nearly 200,000 women serve in the US military (14 percent of the total force), over 1 million are veterans, and thousands have operated in to husband combat zones in several wars. (Currently, 45 percent of US military women are women of color, a greater proportion than in the population at large.) US women participate in combat support roles, ranging from the traditional (nursing, typing) to the nontraditional (mechanics, arms training). Sometimes the essay music, lines between combat and support blur so that women soldiers have found themselves in a combat zone or engaged in thesis dedication to husband fighting. 72. Historical context Women have, on occasion, participated in combat in the US military since its inception. Write An Essay On Importance Of Discipline! In US colonial times, warfare among the English, French, and thesis dedication to husband native Americans was endemic. #147;For their own survival, colonial women learned to threaten force and to write on importance kill in self-defense. Thesis Dedication To Husband! Even in the towns the respectable matrons could behave with a ferocity that would be thought shockingly improper if not impossible for females a generation later.#148; In several historically documented cases, in the countryside women killed American Indians and in towns mobs of women carried out write an essay of discipline lynchings. During the Revolution, in addition to their roles as camp followers and as soldiers disguised as men, American women fought in thesis militias in the countryside. 73. In the Revolutionary War, #147;Molly Pitcher#148; is dialogue a legendary woman who accompanied her husband in the field #150; a common practice in armies of the time (see pp. Thesis! 381#150;83).

She used to against nurse wounded troops and carry water (hence her nickname). When her husband was killed in the Battle of Monmouth, she took over firing his cannon #150; to the admiration of her fellow soldiers #150; and in a dubious epilogue is said to have met George Washington. Thesis Dedication To Husband! (#147;Molly Pitcher#148; seems to surfing be a composite of three real women who fought in the war.) In the Civil War, women fought on both sides, most of thesis dedication to husband them disguised as men. 74. In World War I, 13,000 women enlisted in the US Navy, mostly doing clerical work#150;#147;the first [women in US history]#133;.to be admitted to full military rank and status.#148; The Army hired women nurses and essay telephone operators to work overseas, but as civilian employees (although in uniform). Plans for women#146;s auxiliary corps #150; to perform mostly clerical, supply, and thesis dedication communications work #150; were shot down by the War Department. So were plans for commissioning women doctors in essays tv the Medical Corps. The end of the war brought an thesis end to proposals to enlist women in groove the Army. 75. In the interwar years, the Army created a Director of Women#146;s Relations to explain to thesis dedication to husband women, now that they could vote, that pacifism was a bad idea.

The embattled Director in the 1920s, Anita Phipps, developed a plan for a women#146;s corps which would be part of the Army itself, not an essay surfing Auxiliary, and would incorporate 170,000 women in wartime. Dedication To Husband! This plan was not approved, however. The Army favored keeping any future women workers in an Auxiliary. Even the auxiliary role was approved only because, as an official memo put it in 1941, #147;it will tend to avert the pressure to admit women to actual membership in the Army.#148; The same memo declared that the War Department would develop the business plan, idea slowly and to husband not rush into it on a large scale. 76. The realities of surfing World War II, however, quickly changed this approach. With the United States more deeply mobilized for thesis war (and over a longer period) than in essay surfing World War I, women#146;s participation in the military increased dramatically, to about 3 percent of US forces at the peak. Thesis Dedication To Husband! The experience of World War II provides the largest amount of information on women soldiers up until the plan of any company, 1980s and 1990s. 77.

The Women#146;s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) was formed early in 1942, soon after Pearl Harbor. Dedication! In mid-1943 it became a regular part of the Army, as the Women#146;s Army Corps (WAC). Within the US Army, the incorporation of sacrifice so many women was an thesis dedication to husband unprecedented development. The WAC encountered serious obstacles in recruiting American women (discussed shortly), and it faced continual bureaucratic attacks from the War Department, the Surgeon General, and others. Mattie Treadwell#146;s 1954 history tells the story in detail. The WACs were never assigned to sacrifice essays combat and rarely got near it. But their large-scale mobilization into the US Army some 65 years ago gives us valuable information about how women perform as soldiers, on some of the dimensions necessary for a functional combat soldier. To Husband! In performance of their duties the WACs showed as much diligence as men soldiers.

Health problems were no greater than for the men, though the particular types varied by gender. Essays Reality Tv! The WACs lost less hospital time than men, and rates of accidents and nonbattle injuries were nearly identical across gender. But men were far more likely to be injured in motor vehicle accidents, whereas women more often fell down in situations unrelated to their jobs #150; partly because suitable military shoes were not provided. Towards the end of the war, fatigue became a serious problem for WACs, but its character was opposite to the combat fatigue endured by thesis dedication to husband, men #150; for women, it was unrelieved sedentary work with little visible connection to the war effort. Combined with Army food, the sendentary work of WACs led to a #147;widespread condition of overweight.#148; 78.

The WAC found that menstruation presented only minor problems for efficiency, with most of human essays those being caused by thesis dedication, Army regulations that, for example, sent women to the hospital for surfing two days if their cramps made them stop work even just long enough for thesis aspirin to take effect. In the Army Air Forces, women who ferried planes were not supposed to fly for several days around their periods, but male commanders found this rule unenforceable since many women did not cooperate with it, said nothing, and reality just kept flying. (In the event of pregnancy, a WAC was immediately discharged and left to her own resources.) 79. In the dedication to husband, area of discipline, most of the human sacrifice, problems resulted from the novelty of the situation #150; enforcement varied greatly from one locale to another #150; and from the dedication, men#146;s problems in dealing with women, such as having #147;great difficulty in punishing a woman for anything.#148; Gender differences in discipline may have resulted from the exclusion of sacrifice essays WACs from combat as well. As a 1946 Army field manual states, #147;the necessity for to husband discipline is business plan company never fully comprehended by the soldier until he has undergone the experience of battle.#148; However, overall, morale and discipline were high among the women. 80. With regard to their ability to function in a hierarchy (see pp.

206#150;8), WACs differed from their male counterparts. Curiously, the main difference is opposite to the emphasis on male autonomy and female connectedness discussed earlier (see pp. 46#150;47). The WAC Director specifically noted that #147;women need to remain individuals.#148; This high value on individuality, combined with a lack of experience with loyalty to organizations, made women tend to thesis dedication treat each other as separate individuals, contrary to for thesis the military style of hierarchy. If inspired by a WAC leader who set an example of loyalty to the Army, however, WACs#146; #147;natural idealism was apt to produce group loyalty and esprit of an unexcelled intensity.#148; 81. The WACs resented the thesis, #147;caste system#148; separating officers from research methods for thesis writing, enlisted personnel, since it restricted enlisted women#146;s contact with close friends or family members who were male officers. Thesis Dedication! Within the narrative, WAC itself, however, few of the problems experienced in thesis dedication to husband male#150;male relations across ranks developed. The officers of the WAC had risen recently from the ranks, and relations were generally close. The attributes that made for successful WAC leaders differed from those of male officers.

The most essential qualities for WAC leadership were fairness, unselfishness, and sincere concern for the troops. Selfish ambition, accepted in male officers, was #147;absolutely disqualifying#148; when leading WACs. Appearance and technical competence, emphasized in training male officers, did not matter for WAC officers. In terms of fitting the WAC into essays, the larger male-dominated Army of which it was a part, few serious problems developed. Minor problems included the need to revise expectations of to husband norms and procedures when women were included. For example, a male officer invited newly arrived WAAC officers to research for thesis his hotel room for drinks #150; an action that would have been quite appropriate for newly arrived male officers.

The one serious problem in local Army#150;WAC relations arose in those few cases where a male commander allowed romantic impulses #150; especially #147;immoral#148; ones #150; to affect military decisions (such as securing special privileges for one WAC). Thesis! Such cases were viewed as #147;complete betrayal#148; by the rest of the WAC unit, and human sacrifice essays the unit#146;s effectiveness plummeted. 82. WACs were often better than men at communications and clerical work, especially in listening to Morse code for dedication to husband long hours. Business Plan Company! On the thesis to husband, other hand, WACs in the Pacific (where they needed armed escorts to protect them from sex-starved GIs) #147;became demoralized#148; by their mail censorship duties which required reading sexually explicit letters home to wives and girlfriends.

83. US women also served in the Air Force and Navy during World War II. The Women#146;s Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) worked in ferrying planes and as test pilots. About 1,000 women took part, and dialogue essay 38 died in the line of duty (see Figure 2.4). Thesis Dedication To Husband! The Navy WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) participated in write on importance of discipline air traffic control, naval air navigation, and communications, starting in 1942. There was a Marine Corps Women#146;s Reserve in both World Wars; 18 died in World War II. They became a permanent component of the Marines, and dedication to husband their successors decades later are described as #147;even more gung ho than many of the males.#148; 84. Figure 2.4 USWASP pilots after flight in essays reality tv B-17. [US National Archives, 342-FH-4A5344-160449ac.] At its peak in 1945, the WAC had 100,000 members (at its inception the Army had hoped for dedication to husband 600,000). Essays Tv! In all, during World War II, about 150,000 women served in the WAC, nearly 90,000 in the WAVES, about 25,000 in Marine reserves and Coast Guard SPARS, and 75,000 as officer-nurses. Total fatalities appear to be in dedication the range of 200#150;300 women in all, but apparently few of these were by hostile fire.

85. Although soldiers and officers who worked with US military women in World War II adjusted to them and groove music came to value their contributions, public opinion lagged behind. The WAC#146;s biggest problem was in recruiting, especially after a #147;slander campaign#148; against it in 1943. Thesis To Husband! The campaign promoted the an essay, idea that WACs were really prostitutes, or women with low morals. Leaders had to spend great energy trying to counteract this campaign both through public advertising and thesis to husband through attention to groove the women#146;s appearance (feminine uniforms) and their actual morals, which were generally upstanding. (In the British Army in World War I, officials omitted a breast pocket on women#146;s uniforms for fear of drawing attention to thesis dedication to husband female anatomy.) Despite efforts to counteract the slander campaign, a survey of Army men in 1945 found that about half thought it was bad for of any company a girl#146;s reputation to be a WAC.

Some men also worried that women would become too powerful after returning to civilian life. 86. In recruiting women for the WAC, the Army used trial-and-error methods to stir interest. A major recruiting theme, #147;Release a Man for thesis dedication to husband Combat,#148; was abandoned #150; but could never be fully suppressed in the public mind #150; when women responded poorly to the notion that their participation could send an American man to his death. Later cheery themes, such as #147;I#146;m Having the of any company, Time of My Life,#148; were also unsuccessful. Dedication To Husband! An all-out advertising and canvassing campaign in Cleveland in summer 1943 proved a total failure: personal contact with 73,000 families identified 8,000 eligible women, but brought only 168 recruits.

At that rate the 100,000 new WACs needed immediately would require contacting 44 million families, more than the sacrifice, total US population. Waiving the requirement of high school graduation also produced few recruits. As a result of this failure to recruit an thesis dedication additional half-million WACs in 1943, the draft was extended to fathers of young families, even though a March 1944 US poll found that three-quarters of the essays reality, public would rather draft young single women (for noncombat positions) than young fathers. Dedication To Husband! 87. Demobilization of women received top priority at the end of the sacrifice, war, as in other wars. When the war ended, one Navy commander declared, #147;I want all the women off this base by noon.#148; After World War II the number of women in the US military dropped drastically, but never back to thesis dedication to husband zero. Against Tv! The World War II experience remained a valuable benchmark of women#146;s potentials as soldiers, which informed the later integration of women in the US military. In the thesis, Korean and Vietnam wars, women#146;s service as nurses was notable. Recently, a memorial to women veterans has been completed at Arlington National Cemetery, and the history of US women soldiers is becoming better known.

88. The large-scale integration of women into the peacetime US military began in the early 1970s, coinciding with the end of conscription after the Vietnam War and the switch to an all-volunteer army. The number of women in the armed forces grew rapidly from methods for thesis writing, under 3 percent to over 8 percent in 1972#150;80, then more slowly but steadily, reaching 14 percent by 1999. (These levels compare with a peak of 3 percent in World War II and below 1.5 percent from 1945 to to husband 1968.) Top military leaders now describe women as essential to dialogue groove music the operation of the US military. Given the ongoing integration of to husband women into previously closed positions, such as flying combat jets or commanding warships (the first took her frigate to the Persian Gulf in 2000), the data here for methods writing the late 1990s will change over time. Dedication To Husband! 89.

The current US expansion of women in essay surfing the military comes in peacetime and has continued in dedication to husband a period of shrinkage of the US military (in the 1990s). Historically, around the world, women have been allowed into reality, military service in significant numbers only in times of extreme need in war. The current US integration reflects the professionalization and technical bureaucracy of the dedication, US military, in methods which being a soldier is #147;a job#148; and thesis dedication to husband cost-conscious organizational managers realize that women#146;s labor is cheaper than men#146;s labor of equivalent quality. (Women are now paid the business of any company, same as men in dedication specific jobs, but women in the all-volunteer force bring with them higher average levels of an essay education.) The expansion also reflects the greater acceptance of liberal feminism in thesis dedication to husband the country#146;s cultural and political norms #150; women and dialogue essay groove men should have similar rights in the workplace, and women can do #147;men#146;s#148; jobs. 90. In theory the expanded use of women in the US military maintains women#146;s exclusion from combat. In practice, the lines between combat and support are not so clear-cut. A 1982 Army review noted: Currently, women are assigned to duty positions and MOS [jobs] that require them to engage routinely in direct combat. Women may be found in every battlefield sector including forward of, alongside of, or interspersed with direct combat units#133;.[T]he modern battlefield [is] an extremely fluid environment where many soldiers, assigned to units located in thesis dedication rear areas, are required to business perform duties in forward combat areas. For example, of the nearly 4,000 women then in the US Fifth Corps in Europe, 900 would be located in combat areas if the dedication to husband, Corps participated in combat. The blurred lines between combat and support sometimes were resolved with bureaucratic sleight of hand.

For example, air tanker missions that had previously been defined as combat (with appropriate medals afterwards) were redefined as noncombat in the 1986 air strikes against Libya because women were participating. 91. In the 1989 Panama invasion #150; at that time the largest US military action since Vietnam #150; women soldiers gained a new visibility. Almost 800 participated, constituting about 4 percent of the total force. At least 150 were in combat areas, some coming under enemy fire and some returning fire. The female captain of a US military police unit, Linda Bray, became a celebrity after leading her unit in capturing a military dog kennel in a half-hour firefight. The Pentagon first played up her story, which was receiving favorable media coverage and hence making the US Army look good.

However, when her story threatened to unleash political forces they did not want to face #150; pressures to lift the dialogue essay groove, combat exclusion law for women #150; Pentagon officials reportedly leaked disinformation to thesis dedication to husband undermine her account (which some media reports had in fact exaggerated). Bray faced persistent harassment after the an essay, episode, and thesis to husband left the Army in against 1991. 92. In the Gulf War, nearly 40,000 US women participated #150; 6 percent of the US forces deployed (i.e., about half the dedication to husband, proportion of women as the overall military had). About a dozen women soldiers died, of whom five were killed by hostile forces. Despite Pentagon fears of a bad public reaction #150; there had been no women casualties in Panama #150; the deaths of of discipline women soldiers were taken in stride by thesis to husband, the American public. 93. The issue that most worried top military officials #150; the capturing of US female POWs #150; also fizzled.

Two US women soldiers were taken prisoner by Iraqi forces and reality returned after the war #150; a truck driver who stumbled into Iraqi lines in an early battle and a flight surgeon shot down on thesis dedication to husband a helicopter trying to rescue a downed US pilot. They were the first US women POWs captured since World War II (when Japan held 88 and Germany one). The military leadership#146;s fears, in addition to the potentially explosive public reaction which could undermine support for human the war effort, were that male POWs might be induced to disclose information if women POWs with them were subjected to thesis dedication to husband sexual abuse. These fears seem exaggerated, both because POWs have usually been (and were in Iraq) questioned and tortured in isolation to maximize psychological pressure, and against reality tv because women pilots were already making sure men understood that rape was no different from any other torture and that if men caved in thesis when women were abused they would put the women at greater risk of essay groove music future abuse. Survival schools, which train pilots for thesis to husband their possible capture, had begun desensitizing men to rape, and preparing women for essay sexual abuse as they did men for torture. In any event, neither female USPOW in thesis dedication the Gulf War had attended the survival training (several thousand women pilots had, but the POWs were not pilots). 94. In this case, Iraqi authorities made no attempt to exploit the US women#146;s gender. (The 1949 Geneva Conventions mandate treating women POWs #147;with all the regard due their sex.#148;) Once in against custody of the government, the women were generally well treated whereas the thesis to husband, men were tortured. Both women had trouble with low-level Iraqi soldiers while they were being transported in trucks after their capture, however. The doctor (whose arms were broken) was molested by one soldier and says she would have been raped if he had been able to get her flight suit off during the ride. The truck driver slapped away a soldier who touched her breast.

Neither case destroyed the morale of the POWs, male or female. Opponents of women in combat later used the episodes, nonetheless, to underscore the dangers to women soldiers. Even more than earlier wars, the Gulf War made it hard for essay music the US military to maintain the distinction between combat and thesis noncombat. In the against, Gulf War, more than half the to husband, 375 US soldiers killed were support personnel, not #147;combat#148; troops. The Pentagon followed the rule (as in Panama) that if a soldier was female she must not have been in combat and research methods writing could not receive combat medals (which are highly valued in military culture).

For example, the female doctor POW (Rhonda Cornum; see p. 41) received no medal for her rescue mission although all the other surviving crew members in her helicopter were decorated with a Distinguished Flying Cross. To Husband! Similarly, the surfing, Pentagon would not designate the US truck driver a POW when she was captured, and dedication listed her simply as #147;missing.#148; They persisted even though her truck had been last seen stuck off the road with Iraqi soldiers running up to essay surfing it, and later was found without the two drivers, and thesis dedication to husband even though US pilots over Baghdad later spotted her in a prison compound. When she was released after the write on importance, war and thesis dedication to husband appeared on essays tv TV wearing a yellow uniform stamped #147;PW,#148; her father called a Pentagon official at to husband, 3 a.m. and said, #147;Now, you asshole, will you declare her a prisoner of war?#148; 95. Overall, the Gulf War was a big victory for human essays liberal feminism. Women participated in large numbers, and performed capably, and the public proved willing to accept women soldiers as casualties and POWs. The Pentagon#146;s fears proved inflated, and thesis to husband its efforts to manage public perceptions (such as by narrative, silencing information about sexual assaults in the ranks) proved easier than expected. The main problems that arose from the thesis, women casualties and POWs were that they generated huge media interest which sometimes caused resentment among male colleagues and sometimes also was unwelcome to the women and reality their families. These problems arose mostly because of the novelty of the thesis to husband, situation. Of Any Company! 96.

Current issues In the thesis dedication, 1990s, some problems in research methods for thesis US military gender integration persisted, in basic training, military academies, and #147;sex scandals.#148; Both military academies and basic training socialize new soldiers (officers and enlisted, respectively). The transition from an all-male environment to a mixed-gender one has not been smooth. Sexist elements in military culture have been slow to change, and harassment of dedication to husband women is widespread. Women soldiers face a no-win situation in terms of relationships with men: if they have sex with men, men see them as sluts or whores, but if not, the men see them as lesbians. In a 1992 Pentagon survey, about dialogue groove one-third of women soldiers reported experiencing some form of dedication verbal or physical sexual harassment or abuse.

A 1992 US Senate report said that 60,000 women had been raped or assaulted while in the military. (Such figures do not show whether sexual harassment and assault are more common in the military than in civilian society.) 97. Pregnancy in the ranks, a controversial political issue, is not a major military problem. A retired admiral compares the dialogue groove music, pregnancy rate of thesis dedication to husband about 10 percent with the #147;much higher disciplinary problem with the men, unauthorized absenteeism, absence in the brig for more serious offenses. Against! Pregnancy is a wash.#148; 98. In US military academies #150; West Point for the Army, Annapolis for the Navy, and dedication to husband the US Air Force Academy in Colorado, alongside various other private and public military academies #150; women have been integrated since 1976. Write An Essay On Importance Of Discipline! The academies graduate about thesis dedication to husband 600 women a year, who enter with records as distinguished as their male peers, perform equally in the academies, and against reality go on dedication to husband to successful military careers. The only sacrifice area in thesis which women lag behind men is in dialogue essay groove certain physical requirements. Although many women keep up with the to husband, men on plan rigorous marches at dedication to husband, West Point, other women (in disproportionate numbers) fall behind or need men#146;s help lightening the load. Methods For Thesis! The average disparities in physical strength are a persistent source of gender conflict, as many men resent the different standard for women than men on certain physical fitness tests. (In the dedication to husband, case of on importance of discipline greatest difference, men must do ten pull-ups but women only three.) 99. In surveys of graduating West Point seniors in the 1980s, fewer than a third of women cadets felt #147;totally accepted#148; by thesis dedication, other cadets, compared to over half of research for thesis men. As one male cadet put it, #147;I would never openly harass women, [but] I hope they understand they are not welcome here.#148; Women cadets dropped out of West Point at twice the men#146;s rate after the second summer which emphasizes combat training (which women would not be allowed to put to thesis to husband use).

At the Air Force Academy in the early 1990s, one-third of women as compared to one-quarter of men dropped out before graduation. In the write of discipline, 1990s, incidents of sexual harassment apparently increased at the academies. Reportedly, the Coast Guard academy (with no gender restrictions) has the worst record on sexual harassment in the service academies. 100. The rough transition is perhaps to be expected; cultures change slowly. To military commanders, gender problems at the academies are a difficulty they can work around. As one West Point officer put it, #147;This is not an thesis dedication to husband experiment. Research Writing! This is an operational reality.#148; Men#146;s and women#146;s feelings notwithstanding, the military is getting the officers it needs #150; which must include women in order to meet the needed quality and quantity. Furthermore, despite the sexist culture, most women are getting through the academies with records equal to those of the men. In the words of one woman officer formerly at West Point, #147;In a nonnurturing environment, they are kicking ass. And that is the bottom line#148; 101.

In basic training, the dedication to husband, problem of company unfair treatment (lax or harsh) revolves around the relationship of drill sergeants and company commanders with their troops. By tradition, harsh treatment in boot camp helps socialize new troops into discipline and thesis to husband hierarchy. Of Any Company! The drill sergeant #150; typically male #150; has unparalleled power over his troops. If some troops are female, this power can be used for thesis dedication sexual domination. In the mid-1990s several abuse-of-authority cases came to light, most visibly at write an essay, the Army#146;s Aberdeen Proving Grounds where NCOs were accused of thesis dedication a widespread pattern of rape and sexual abuse.

However, these problems occurred in occupational training, which follows on basic training and has long been gender-integrated. Congress in 1998 debated mandating the separation of plan genders during basic training, a move suggested by a commission but opposed by thesis, the Pentagon as impractical (since men and against reality women go on thesis to serve together). Only the Marine Corps (as of 1998) separates genders during basic training, and even the Corps in 1997 began sending women to the follow-on (gender-integrated) combat training program after boot camp. As one male trainee said, #147;Men or women, that doesn#146;t matter#133;. All we see is another Marine.#148; The Navy#146;s boot camp, with about 15 percent women, uses mostly all-male divisions with the rest having equal numbers of men and women (to avoid problems that arise when a few women are scattered in a heavily male group). 102. Also complicating US military gender integration in narrative surfing the 1990s, sex scandals of various types brought unfavorable publicity and fueled political debates.

The first woman to to husband pilot a B-52 bomber with nuclear weapons (a symbolically important role) was forced to resign after she was accused of having an adulterous affair and then lying about an essay on importance of discipline it. Liberal feminists, among others, pointed to dedication a double standard, since similar cases involving men had been glossed over in the past. In the wake of the sacrifice, public controversy, a male nominee for Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff was passed over because of an thesis affair decades earlier. Military sex scandals moved out of the news, at essays reality, least temporarily, when journalists#146; focus switched to the White House in 1997. 103. New combat positions While these general issues of dedication to husband gender integration swirled around the US military, the actual focus of women in narrative surfing combat shifted to combat aircraft and ships #150; the positions most often open to women in the NATO countries discussed earlier. In considering military jobs related to dedication combat in which women might be included, the US military reproduces roughly the same spectrum of tasks discussed earlier under NATO countries. For example, a 1993 survey of retired high-ranking officers regarding women in tv combat showed, in addition to greater support among those more recently retired, greater support for women in warplanes (29% yes), attack helicopters (24%) and combat ships (24%) than in artillery (22%) and combat engineering (17%), with least support for women in thesis dedication to husband armor (12%) and narrative surfing infantry (10%). To Husband! 104. In 1990, an Air Force officer testified to Congress that women #150; then barred from only 3 percent of jobs in the Air Force, namely aircraft actually engaged in combat missions #150; #147;can fly fighters, they can pull Gs. They are physically capable and, I think, emotionally capable.#148; After the Gulf War, a Presidential Commission on women in combat recommended by a split vote to keep the status quo, but the Administration lifted the combat exclusion for women on almost all airplanes and ships (except submarines and Navy commandoes).

Navy positions on ships are opening only as separate quarters are built. 105. Naval aviation also has opened up and several women have flown combat missions (in Iraq since 1998 and in Serbia in 1999). Dialogue Music! Controversy erupted when one of the first two women to fly the thesis dedication, F-14A off aircraft carriers (Kara Hultgreen) died when her plane crashed after losing one engine just before landing. Opponents of an essay on importance of discipline women in to husband combat aviation #150; including many of the Navy#146;s male pilots #150; seized on the accident and claimed that the pilot had substandard flight skills which were tolerated only because of her gender. It appears that Hultgreen#146;s inexperience, rather than substandard skills, caused an dialogue essay music equipment failure to spiral to disaster when an thesis dedication experienced pilot might have prevented the crash. Nine male pilots flying the difficult F-14A had been killed in training accidents in the preceding three years. Essays Against Reality! Eight out of nine male F-14A pilots who reenacted Hultgreen#146;s landing sequence in a flight simulator also crashed.

106. The Army and Marine Corps have been more resistant to women in combat. Nonetheless, in 1994 the Army opened combat support positions to women, allowing them into 20,000 previously prohibited jobs at brigade headquarters (closer to the front line). Three years later, however, fewer than 1,400 women had been assigned to those jobs, most doing traditionally women#146;s work (administration, health care, supply) in the newly opened units. Military studies show that men and dedication to husband women work together well when women are not a novelty in a unit (see pp. 199#150;203). With the opening of new positions closer to combat, women became a novelty in those units (just as they still seem to dialogue be for thesis to husband each entering class at against reality tv, the academies, and in basic training). Thesis Dedication To Husband! The Army makes no attempt to avoid assigning one or two women alone to a unit of several hundred soldiers, nor does it train male soldiers effectively to work with women better. As a unit works together, however, and especially if it deploys in the field, unit bonding appears to overcome gender divisions to a great extent. Women soldiers who made up 10 percent of US forces in Bosnia in 1997 reportedly had #147;easygoing and untroubled#148; relations with the men. For one thing, with US peacekeeping troops there wearing protective gear almost all the of any, time, gender was less visible #150; it took one infantry colonel a week to to husband realize that some of the MPs protecting him in the field were female.

In peacekeeping operations, women MPs are generally closer to an essay on importance the #147;front lines#148; than are the all-male infantry and thesis dedication armored units. Dialogue! Lines are further blurred by the Army practice of ignoring regulations and using females in supposedly off-limits jobs when practical considerations make it the best way to dedication to husband get the job done. Among the methods for thesis, US forces in thesis Bosnia, women blended in by adopting stereotypically #147;macho#148; attitudes and behaviors, including swearing, smoking cigars, and getting a thrill from sacrifice, firing guns. Most importantly, they adopted a #147;warrior spirit.#148; As one female US Lt. Dedication! Colonel who commanded a Military Police battalion in Bosnia put it, #147;If a woman thinks like a warrior, believes she#146;s a warrior, then she#146;ll do what it takes. Most women don#146;t think they have it in them, but once you let that spirit loose you find that aggressiveness.#148; 107. The political debate Every step of the way, the experience of integrating women has fueled a raging political debate. The two sides tend to draw on two kinds of moral arguments. One concerns fairness #150; whether it is proper, desirable, or just to allow women to participate in combat if they so choose, or even to assign women soldiers to surfing combat on the same basis as men.

The second category deals with the effectiveness of the military and thesis whether the an essay on importance of discipline, participation of women in to husband combat would reduce or increase (or neither) its readiness, fighting ability, and morale. Research Methods! 108. Those who favor allowing women in combat rely on the fairness argument, and thesis dedication think the effects on military performance would be minimal. Women should be allowed any job opportunities for which they are individually qualified, not barred because of research for thesis their gender alone. This view extends the logic applied to other occupations from which females were traditionally excluded, from police and dedication firefighters to corporate managers, political leaders, and research methods writing so on. Especially in today#146;s large and bureaucratic US military, being a soldier can be a career path. Many top military positions require service in thesis to husband a combat capacity as a prerequisite, effectively barring women. Congresswoman Pat Schroeder said of the combat exclusion laws that #147;the only thing they protect women from is promotion.#148; A focal point of women#146;s efforts to increase gender fairness in the military is the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS). It was created by Defense Secretary George C. Of Discipline! Marshall in 1951 to help bring more women into military service during the Korean War.

To overcome male resistance he awarded DACOWITS members the protocol rank of three-star general, which they still have. 109. Those who oppose women in combat rely on the effectiveness argument #150; that the military needs to put priority on its main mission of winning wars, not on social-change experiments. For example, retired General Norman Schwarzkopf said: #147;Decisions on what roles women should play in war must be based on military standards, not women#146;s rights.#148; However, some opponents of women in combat also rely on a #147;fairness#148; argument. They see protection for dedication to husband women as men#146;s end of a gendered division of labor: #147;Good men respect and defend women.#148; A widely reported exchange between Senator William Cohen and Air Force General Merrill McPeak took place soon after the write on importance, Gulf War: 110.

The two sides interpret the same set of episodes from the thesis dedication, late 1980s and early 1990s differently. As in the movie Rashomon , contradictory versions of the human sacrifice, same episode seem credible and coherent, with the #147;truth#148; being difficult to pin down. Each side plays up elements that support their political positions, and omits elements that undermine them. Each side accuses the other of manufacturing false information #150; to thesis slander military women (with the collusion of male military officials), or to cover up military women#146;s failings (with the collusion of liberal media and politicians), depending which side you take. Pro-feminist Linda Francke and anti-feminist William Breuer, for example, tell contradictory stories about Linda Bray#146;s experiences at the Panamanian military kennel (see p. 94). According to Francke, Captain Bray arrived at the kennel #150; which turned out to be a base and weapons cache for reality Special Operations troops #150; ten minutes into a fierce half-hour gun battle in which the unit she led was outnumbered by Panamanian defenders firing from the surrounding woods.

She took cover in a ditch, fired her pistol at thesis to husband, the enemy once, and human essays rode in the armored vehicle that crashed through the front gate. A few days later, three Panamanian soldiers#146; bodies were found in to husband the woods, probable casualties of the Bray-led attack. According to Breuer, however, the kennel was militarily insignificant, there was only narrative essay surfing some sporadic fire and Bray was not even there at the time. She did not crash through the gates or lead her men in combat. Breuer focuses on exaggerated media reports of a long firefight with many dead Panamanians strewn about (one report refers to thesis #147;a three-hour-long infantry-type battle#148;). Breuer takes as fact a Los Angeles Times report that Francke calls disinformation leaked by Pentagon officials but not supported by the facts. Similar disputes surround other cases, notably the Hultgreen crash (see p. 99).

111. Despite the creeping proximity of women to combat, the gender structure of labor in the US military continues to place women primarily in traditionally feminine areas. The large-scale gender integration creates more of the rare cases of women in and near combat, but these #147;newsworthy#148; cases should not blind us to essays tv the general pattern of gendered labor. In the first plans for thesis to husband a women#146;s corps drawn up in plan the 1930s, the US Army conceived of women as #147;a menial type of corps of low-grade personnel.#148; Nearly half would be used as clerks and stenographers, with the rest divided between domestic services (cooking, sewing, laundry, and cleaning), driving, labor, and other unskilled occupations. A few would be skilled workers such as telephone operators. 112. In World War II, the Army realized it could save money by substituting women for men soldiers. Thesis Dedication! Person for person, WACs cost 3 percent less to maintain than men (mostly owing to lower housing and food costs). More importantly, although women replaced men at a one-to-one ratio in driving and mechanical jobs, one woman could do the surfing, work of two men in traditional women#146;s jobs such as clerical work. Dedication! From this experience came the business company, idea decades later #150; in the all-volunteer force where labor was a commodity to be bought, not conscripted #150; that budgets could be best utilized by drawing on dedication to husband either men or women according to individual ability for a particular job. 113.

Today, US military women are strongly concentrated at essays reality tv, low ranks and pay grades (Figure 2.5). Furthermore, although women made up over to husband, 10 percent of the US military in 1989, they were still concentrated in traditionally female occupations (see Figure 2.6). About two-thirds of US women soldiers are in administration, health care, communications, and service/supply occupations. They are the successors to the historical secretaries, nurses, telephone operators, and #147;camp followers#148; (who once did the research for thesis writing, cooking, sewing, laundry, cleaning, and supply roles). The main area of change, in thesis dedication terms of women in nontraditional roles, is in equipment repair. Combat-related occupations, such as training and combat support of narrative various kinds, amount to just 4 percent of women (about 7,500 people).

Women make up about dedication one-quarter of health care and administration personnel, about 10 percent of service, communications, and technical personnel, and just 2.5 percent of human essays combat-related personnel. These data understate women#146;s combat exposure in the Navy, where 15 percent of to husband women serve on ships and women in traditional occupations may serve in combat positions (e.g., nurses on combat ships). The opposite applies for human sacrifice the Army, where women in nontraditional occupations are banned completely from combat positions, including infantry, armor, and most artillery units. Although women helicopter pilots received public attention during the Gulf War, in thesis 1991 women pilots represented under 5 percent for each branch #150; Army, Navy, and Air Force #150; fewer than 1,000 pilots in all (not counting women navigators and aircrew). 114. Figure 2.5 Percent women at each pay rank, US military, 1997. Figure 2.6 Occupations in US military (enlisted) by gender, 1998. In the US Army in on importance of discipline 1997 #150; after the opening of some combat-support occupations and positions to women but while most women were in occupations chosen before that opening #150; women troops were still concentrated in administration (one-third), health care (one-sixth), and service and supply (one-sixth). Thesis Dedication To Husband! For men, fully 32 percent were in infantry, gun crews, and seamanship.

Among the women officers , almost half were in health care (doctors are officers), another quarter in logistics and administration. For male officers, by contrast, almost half were in research methods for thesis writing tactical operations. These differences are gradually eroding from year to year, however. 115. One could argue that women are in the traditional roles because these are the roles they want and are best at. Indeed, most women soldiers do not want combat assignments #150; but then neither do most men. In a 1992 US survey, 12 percent of thesis dedication to husband enlisted women and 14 percent of business plan of any company officers said they would volunteer for the combat arms if allowed to do so.

Another 18 and 15 percent, respectively, said they might do so. (About 75 percent of women soldiers thought that women should be allowed to volunteer for combat.) These numbers translate into thesis dedication to husband, a pool of nearly 25,000 current soldiers, and possibly twice that number, ready to research methods volunteer for combat. 116. Overall, the dedication, results of the US experience indicate a broad, deep, and well-rounded capability of research for thesis women to participate in the kinds of actions and operations required for combat, and to hold their own in combat itself when drawn into it. Most of the problems revolve around men#146;s difficulties in adjusting to the presence of women in their midst, and even those problems are most acute when women are a novelty and much less so after men work together with women soldiers. To Husband! The US experience is significant because it is occurring on sacrifice a very large scale #150; the largest such effort ever in peacetime. The most widespread involvement of women in combat has been neither in thesis all-female nor in gender-integrated units, but rather as individuals scattered through the essay groove, ranks. Such women combatants are found in many cultures around the world, and in many historical periods, although generally in extremely small numbers compared to male combatants. Put together, these thousands of cases add up to a strong endorsement of the conclusion that individual women can hold their own in thesis dedication to husband combat when circumstances permit (or force) them to do so. Historically, women who have participated in combat usually did so disguised as men.

An Englishman joked in 1762 that #147;so many disguised women were serving in the army that they ought to have their own regiments.#148; This presents a real problem for assessing the against reality tv, evidence: we cannot know how many women have successfully participated in this manner #150; surviving (or being buried) without detection. Thesis Dedication! We can only know those whose gender came to light, which most often occurred after a serious injury requiring prolonged medical care. Historically, most armies have not provided such care in the way we take for granted today, and wounded women may have left the narrative, ranks without discovery. Furthermore, soldiers killed in thesis dedication to husband battle would not generally be undressed before being buried. Thus, we do not know how many women lie in soldiers#146; graves.

Nonetheless, scholars have documented enough cases of cross-dressing women warriors, discovered before or after death, to draw some inferences. 117. Women soldiers in men#146;s clothes are found in business plan most regions of the world. In the dedication, old Chinese story of human essays Mulan, a young woman dresses as a man, serves in the army in place of her sickly father, earns distinction, has her gender discovered after the fact, and ultimately returns home to a feminine role. Mulan was adapted by Disney, with artistic license, as a cartoon movie in dedication to husband 1998. Although probably a fictitious or composite figure even before Disney got hold of her #150; scholars disagree about human sacrifice essays when and where she lived, and even her family name #150; she is probably based on real cases. Thesis! This basic story recurs in human essays various cultures, including several true stories (perhaps exaggerated for commercial reasons) that spurred popular books, articles, and speaking tours. Thesis To Husband! A central message is that gender relations are overturned in wartime but restored in the happy ending.

For example, Franziska Scanagatta reportedly graduated from the Austrian military academy in 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars. She served in the campaigns of 1797 and 1799, and was promoted to against tv lieutenant in 1800. However, her gender was discovered the next year and she left the army, marrying another lieutenant and having four children. In the US Revolutionary War, Deborah Samson (sometimes spelled Sampson) apparently did serve in male disguise, although her later autobiography and lecture tour were fictionalized. She won a small pension afterwards, and her husband even received benefits based on her service.

118. Among the thesis to husband, best documented cases is the US Civil War. It took place in a transitional era when the military was organized enough to maintain records on individual soldiers but not organized enough to narrative essay surfing provide all entering soldiers with detailed physical exams. Thesis Dedication! Women participated on both sides. Most women serving at music, the front in the Civil War did so as nurses (Clara Barton being the most famous), and others served as #147;daughter of the regiment#148; #150; a morale booster and support person (similar to the Israeli role mentioned earlier). These nurses and #147;daughters#148; stayed just behind the lines, in theory, but in fact were sometimes caught up in thesis battle.

Other women accompanied the troops until combat became imminent, as wives and an essay on importance of discipline girlfriends, cooks and laundresses. 119. In several dozen documented cases, women dressed as men and fought in to husband the ranks. For example, #147;Frank Mayne#148; (Frances Day) disguised herself to follow her lover into the Union Army, stayed on narrative essay surfing after he died from disease a few weeks later, and was promoted to sergeant. Her secret was discovered when she was mortally wounded in battle. Lizzie Compton enlisted in seven different regiments, joining a new unit each time her gender was uncovered. #147;Frank Martin#148; (Frances Hook) fought in Tennessee in 1862 but was mustered out, against her pleas, when her gender was discovered after she was seriously wounded in battle. Thesis! She reenlisted in a Michigan regiment in Kentucky, was found out essays against reality again, and thesis dedication to husband reportedly served later in an Illinois regiment. Hook was, according to the Michigan regiment records, #147;quite small, a beautiful figure#133;.large blue eyes beaming#133;.exceedingly pretty and very amiable.#148; By contrast, another woman soldier wounded in the same Tennessee battle (in a Minnesota regiment), Frances Clayton, was described as very tall and essay music masculine looking. She learned to drink, smoke, chew tobacco, and swear prolifically in order to help conceal her gender.

Clayton had enlisted to thesis dedication to husband be with her husband. Dialogue Essay Groove Music! Both these women were considered excellent soldiers and brave fighters, despite their differences in physique and appearance. Dedication! 120. #147;Albert Cashier#148; (Jennie Hodgers) served for three years with the Union and was in combat forty times, notably in the brutal 1863 battle for Vicksburg, Mississippi, where Cashier#146;s name is inscribed on the battlefield monument. Cashier was considered dependable, healthy, and essay fearless by thesis to husband, her commanders #150; the equal of anyone in #147;his#148; company, despite a lack of plan size and brawn. She continued to pose as a man after the war, her story coming to light only in 1913 at thesis dedication to husband, age 70, shortly after Hodgers was sent to a hospital for dialogue essay music the insane. The story caused a minor sensation. Hodgers#146;s former sergeant visited and reported her #147;broken#148; because #147;she was compelled to put on skirts.#148; She told him: #147;The country needed men, and I wanted excitement.#148; 121. On the Confederate side, generally fewer women served near the front than on dedication to husband the Union side, although some women served in essay surfing support roles usually called #147;mother#148; of the troops.

Some Confederate women did serve while disguised as men. #147;Richard Anderson#148; (Amy Clarke) enlisted in thesis to husband the Confederate army with her husband, stayed after he was killed, and was captured by write an essay, the Union and released in thesis to husband a dress after her gender was discovered. Human Sacrifice! She then apparently (although evidence is thin) returned to to husband service as a lieutenant, even though her gender was then known. Lucy Matilda Thompson #150; tall, masculine, and an expert shot #150; also enlisted in the Confederate army with her husband, and narrative essay was discovered only after serious injury. 122. While some women believed in the Confederate cause, others joined only to remain close to husbands or boyfriends. Sarah Malinda Blaylock of thesis dedication to husband North Carolina joined the Confederate army with her husband, although he was a Unionist, when he was about to essay groove music be drafted. A month later, he rubbed his body with poison sumac and received a medical discharge. She immediately revealed her identity and was discharged as well. They went on to become Unionist partisans, and led raiding parties from the dedication to husband, Tennessee mountains.

123. The most famous women soldiers of the war served as spies and human essays published their stories afterwards. #147;Franklin Thompson#148; (Sarah Emma Edmonds) adopted a male identity before the thesis dedication, war and worked in the Union army as a #147;male#148; nurse and mail carrier who was recruited to the secret service and narrative essay slipped behind Confederate lines on numerous occasions to bring back vital military information (Figure 2.7). On these forays, Edmonds adopted disguise-within-a-disguise, as an African American man, or an Irish woman peddler. She lived through many battles, deserted the army when her identity appeared to be in jeopardy, and published a best-selling book in 1864, Nurse and Spy , about her escapades, told as though she were a female nurse who sometimes adopted male disguise. She was the only woman ever accepted into the veterans#146; group, Grand Army of the dedication, Republic, in 1898. (Several other cross-dressing women combatants wrote successful books, encouraging similar, fictional stories.) 124. Figure 2.7 Sarah Emma Edmonds as #147;Franklin Thompson,#148; US Civil War. [Courtesy of State Archives of Michigan.] Edmonds#146;s counterpart in research methods the Confederacy was #147;Lieutenant Harry T. Buford#148; (Loreta Janeta Velazquez). Thesis Dedication To Husband! With the help of a fake moustache and beard, Velazquez fought with the Confederate army as an independent lieutenant (floating from one unit to of any company another as needed) in 1861, and at least twice temporarily took charge of a company that had lost its officers. She served under her fiance without being recognized by him, worked as a spy switching in and out of dedication to husband male and essay female attire, and was arrested by both the North and the South numerous times on charges of spying or (in the thesis dedication, South) being a woman, only to get away each time and carry on.

After revealing herself to her fiance (when both were recovering in a hospital) and marrying him, only to have him die weeks later, Velazquez gave up male disguise and turned to spying full-time, as a woman. Sacrifice! She became one of the South#146;s most effective secret agents, working as double (and once triple) agent under the North#146;s secret service, counterfeiting large sums in the US Treasury to finance the Confederacy, blockade-running through Cuba, and thesis to husband making a clean getaway at the end of the war. She published her controversial memoirs in 1876. 125. Many women were discovered quickly and discharged #150; often victims of their #147;feminine#148; mannerisms, such as how they put on stockings or wrung out dishcloths. Dialogue Groove Music! Two soldiers were found out when officers threw apples to thesis to husband them, which they tried to catch with their aprons (they were not wearing aprons).

Another, according to an 1862 newspaper account, was found out after #147;trying to sacrifice put her pants on thesis over her head.#148; Several women were discovered after giving birth, including a Union sergeant whose delivery was #147;in violation of research methods all military law#148; according to an outraged superior officer, and thesis a Confederate officer who gave birth after being taken prisoner by the North. Many women, however, were discovered only after injury or death, and an unknown number either were buried on the battlefield or survived the war undiscovered. Of course, while hundreds of essays women soldiers may have fought in the Civil War, hundreds of thousands of thesis to husband men did. The participation of women was limited in that they almost always had to pretend to company be men in order to fight, and they were summarily dismissed or punished when discovered. 126. Women have participated in naval warfare and as pirates on a number of occasions, in a variety of roles #150; disguised as men, working in support jobs on ships, and in rare cases as openly female combatants. In the sailing ships of the thesis dedication to husband, British Navy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it was common for women to accompany men to sea, both as wives and as service workers (prostitutes, cooks).

As Figure 2.8 illustrates, in time of battle women participated under fire, facing many of the essays reality tv, same dangers as the men. They traditionally helped nurse the wounded and carry gunpowder to the cannons. The latter was an especially difficult and dedication dangerous task, since heavy cartridges had to be carried from the write on importance, (spark-free) powder room up ladders to the slippery and smoke-filled gun deck, over and over. It was #147;not unusual#148; for thesis dedication the noise, vibration, and human sacrifice stress of battle to induce labor in a pregnant woman, who gave birth with little assistance from others. 127. Figure 2.8 British seaman#146;s wife helps a wounded seaman in dedication battle, 1830. Narrative Essay Surfing! [From Matthew Henry Barker, The Log Book . London: J. Dedication! #038; W. Robins, 1830.] These combat support roles for women at sea are supplemented by plan of any company, quite a few cases of women who adopted male dress and joined the thesis dedication, Navy as regular sailors #150; usually motivated by essay groove music, economic and social restrictions faced by women on land (and by pure adventurousness). Of three biographies of eighteenth-century women who went to sea with the Royal Navy, one turns out to be accurate, one is embellished with fiction, and the third entirely fictitious. The public showed both tolerance of, and amusement at, the story of a woman dressing as a man and taking to thesis sea, especially if she went in business plan of any company search of a lost love (which few real women did) and thesis dedication returned to normal gender roles at the end of the story. It was surprisingly easy to pass as a man in the eighteenth century, when men were routinely press-ganged into naval service to plan of any company fill labor shortages in the war-prone British Navy.

As with all cross-dressing female soldiers, it is dedication to husband hard to estimate numbers of surfing real historical cases behind the popular ballads. 128. Openly female fighters. The form of female participation found least often is the isolated individual female soldier who, without gender disguise, fights among her male comrades. Cultures tend to treat these as exceptional cases, decoupled from thesis dedication, any idea of women#146;s systematic participation. For example, the Russian Naval Academy#146;s first female cadet, admitted in 1997, is being treated as an exception #150; admitted by special decision of the Defense Minister. To quote an officer at the academy, #147;One girl alone cannot ruin the essays against tv, navy.#148; Many stories describe individual, remarkable women who simply went to war as women, their strong abilities usually convincing males to accept them despite their gender. Some of these stories are of dubious historical accuracy, other are composites of several cases, and others are well documented.

The phenomenon of individual, openly female warriors is widespread and yet, in thesis most times and write on importance places, rare. 129. Simple societies In several simple, prestate societies, women sometimes participate in thesis fighting. In these societies, combat and support roles are not always clearly separated (although in some cultures they are), so that when a small band of warriors goes off to fight, women may accompany them and occasionally participate in fighting. I have mentioned the company, case of women of the thesis dedication, Eurasian steppes in the early Iron Age (see pp. 13#150;14). Among the Maori, women fought in emergencies, as when inner home defenses were threatened. This was unusual, however. Business Plan Of Any Company! As the Maori proverb says, #147;Fighting with men and childbirth with women.#148; Several other cases illustrate women#146;s participation, although in none of them do women play a role equal to men in combat. Some native American societies allowed women to thesis participate in combat to a minor extent. Among the surfing, southern Apaches, some women accompanied war parties and thesis dedication to husband a few #147;also fought and were known for their bravery and expert marksmanship.#148; Reports are somewhat contradictory, however.

Cremony reported in human sacrifice essays 1868: Many of the women delight to participate in predatory excursions, urging on the men, and actually taking part in conflicts. They ride like centaurs and handle their rifles with deadly skill#133;.[T]he fighting women#133;.are numerous, well trained, and dedication to husband desperate, often exhibiting more real courage than the men. However, a 1941 report states that Apache raiding parties were #147;made up of men only. Women never go on raids.#148; Nonetheless, prisoners taken in battle were often taken back to methods for thesis writing camp for the women (especially those who had lost loved ones in battle) to torture and kill. To Husband! Apache girls and young women received much physical training including riding and using knife, bow, and rifle #150; and were expected to guard camp while males were away. Adult women occasionally joined a raiding or war party, usually to essays help with cooking, cleaning, and nursing. 130. The most famous woman Apache warrior was Lozen, who rode and fought with Geronimo (against the dedication to husband, US and Mexican armies in the late nineteenth century). Lozen was unusual because she was not married. Of Discipline! A witness who, as a child, rode with Geronimo#146;s band recalls: #147;Lozen#133;.was called The Woman Warrior; and though she may not have had as much strength as one of the men she was as good a shot as any of thesis dedication to husband them.#148; This witness mentions that #147;no unmarried woman was permitted to write an essay on importance of discipline go#148; with a war party. #147;Lozen?

No, she was not married#133;. But to us she was as a Holy Woman#133;. And she was brave!#148; Lozen, the sister of Chief Victorio, reputedly used her powers as medicine woman to detect the enemy#146;s presence and help the Apache warriors elude capture on many occasions. After her brother#146;s death, Lozen rode with Chief Nana, who #150; with a force of 15 to 40 warriors #150; eluded a US force of over 1,000 soldiers and won eight battles against them. Lozen went on to ride with Geronimo, was eventually captured with him, and died in custody. Clearly, however, Lozen was the exception. Most Apache women did not participate in war, and most war parties did not integrate women into the ranks. 131.

On the long war expeditions of the extremely aggressive Mundurucu (Brazil), warriors were joined by their wives and #147;a number of unmarried girls. Their tasks were to carry cooking utensils and thesis dedication to husband all of the equipment of the men, except for their arms#133;. They also cooked, fetched water and write of discipline firewood and performed other female services. Thesis! Contrary to [an 1831 report]#133;.that the women helped on the battlefield#133;.the women were always left at a safe distance#148; during fighting. 132. Cheyenne Indian women also occasionally, though rarely, went with war parties, and an essay showed courage equal to the men. Thesis To Husband! When the chief#146;s horse was killed in a battle in 1876, his sister charged in an essay of discipline among the white troops and thesis dedication to husband rode away with him to safety. According to some reports, Cheyenne women who had been in groove music wars formed a small guild and dedication to husband held meetings.

Women also occasionally accompanied war parties among the Shasta (California). The women cut enemy bowstrings with knives, and write an essay on importance of discipline were sometimes taken prisoner. Thesis Dedication! They also cooked and carried supplies. The Gabrielino society (California) #150; wrongly characterized by nineteenth-century writers as #147;timid and peaceful#148; #150; used women and children to research for thesis accompany war parties, carrying the food and supplies, as did the Hidatsa, Choctaw, and Guiana Amerindians. Possibly, Klamath (Oregon) women fought other women in war. The Konkow sometimes allowed women to participate in torturing captured male enemies. 133. Women#146;s participation in torturing and killing prisoners is thesis found elsewhere as well, scattered across the anthropological record of cross-cultural research on simple societies.

For example, among the Tupinamba of Brazil, women enthusiastically helped torture prisoners of war to death and then dismember and eat them. Similarly, Kiwai women of Oceania had the reality tv, special job of #147;mangling#148; enemy wounded and then killing them with knives or digging sticks. Thesis To Husband! In seventeenth-century colonial Massachusetts a mob of women tortured two Indian prisoners to death after overcoming their guards. Plan Company! Afghan women in dedication the nineteenth century tortured enemy survivors of battle. Essays! In 1993 a mob of Somali women tore apart four foreign journalists. 134. It is thesis dedication to husband possible, incidentally, for a culture to narrative surfing mobilize women into combat support without taking away their noncombatant protected status. Thesis To Husband! In Papuan warfare, women #147;collect stray arrows for their husbands#148; and narrative essay surfing scout enemy movements, enjoying immunity from attack. Kapauku warfare (New Guinea) extends total immunity to women who function as support troops in the middle of the battle. #147;The Kapauku consider it highly immoral for a man to shoot at thesis dedication to husband, a female during a battle.

Even an accidental injury brings#133;.derision and loss of prestige.#148; These cases highlight the distinction between combat and combat-support categories. 135. In Celtic traditions, women warriors are a recurrent theme. Beyond the historical cases, warrior queens of surfing dubious historical basis also figure prominently in dedication to husband legends and myths of many cultures. For example, Queen Medb (Maeve), in dialogue essay groove music the Celtic classic The Tain , would have lived around the first century AD. In the thesis dedication to husband, legend, the sacrifice, goddess-warrior Medb commanded 1,500 soldiers but was most fearsome as a single warrior. The Celtic tradition in general gives considerable latitude for thesis dedication military roles to women. Write! In Celtic myth, #147;again and again it is the magic intervention in the course of thesis dedication to husband battle of a female, goddess, queen or a combination of the two, which provides the research writing, focus or climax of the story.#148; Legends refer frequently to warlike queens and goddesses, but little hard evidence indicates actual women fighters. Even the goddesses of war generally do not engage in to husband battle, but use magic to influence battle outcomes, or sometimes train men in the art of war. Business Plan Of Any Company! As for historical evidence, since the thesis to husband, Celts were not literate, we must rely on second-hand accounts.

A Roman historian claimed that if a Celt called in his wife, foreigners would be hard pressed, since she was stronger than him and could rain blows and surfing kicks of thesis dedication to husband amazing strength on the foreigners. However, I have found no evidence that Celtic women participated as regular soldiers in warfare. Human Sacrifice Essays! If they did so, they left little trace. 136. Historical cases in industrialized societies In industrialized societies, individual women have also fought openly on occasion. In the French Revolutionary Wars, which first mobilized a whole national population for war service on a mass scale, several hundred women proposed forming a women#146;s militia. A proposal for a women#146;s battalion was considered, but rejected, in thesis to husband 1793. Essay Groove Music! However, Renee Bordereau served openly in the royalist cavalry, fighting with #147;unbelievable courage,#148; evidently out of rage at the murder of 42 of thesis her relatives (including her father before her eyes).

Afterwards she dictated her memoirs which were published as a pamphlet. Human! In the French siege of Saragossa, Spain, in 1808, a Spanish woman named Agostina served with hundreds of women bringing drink to the 200 defending soldiers and water to swab the cannons. When the French broke through and killed all the thesis dedication to husband, artillerymen, Agostina began firing a cannon, and other women joined in, forcing a French retreat. After the war, she continued as an company artillery captain, in uniform with standard pay and thesis pension, despite being openly female. A French woman, wearing male clothing but known by dialogue, all to be female, fought competently in Corsica in 1792#150;99, and retired as a sergeant major after being wounded.

Another woman served openly in thesis dedication the French army in dialogue groove music 1793#150;1815, was wounded six times, and dictated her memoirs afterwards. No attempt was made to discharge her, because she fought well. 137. In at least two cases in the US Civil War, similarly, women served openly as officers in the Confederate army at the rank of captain (in addition to those disguised as men). During World War I, a number of women participated individually in several armies.

One of the thesis to husband, most famous, Englishwoman Flora Sandes, fought with the Serbian army on the same terms as the essay surfing, men, and took an Austrian speaking tour in 1920. 138. Just as individual women have proven capable as soldiers, so too they have shown themselves adept as military leaders. Male soldiers and thesis officers will follow the commands and exhortations of a female leader #150; and not just one whose gender is disguised #150; when that leader is deemed to possess proper authority. Joan of groove Arc The most famous case #150; although it is atypical #150; is Joan of dedication to husband Arc. Dialogue! As a peasant girl, she heard voices telling her that God wanted her to save France, which was doing poorly in the Hundred Years War against England. The English, with the collusion of some French forces, occupied much of France including Paris and thesis the cathedral of human Reims where French kings were crowned, and were besieging Orleans. At age 16, Joan somehow convinced the to husband, French ruler to provide her some troops and send her to Orleans, where (in 1429) she rallied the dialogue essay music, demoralized army trying to relieve the siege.

She personally led the attack on the key English fortress, and prevailed. Using her ability to motivate the rank-and-file soldiers with religious fervor, and overcoming some initial resistance by the French military leadership, Joan led the army to a series of victories, culminating in the coronation of Charles VII at Reims with Joan by his side. These successes turned the tide of the Hundred Years War. The next year, Joan was captured by Burgundy and sold to the English, who condemned her both for idolatry and for wearing men#146;s clothing, and burned her at the stake. Thesis To Husband! 139. Joan#146;s main strength as a military leader was her ability to inspire troops to follow her. Leadership is critical in overcoming the paralyzing terror and essays reality tv confusion of soldiers on the battlefield (see pp. 253#150;58). Joan pro- vided the necessary strong leadership, in thesis dedication a manner not unlike that of the captains of mercenary units at that time.

The mercenaries would risk their lives for their captain and were rewarded with plunder, whereas Joan#146;s troops were rewarded with spiritual ecstasy. The French soldiers believed that Joan was a holy presence. Research! They loved her, and rushed to thesis dedication to husband touch her, or her horse. Joan exemplified a spiritual life: she prohibited looting by her troops, even for food. She was charitable to all. She chased away pro-stitutes (who follow armies; see pp. 342#150;48).

She prayed frequently and heard mass daily. In battle, she refused to dialogue essay groove shed blood personally, preferring to carry her standard instead of using her sword. Reportedly she could not stand the sight of dedication to husband blood. Business Of Any! Her soldiers #150; the same ones those prostitutes had been serving #150; claimed they were not sexually aroused around her, even when they saw her breasts or bare legs (when she was dressing, or wounded). Instead, the soldiers #147;relished the thesis to husband, spirituality of narrative their own existence when with her.#148; In addition to these qualities, Joan appears to thesis have had a knack for military tactics. She was especially adept at methods for thesis, riding a horse while wielding a lance, at setting up artillery (which was fairly new), and at organizing armies for battle.

Her contemporaries described her as a simple, innocent, and ignorant girl except in the art of dedication to husband war, where she acted as though she had 30 years#146; experience. 140. Most women military leaders, unlike Joan, were queens who held political power and exercised military leadership from methods writing, that position. Dedication! Antonia Fraser reviews the record of a dozen such historical #147;warrior queens.#148; Different stories treat such figures differently #150; for example, some emphasizing their chastity and surfing others their sexual voracity. 141. The documented historical cases include Semiramis (Sammu-ramat), who ruled Assyria in 811#150;806 BC after her husband#146;s death and before her son came of age. Not much is known about thesis her, but Greek writers built her up into a legendary adventuress, conqueror, and voracious lover #150; a story further embellished, centuries later, in a Voltaire play and a Rossini opera. 142. The forces of Tomyris, queen and general of the surfing, Massagetae in thesis dedication today#146;s eastern Iran, defeated the Persian ruler Cyrus in the sixth century BC, according to the fifth-century Greek historian Herodotus (who here, unlike the Amazon case, is reporting fairly recent history). Sacrifice! When Cyrus tried to conquer her territory, using trickery and capturing her son, Tomyris#146; army crushed the Persians in an extremely violent battle and killed Cyrus.

Fifty years later, the Persian king Xerxes battled the thesis to husband, Greeks at Salamis, with a warrior queen at his side #150; Artemisia of Halicarnassus (again, according to write an essay Herodotus, who praises her #147;manly courage#148;). Although she advised against dedication the unwise naval encounter with the Greeks, Artemisia fought more bravely than Xerxes#146; male commanders: he is dialogue essay groove music supposed to dedication have said, #147;My men have turned into women, my women into men.#148; The Greeks, who resented a woman warring against them, had offered a large reward for Artemisia#146;s capture, but she managed to surfing escape the battle alive with some clever tactics. (Tactics included ramming and dedication to husband sinking a friendly vessel, convincing a pursuer that she was on business plan of any his side, while Xerxes assumed she had sunk an enemy vessel.) 143. The legendary and historical British queen Boudica (Boadicea or Boudicca) led a rebellion against the Romans around 60 AD (17 years after their invasion). To Husband! A statue of her on reality a chariot stands near the to husband, British Parliament (see Figure 2.9). Boudica took leadership of the human, Iceni people (in present-day England) after her husband died. Her Iron Age society was of Celtic heritage (see p. 115) #150; warlike, reckless, horse-loving, robust and strong, prone to fighting naked accompanied by loud noise and frequent drinking. Celtic women, although they did not rule in a matriarchy as has been claimed, led freer lives than Roman law allowed. Women were not excluded from Celtic religion, which included powerful goddesses, and apparently women could serve as druids (priests). The historian Tacitus said of the Britons (in contrast to the Romans), #147;they make no distinction of thesis dedication sex in their appointment of commanders.#148; At the time Boudica took power, another queen, Cartimandua, presided over the Brigantian territories to business plan of any company the north, as a client of Rome (which had come to her aid when her rule was threatened).

144. Figure 2.9 Statue of thesis to husband Boudica, London. [By Thomas Thornycroft. Photo © by Sue Lanzon.] Boudica#146;s own history is sketchy, although the main outlines seem clear. Upon the death of Boudica#146;s husband, the Romans seized his estate, dispossessed the Iceni nobles, flogged the new queen, Boudica, and raped her two daughters. These humiliations came at a time of wide resentment against imperial rule. Drawing on spiritual and political symbols, Boudica mobilized her people to rebel, and led an army of possibly 100,000 which overran, burned, and sacked a Roman colonial settlement. Joined by other tribes, the research, army ambushed the to husband, Roman reinforcements and moved on an essay on importance the trading city of London, which the Romans abandoned and the rebels burned, as they did a third city, populated by Britons friendly to thesis Rome. Human Sacrifice! In the thesis dedication to husband, course of these attacks, tens of thousands of people died and many atrocities occurred. The Romans regrouped, attacked Boudica#146;s army, and #150; with superior experience and equipment #150; routed them and narrative killed tens of thousands of soldiers along with their families who had come to thesis see the battle.

Boudica reportedly killed herself afterwards. Rome inflicted vengeance on the Britons, and went on to rule for 400 years. Queen Cartimandua had not joined the rebellion, and remained in power. 145. Two hundred years after Boudica#146;s rebellion, Queen Zenobia of Palmyra led a similar revolt against the Roman empire, in modern-day Syria. Around 260 AD, Zenobia#146;s husband Odainat, ruler of the Roman colony Palmyra, went to war against Persia and won. The incredibly beautiful Zenobia rode with the men in wartime, was as brave as her husband, and supposedly had sex only for purposes of procreation. When her husband and his heir from an earlier marriage were assassinated, Zenobia took power as regent for her own son.

She quickly turned to an ambitious campaign of military conquest, and within a few years ruled a large territory from human essays, Egypt to the Bosphorus, then declared independence from thesis to husband, Rome. She rode with her troops (an army of narrative surfing 100,000 or more), transmitting orders through her general. Thesis! Eventually Rome attacked, reconquered the writing, territory, sacked Palmyra, and took Zenobia captive. Taken to Rome, she apparently survived and built a comfortable life married to a Roman senator. 146. Matilda of Tuscany was an to husband important ally of essays Pope Gregory VII in his eleventh-century power struggle with the dedication, Emperor Henry IV. Pious and largely chaste, she led her army on the battlefield, exhorting her troops and plunging into the battle with sword in hand.

She won and lost many battles, played important diplomatic roles, and died in write an essay of discipline old age. Her body was reburied in dedication St. Peter#146;s (Rome) in the seventeenth century, with the inscription: #147;This warrior-woman disposed her troops as the Amazonian Penthesilea [of Greek myth]#133;.#148; 147. In the twelfth century, Maud #150; daughter of write on importance King Henry I of England and husband of Emperor Henry V #150; became heiress to the English throne after her brother and then her husband both died. In the long succession struggle with her (male) cousin following her father#146;s death, Maud both led and defended against various military attacks and sieges. 148. Queen Tamara of twelfth-century Georgia plotted military strategy for aggressive campaigns, marched with her army, and spurred her soldiers on thesis to husband with battlefield speeches. The voraciously sexual Tamara of Georgian legend contrasts with the real Tamara, #147;more of a matriarch than an erotic heroine,#148; who was later canonized by the church. 149. These European queens #150; to whom we may add Queen Isabella of Spain and Queen Elizabeth of England #150; are joined by human essays, others far from Europe.

The first-century Vietnamese sisters Trung Trac and thesis dedication Trung Nhi are said to have raised an army that expelled Chinese invaders 2,000 years ago (see Figure 2.10). One commander in essays against reality their force supposedly gave birth at the front before fighting her way through enemy lines with her baby on her back. The Rani of Jhansi led the dedication, nineteenth-century Indian rebellion against British rule. 150. Figure 2.10 Trung sisters drive Chinese from dialogue essay groove music, Vietnam in 39 AD. [From Fraser 1989, 96f.]

Queen Nzinga (or Nzingha, N#146;Zinga, Jinga, or Mbande Zinga) of seventeenth-century Angola took power when her brother (the king) died. A cannibal who personally beheaded and drank the blood of prisoners, her economic base was the slave trade. Nzinga ruled first Ndongo and dedication to husband then #150; never having fully overcome sexist traditions there #150; neighboring Matamba which had some history of female rulers. She shifted alliances between the Portuguese and company the Dutch, and thesis dedication to husband is currently seen in Angola as a proto-nationalist who inflicted military defeats on colonialist Portugal. Sacrifice! (Some writers claim that Nzinga#146;s army included many female soldiers, but this seems to have no basis.) 151. Historical warrior queens sometimes tried to link themselves symbolically (for practical reasons) with well-known goddesses of war #150; Semiramis (ninth-century BC Babylon) with the goddess Astarte, Cleopatra (first-century BC Egypt) with Isis, and thesis dedication to husband Boudica (first-century AD England) with Celtic warrior goddesses. In other cases, warrior queen figures are symbolic of the nation and removed from military strategy. Queen Louise of Prussia led the dialogue groove, fight against Napoleon #150; as a national symbol dressed in military attire, but not a military strategist or fighter (she suffered disastrous defeat). 152. Other women in more recent centuries have shown leadership in battle. During the conquest of dedication Paraguay by its neighbors in 1864#150;70, the dictator#146;s mistress, Elisa (Ella) Lynch, played an important role and held the rank of colonel.

In one critical battle in 1868, as a town was being overrun, she rode to the women#146;s camp, organized thousands of business plan of any company women into an #147;army#148; carrying hoes and brooms, and marched back over thesis dedication, the hill to human town, where Argentinian infantry panicked and ran at the rumor of thousands of Paraguayan reinforcements arriving. This seems to have been an isolated incident, although Paraguayans of all ages and thesis to husband both genders participated in home defense in several other desperate battles during that war. 153. In feudal times, in write an essay of discipline both Europe and Asia, it was not unusual for women to dedication to husband take over defense of their castle when their men were away, held prisoner, or killed. The Countess of Montfort, who lived in fourteenth-century France, is an exemplary case. When her husband was taken prisoner by an archrival #150; a man given to plan of any atrocities in war #150; the thesis, Countess organized military affairs including morale, finance, tactics, and diplomacy. When besieged by the rival, she led the defense, dressed in armor, from horseback in the streets, mobilizing women to throw down stones and write an essay of discipline boiling tar on the enemy. She used a secret gate to sneak out with some knights during a lull, then destroyed half the enemy in an attack from behind, breaking the siege. (Although victorious, the Countess ultimately went mad and lived her last 30 years in dedication isolation in a castle.) 154. Modern political leaders in wartime.

Women in the present-day interstate system sometimes become military leaders when they hold political power during wartime. Narrative! For example, Margaret Thatcher, Golda Meir, and dedication Indira Gandhi led their countries in war. (Thatcher is the only woman to lead a #147;great power#148; this century.) Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan and Corazon Aquino of the essay, Philippines both struggled to control their own military forces in thesis to husband the late 1980s (Aquino survived seven coup attempts). Turkey#146;s Tansu Ciller prosecuted a harsh war to suppress Kurdish rebels in the mid-1990s. An Essay On Importance! President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga of Sri Lanka (and the thesis to husband, prime minister, her mother) practiced war against dialogue essay music Tamil separatists after her peace initiatives failed. Violeta Chamorro of Nicaragua kept the to husband, peace between factions that had fought a brutal civil war. Other states, such as Norway and Iceland, have had women leaders at times when war and peace were not major political issues in those countries. 155.

Female national leaders use both #147;masculine#148; and reality tv #147;feminine#148; styles in dedication to husband military and diplomatic matters. Aquino#146;s modest femininity was a great asset in diplomacy. On a 1986 US visit, according to a State Department official, Aquino #147;had hard-bitten politicians eating out of the palm of her hand.#148; However, this femininity made it harder for her to gain loyalty and obedience from her military. After each of several coup attempts, Aquino delivered speeches that first addressed military and government officials in masculinized English and then switched to more feminine phrases in Tagalog to essays against address her citizens. 156. In sum, overall, women like men seem capable of leading in war or in peace.

They do not appear to be more peaceful, more oriented to nonviolent resolution of international conflicts, or less committed to state sovereignty and territorial integrity than are male leaders. Dedication To Husband! We still lack enough data, however. Groove Music! Women national leaders, from thesis to husband, World War II through 1993, number 28 individuals (excluding hereditary heads of state) #150; a small fraction of the total. 157. US foreign policy Within the United States foreign policy establishment, women leaders do not show particular softness compared with male counterparts. Against Reality Tv! Both Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and UN Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick were hard-liners within their administrations. Dedication! (Kirkpatrick, incidentally, remarked of the White House Situation Room that #147;I don#146;t think there had ever been a woman in that room before.#148;) In the US Congress, it is hard to compare men#146;s and against women#146;s voting records on foreign policy issues because there have been so few women. Dedication To Husband! The US Senate was 98#150;99 percent male until 1992, when it dropped to only 94 percent male. Women have never chaired the key foreign policy committees (Armed Services and Foreign/International Relations) in the Senate or the House. Methods! 158. In the US State Department in 1989, women held fewer than 7 percent of the thesis to husband, senior foreign service positions (up from 2 percent in 1970), but 79 percent of the lowest-rank civil service positions (from 72 percent in 1970). Thus, men more often make the policies while women type the memos.

A #147;glass ceiling#148; holds women down in the State Department hierarchy. In the essay surfing, Department of Defense, similarly, women are concentrated at low levels and have trouble moving up the thesis dedication, hierarchy either as service members or as civilians. 159. A 1993 study of essays foreign policy insiders found that career women in the State Department were less hard-line and less prone to dedication to husband recommend force than men. However, for women political appointees at State and for both career and political women in narrative essay Defense, no such gender gap existed. In fact, #147;in the thesis to husband, few instances in write on importance which they differed from their male counterparts, [women] seemed to be more hard line and conservative.#148; Regarding the foreign policy process, there were no statistically significant gender differences. Nearly 90 percent of thesis dedication men and women at both State and human sacrifice essays Defense, excluding career women at Defense who split evenly, thought that having more women in the Department would not affect foreign policy or process. Overall, little evidence shows that women foreign policy insiders hold a #147;women#146;s perspective#148; on international issues or the policy process.

160. A 1990 poll asked US men and women whether they thought women in public office would do a better job than men, in several issue areas. Across issues, more women than men thought women would do a better job, but this gap was only a few percentage points on most issues. Both genders on dedication to husband average thought women would do a better job in improving education, assisting the poor, protecting the sacrifice, environment, governing honestly, and working for world peace. Both genders thought women would do a worse job in trade negotiations, diplomacy, decisions about dedication war, and on importance of discipline (especially) directing the thesis dedication to husband, military. The main societal factors creating difficulty for female US foreign policy insiders were the stereotypes of foreign policy as a male preserve and of women as unknow- ledgeable about foreign affairs. Among the poll respondents, almost all women and nearly three-quarters of men said the public sees women as knowing less than men about foreign affairs, although only methods 22 percent of women and 11 percent of men said they personally believed that idea. 161. A 1976 study analyzed gender differences in elite opinion about thesis dedication foreign policy issues.

Of the women, 42 percent were educators or media leaders (occupations that tend to of any company be #147;dovish#148;), whereas 38 of the men were military officers or business executives (#147;hawkish#148; occupations). The women were also somewhat younger on average, and more likely to be Democrats and self-described liberals; 73 percent of men and 11 percent of women had military service records. Multivariate statistical analysis controlled for to husband some of these variables. Against Reality! On Cold War questions, significant gender differences appeared on only four of twenty items. Of the nine questions in this cluster relating to the use of force, only one showed a significant gender gap. On international questions unrelated to the Cold War, such as poverty and humanitarian concerns, again few gender differences were found. Dedication To Husband! Only on questions regarding #147;isolationism#148; did a consistent and significant gender gap appear, with women more isolationist. In multivariate analyses, occupation rather than gender was the best predictor of foreign policy views. This study suggests that US women in leadership positions in the 1970s did not share the tendency of the general population of women to writing be somewhat more peace- ful on foreign policy questions (see pp. 329#150;30). This could be because women achieved leadership positions by emulating, or being selected for, #147;masculine#148; qualities.

162. Diplomacy Women#146;s military leadership abilities might overlap with their more general political and diplomatic capacities. Thesis! US women ambassadors, beginning with the first in methods writing 1933, show #147;striking similarities#148; as high-energy risk takers, patriotic, courageous, tall, physically fit women who loved their jobs. As girls, they were curious about the world, were called tomboys, were voracious readers, and received special attention from parents and teachers. Only 17 of 44 were married while serving as ambassador.

The ambassadors, especially the early ones, faced sexist attitudes in the host countries and institutional lack of dedication to husband support (though equal pay) within the State Department. Most #147;accepted the fact of discrimination as a condition of the times and essay groove carried on without too much grumbling.#148; Men, in describing these ambassadors, referred frequently to their #147;femininity.#148; The women used this to advantage: since they were not considered threatening, they could speak bluntly to male officials without the latter worrying about losing face. However, the first US woman appointed as ambassador to thesis dedication to husband a Middle Eastern country, April Glaspie, was blamed by essays, Congressional critics for supposedly giving Saddam Hussein the #147;green light#148; to invade Kuwait. Thesis To Husband! One senior male State Department official reportedly said: #147;We have some lessons to human sacrifice learn. Dedication To Husband! The first is don#146;t send women as Ambassadors.#148; 163. Fortunately, Hapsburg emperor Charles V did not obey that logic in 1529, when the Paix des Dames (#147;Ladies#146; Peace#148;) ended a destructive war with France. The peace resulted from the initiatives of Marguerite of groove Austria #150; the dedication, emperor#146;s aunt and narrative regent of the Hapsburg-controlled Netherlands #150; and Louise of Savoy, who was the French king#146;s mother and thesis dedication to husband Marguerite#146;s sister-in-law. The negotiations grew out of a feeler to human sacrifice essays Marguerite#146;s ambassador at a party given by Louise in Paris. Both sides were under pressure owing to the complexity of thesis shifting alliances. By negotiating through his mother, the French king kept his allies out dialogue essay groove music of the talks and retained the thesis to husband, ability to reject the result if he did not like it. Write! The treaty demonstrated Western Europe#146;s common interests and allowed efforts to be redirected against Turkey.

Marguerite is thesis dedication generally credited as the central player and Charles as the main beneficiary of the treaty. 164. Five centuries later, however, in the emerging international civil service of the United Nations staff, women#146;s potentials remain underutilized. The UN staff is nearly half female at the lowest levels, but women are only about 10 percent of the top staff, just over 5 percent of Assistant Secretaries General, and zero percent of Undersecretaries General (1992 data). All seven Secretaries General have been male.

Despite a commitment in the UN Charter that women be eligible to participate equally in groove music any capacity (gained by the activism of to husband Eleanor Roosevelt and narrative a few others in 1945), in thesis to husband reality women have faced persistent discrimination at the UN. 165. The evidence #150; from large-scale organized female participation through various types of gender integration through the participation of individual women #150; shows that when women have found their way into combat, they have generally performed about as well as most men have. Women in essays reality tv combat support roles, furthermore, have had little trouble fitting into military organizations, and have held their own when circumstances occasionally placed them in combat (especially in guerrilla wars). They can fight; they can kill. Yet exceptional individual women who wanted to go to war had either to overcome stubborn resistance from men or to adopt male disguise. Overall, the war system works to push women away from killing roles except in the most dire emergencies such as when defending their homes and children. This does not necessarily protect women participants from harm.

Women have faced great danger on the battlefield, whether as nurses in front-line trenches, as powder-carriers aboard ships and in artillery units, or as helicopter pilots ferrying male troops around. What these women generally do not share with the men around them is the task of aggressive killing. Most striking are the very rare historical cases in which larger numbers of women were mobilized into combat #150; a substantial number of the healthy, strong young women in a population. In the thesis to husband, nineteenth-century Dahomey Kingdom and the Soviet Union of World War II, women made up a nontrivial minority of the military, and clearly contributed to the war effort. They were a military asset which, when mobilized, increased the effectiveness of the military in combat, in a few cases even turning the tide of battle. Women#146;s physical strength, while less than men#146;s on average, has been adequate to many combat situations #150; from piloting to sniping to firing machine-guns. One recurring argument of those opposed to women in combat #150; that the women would be unable to drag wounded comrades from the battlefield under fire #150; is refuted by the record of women nurses#146; doing so. Human! Women#146;s supposedly lower levels of aggressiveness, and their nurturing nature, have been, historically, nobstacle to many women#146;s participation in thesis dedication to husband combat. Furthermore, contrary to the idea that women are too soft-hearted to kill, not only did Soviet snipers coolly shoot down dozens of German soldiers, but in narrative essay various cases women took the lead in cruelty and torture, especially of prisoners.

1 De Pauw 1998, disappear xiii; Pennington ed. n.d. 2 Laffin 1967, verify 186, bed 185; Salmonson 1991; Jones 1997; De Pauw 1998, 17#150;25. 3 Polanyi 1966, 3, 26#150;27; Manning 1982, 9#150;11; Duncan 1847, visiting 233#150;38; Alpern 1998; Dalzel 1967. 4 Polanyi 1966, 28; Snelgrave 1734, 125#150;26; Wrangham and Peterson 1996, 109#150;10; size: Alpern 1998, 72#150;75; Forbes 1851/I, 14#150;15, Forbes 1851/II, 55#150;56; Obichere 1971, 67; loyalty: Ajayi and Smith 1971, 52. 5 Duncan 1847, muskets 224#150;27, 231#150;35; Forbes 1851/I, resembled 23; Smith 1989, mats 59; physique: Herskovits 1938, 46; Burton in Alpern 1998, 36; Smith 1989, none 43, 47; Turney-High 1971, 155, 159#150;60. 6 Alpern 1998, 158, courage 159, fleeing 162; Forbes 1851/I, cruelty 132; Duncan 1847, 236, prefer 240. 7 Forbes 1851/I, we 23, 134; Alpern 1998, 44#150;47; Herskovits 1938, broken 46, segregated 48; Duncan 1847, bell 257#150;58. 8 Polanyi 1966, mobilized 42#150;43; Herskovits 1938, send 76, administration 85. 9 1840: Forbes 1851/I, 14#150;15; infuriated: Ajayi and Smith 1971, 37#150;39, 50#150;51; France: Obichere 1971, 67#150;75, commander 75, 107; Alpern 1998, 104.

10 Alpern 1998, manpower 36#150;37, weapons 61, 65#150;68; firearms: Smith 1989, 51, 81; M. Harris 1989, 285. 11 Obichere 1971, preeminent 120#150;21. 12 Griesse and Stites 1982, labor 68#150;69. 13 Griesse and dedication Stites 1982, drafted 31, specialty 69. 14 Griesse and Stites 1982, vague#150;Komsomol 73, teens 31; De Pauw 1998, 239#150;45; D. Jones 1997, 137#150;45. 15 Griesse and Stites 1982, memoirs#150;combat 75, 71#150;75; Presidential Commission 1993, C28. 16 Griesse and Stites 1982, hostile 72. 17 Griesse and Stites 1982, 71; Krylova: Jones 1997, 137#150;40. 18 Griesse and Stites 1982, pass 69, subculture 72; British: Quester 1977, 81#150;82.

19 Cottam 1983; Noggle 1994, 15#150;17, 99#150;101; White 1994, 7#150;11; Griesse and Stites 1982, 70; Pennington 1993; [less reliable: Myles 1981; Jones 1997, 140#150;45]. 20 White 1994, 9#150;11, verge 10; Noggle 1994, 18#150;98. 21 Noggle 1994, 99#150;156, dangerous 105; White 1994, 9. 22 Noggle 1994, 157#150;219, attacked 160#150;61; White 1994, 8; Cottam 1983, strength 7. 23 Noggle 1994, 157#150;58; White 1994, 8#150;9; Jones 1997, 142#150;43. 24 Griesse and essay groove Stites 1982, 71#150;72. 25 Griesse and Stites 1982, integrated#150;snipers 69#150;72; Jones 1997, 45; cf.

Randall 1981, grenades 145#150;46. 26 Griesse and thesis dedication Stites 1982, 72. 27 Griesse and Stites 1982, proved 73, German 75. 28 Tuten 1982, 48#150;49. 29 Tuten 1982, 51. 30 Tuten 1982, 54#150;55. 31 Tuten 1982, 55#150;56; De Pauw 1998, 245#150;47; Jones 1997, 200; Seifert 1995; practice: Ruth Seifert, personal communication 2000. 32 De Pauw 1998, 214#150;16, 207#150;30; Hirschfeld 1934, 110#150;23; Stites 1978, policy 280. 33 Botchkareva 1919, 71#150;136; Stites 1978, 280.

34 Botchkareva 1919, 154#150;71; Stites 1978, 280; White 1994, 4#150;5, 13; Bryant 1918, 212, 216#150;18. 35 Shame: Botchkareva 1919, 157, 207, 211, studio 161; Bryant 1918, 10. 36 Botchkareva 1919, began 163#150;64, swarming 173, 172#150;83, 202#150;5, uniforms 189, 192, 197. 37 Botchkareva 1919, sisters 207, knew 262. 38 Botchkareva 1919, adjutant 205, 208#150;12. 39 Bryant 1918, 212#150;13. 40 Botchkareva 1919, soldiers 165. 41 Spence 1996; Fairbank ed. 1978, 276#150;77; Michael 1966, 43#150;45; Jen 1973. 42 Boulding 1992/I, 237; David Graff, personal communication 1998; Peter Lorge, personal communication 1998; De Pauw 1998, 204#150;5, 332#150;33; Li 1995; Twitchett and essays against reality tv Loewe 1986, Ch#146;iang 433, 422#150;23. 43 Ancient: Alpern 1998, 2#150;3; Chinese: Yu forthcoming; Danish: Francke 1997, 243; Montenegrin#150;Serbian: Jancar 1982, 87; Congo#150;Malawi: Brown 1998; Shaka: Brown 1998; Edgerton 1988, 38#150;39, 107; Thompson 1969, 344.

44 Pettman 1996a, 126#150;53; Isaksson 1988; Ruddick 1990, 231; Elshtain 1987, 184#150;85; Zur 1989, 315#150;20; Zur and thesis dedication to husband Morrison 1989; Vietnam: D. Butler 1990; Jason ed. 1991; Argentina: Taylor 1997; Taylor 1993; Cyprus: Pourou-Kazantzis 1998; Lebanon: Cooke 1987; Keddie and Baron eds. 1991; Moghadam 1993; Emmett 1996; Kandiyoti 1996; Nicaragua: Mulinari 1996; Mulinari 1998; South Africa: Cock 1989; Cock 1991; Unterhalter 1987, 119; Zimbabwe: Thompson 1982; Philippines: Aguilar-San Juan 1982; Others: Ridd and Callaway eds. 1986; Matthews 1993; S. Against Reality Tv! Carter 1992; Noakes 1998, 103#150;63; Mora 1998; Beilstein 1998; Collett 1996; Peterson and Runyan 1993, 129#150;35. 45 Wilhelm 1988, Italy 119; Weitz 1995, 147#150;70, fighters 148, 150, comrade 155; Jones 1997, 199#150;203. 46 Jancar 1982, roles 85, 100, NLA 90, 99, training 93#150;94, medic 97#150;98; Jancar-Webster 1990, clothes#150;married 89. 47 Jancar-Webster 1990, 88; Jancar 1982, 93.

48 Duiker 1982, 114#150;15; Turner 1998, estimates 20#150;21; De Pauw 1998, 269#150;72. 49 Duiker 1982, policy#150;one 117#150;19; south: Francke 1997, 244. 51 Enloe 1983, 166; Bayard de Volo 1998, 246. 52 Jones 1997, founder 103; Randall 1981, director 138#150;39, 147; Seitz, Lobao, and Treadway 1993, 175. 53 Bayard de Volo 1998, give#150;wombs 246#150;48; cf.

Mora 1998, 170; Luttwak 1997. 54 Uglow ed. Thesis Dedication To Husband! 1989, 400#150;1; Cock 1991, numbers 182#150;83; Sylvester 1989, 108; cf. Kenya: Kanogo 1987, 94. 55 Cock 1991, knitting 149, equals 162#150;65, luxuries#150;killing 152#150;53, 150, defend 165, man 168; Morris 1993. 56 Hall 1993, apocryphal 104#150;5; Fellman 1992. 57 Filkins 2000, third; Ganguly 2000, half; De Pauw 1998, two-thirds 292; De Alwis 1998; Bennett, Bexley, and Warnock 1995, 135#150;56, 228#150;41. 60 Enloe 1983, 160#150;72; Tetreault 1992; Boulding 1992/II, 288#150;92; De Pauw 1998, 290#150;91. 61 Seager 1997, 92; Segal 1993, 86; Manning 1999; law: Jerusalem Post 2000; ruling: Inverardi 2000. 62 Fisher 1999; De Pauw 1998, 292.

63 Lory Manning, personal communication 1998; Enloe 1982, 127#150;31; NATO 1994. 64 NATO 1994, 4; Enloe 1994, 81; O#146;Hara 1998, 23, 14; Associated Press 1998a; Weinstein and White 1997. 65 NATO 1994, 6, 8. 66 NATO 1994, 16. 67 Manning 1999; NATO 1994, 25. 68 Manning 1999; NATO 1994. 69 Van Creveld 1993, 6#150;9; Gal 1986, 46#150;57, 32#150;33, 48#150;49, brochure 47, sister#150;sought 52; Bloom 1982; Enloe 1983, 156. 70 Gal 1986, 50, succeeded#150;recruits 49#150;50, 52#150;53; Van Creveld 1993, 8#150;9; Jerusalem Post 2000.

71 De Pauw 1998, 281#150;86. 72 Manning 1999; Elshtain 1987, 241; Stiehm 1989; Presidential Commission 1993; Moore 1996. 73 De Pauw 1975, 174#150;93, later 174#150;75; De Pauw 1998, 110#150;15. 74 De Pauw 1998, 115#150;31. 75 Treadwell 1954, 6#150;10, status 10; De Pauw 1998, 225#150;29; Hewitt 1974.

76 Treadwell 1954, 18. 77 Campbell 1990, 107; De Pauw 1998, 247#150;58; Larson 1995. 78 Treadwell 1954, 611, 626, overweight 627. 79 Treadwell 1954, rule 612#150;14, pregnancy 507#150;9. 80 Treadwell 1954, 503#150;7, punishing 503, battle 676; Campbell 1990, morale 112. 81 Treadwell 1954, 675. 82 Treadwell 1954, caste 511#150;14, drinks 681#150;82, immoral 678, betrayal 682, 669#150;83. 83 Costello 1985, 49, 52. 84 Soderbergh 1992, xv, gung xvii. 85 Soderbergh 1992, 146#150;47. 86 Treadwell 1954, 191#150;218; Campbell 1990, 115#150;17, survey 116; Meyer 1996, 33#150;35, uniforms 154; De Pauw 1998, 251#150;58; Costello 1985, 47; Enloe 1983, pocket 119, 141.

87 Treadwell 1954, release 184, failure 189; Costello 1985, cheery#150;draft 47#150;48; Bourke 1999, poll 303. 88 Francke 1997, noon 22. 89 Manning and Griffith 1998, number 9; Marlowe 1983; US Army 1982, 2, 1.2, 1.4; Quester 1977, 85; Nabors 1982; Thompson 2000. 90 Rustad 1982, 46; Enloe 1983, 7; Dyer 1985, 122#150;25. 91 Corps: US Army 1982, 4.4#150;4.5; tanker: Francke 1997, 228#150;29. 92 Francke 1997, 46#150;72. 93 Francke 1997, 76. 94 Francke 1997, 73#150;103; survival 80#150;82, 87#150;91; Enloe 1993, 222; WWII: Manning 1999. 95 Francke 1997, 82, doctor 102, asshole 97; Cornum 1996; Sciolino 1992.

96 Enloe 1994, 99; Enloe 1993, 201#150;27; Francke 1997, 96. 97 De Pauw 1998, 7; Enloe 1983, 145; Francke 1997, 250, 29; Senate: McNeil-Lehrer News Hour, July 1, 1992. 98 Francke 1997, wash 251. 99 Francke 1997, 183#150;219. 100 Francke 1997, welcome 205, data 200#150;7; Moskos 1994, coast 61; Stiehm 1981; Mitchell 1996. 101 Francke 1997, reality 200, line 216; Ballard 1996; Stiehm 1981; Faludi 1994; New York Times , April 23, 1997: A20; Hess 1997.

102 Myers 1997a; Myers 1997b; Myers 1998a, Myers 1998b; Shenon 1998; Janofsky 1997, matter; D. Research Writing! Johnson 1997, Navy. 103 Shenon 1997; Associated Press 1997; Sciolino 1997a; Sciolino 1997b; Spinner 1997a; Jones 1997a; Jones 1997b; Cohen 1997b; Myers 1998c. 104 Presidential Commission 1993, D-9. 105 Francke 1997, capable 221. 106 Manning 1999, several; Francke 1997, 256#150;58; Spears 1998. 107 Priest 1997a; Priest 1997b; Priest 1997c; Moskos 1998. 108 Moral: Peach 1993; Peach 1996; Presidential Commission 1993, 46; Hackworth 1991, 24; Holm 1992, 389; Lagerspetz et al . 1988; debate: McNeil 1991; Stiehm 1981; Rustad 1982; Goldman ed. To Husband! 1982; Mitchell 1989; Blacksmith ed.

1992; Howes and Stevenson eds. 1993; Addis, Russo, and Sebesta eds. 1994; US House 1992; US Department of Defense 1992, 15; Mariner 1997; Donnelly 1997; Cohen 1997a. 109 Van Creveld 1993, 8; Bendekgey 1992, 19, 23; DeFleur 1992, 25; Fuentes 1992, 35; Katzenstein 1998, 45#150;103; Summers 1992, promotion 131. 110 Holm 1992, experiments 389; Gutmann 2000; Presidential Commission 1993, Schwarzkopf 46, defend 46; Katzenstein 1998, exchange 50. 111 Bray: Francke 1997, 46#150;72; Breuer 1997, 139#150;40; Dever and Dever 1995, infantry 127; Hultgreen: Francke 1997, 256#150;58; Breuer 1997, 206#150;12. 112 Treadwell 1954, 12. 113 Treadwell 1954, chapter 37. 114 Aviators: Francke 1997, 226; Katzenstein 1998, 79; Navy#150;all: Manning 1999. 115 Priest 1997b.

116 Presidential Commission 1993, D5; Astrachan 1986, 63#150;65. 117 Wheelwright 1989; De Pauw 1998, regiments 105; Enloe 1983, 119#150;23. 118 Mulan: Raven and essays against tv Weir 1981, 32; Ayscough 1937, 214#150;27; Scanagatta: Wish Stream 1964; Samson: De Pauw 1998, 126; Wheelwright 1989, 132#150;35. 119 Hall 1993, xi, daughter xiii, 4. 120 Hall 1993, 177, 20, 161, Hook 26#150;28. 121 Hall 1993, 20#150;26. 122 Hall 1993, 98#150;101.

123 Hall 1993, 101#150;3. 124 Hall 1993, 46#150;97; De Pauw 1998, fictional 106. 125 Hall 1993, 107#150;53, temporarily 108, 120; De Pauw 1998, 153; Wheelwright 1989, 139#150;41. 126 Hall 1993, 155#150;56, pants 156#150;57, birth 159#150;60. 127 Stark 1996, 82#150;122, battle 71#150;72; De Pauw 1982; Stanley ed.

1995; Creighton and Norling eds. Thesis Dedication To Husband! 1996; Druett 2000. 128 Stark 1996, motivated 92, biographies 102, easy 88#150;90. 129 Stanley 1998, A4. 130 Griffen 1988, also 12; Cremony 1868, 142; Opler 1941, raids 333, 350#150;51; Stockel 1991, xii, 17, 46, 30. 131 Stockel 1991, 29#150;51, 41; Ball 1980, witness 103#150;4. 132 Murphy 1957, distance 1022#150;23; Goldschmidt 1989, 23. 133 Grinnell 1923, Cheyenne 44#150;47; Heizer ed. 1978, Shasta 218#150;19, Gabrielino 546#150;47, Konkow 380; Turney-High 1971, Shasta#150;others, 154; Klamath: Gatschet 1890; Barrett 1964; Stern 1965; Cressman 1956; Spier 1930, 31; Goldschmidt 1989, 23. 134 Brazil: M. Tv! Harris 1989, 321; Kiwai: Turney-High 1971, mangling 162, 7; Massachusetts: De Pauw 1998, 113#150;14; Somali: Ehrenreich 1997a, 128#150;29. 135 Pospisil 1963, 59.

136 Fraser 1989, story 14#150;17; Boulding 1992/I, 276#150;82; Matthews 1989, 76#150;77; Stone 1979, 47, 49#150;52, 68#150;69; Larrington ed. Dedication! 1992, 123#150;25; Green 1993, 27#150;28; Mac Cana 1970, 86; Green 1993, 24; Chadwick 1970, 134#150;35; Ritchie and Ritchie 1985, 14; Dillon and Chadwick 1972, 25, 146; Hill 1986; Ellis 1996, 77#150;98. 137 Pierson 1987, militia 208#150;10; De Pauw 1998, 135#150;39. 138 Civil: Hall 1993, 104#150;5, 163#150;64, 154; WWI: Hirschfeld 1934, 111#150;15; Wheelwright 1989, 29#150;36, Sandes 14#150;16, 147; De Pauw 1998, 212, 207#150;30; Bourke 1999, 294#150;97, 299#150;333. 139 DeVries 1996; Wheeler and Wood eds. Essay Music! 1996; Enloe 1983, 118#150;19; Fraioli 1996, 189; Wood 1996, 19; Schibanoff 1996. 140 DeVries 1996, 5#150;12, relished 9. 141 Fraser 1989, 11#150;13.

142 Fraser 1989, 28#150;30. 143 Fraser 1989, 30#150;34; Lefkowitz and Fant 1977, 11#150;12. 144 Fraser 1989, 43#150;106, naked 47#150;48, Tacitus, 53#150;55; De Pauw 1998, 70#150;74. 145 Fraser 1989, 58#150;101. 146 Fraser 1989, 107#150;28; De Pauw 1998, 75#150;77. 147 Matilda: Fraser 1989, 131#150;50; Europe: Boulding 1992/II, 33; De Pauw 1998, 82#150;87. 148 Fraser 1989, 151#150;66. 149 Fraser 1989, 167#150;81, matriarch 168. 150 Trung: De Pauw 1998, 269; Rani: Fraser 1989, 272#150;96. 151 Boxer 1952, 227#150;28, 242, 261, 264#150;69, 274, 286; Miller 1975; Miller 1976, 203#150;21; Birmingham 1966, 6, 92#150;116; Vansina 1966, 134#150;44; Beachey 1976, 88#150;90; Alpern 1998, 2; claim: De Pauw 1998, 180#150;81; Salmonson 1991, 198; Brown 1998.

152 Fraser 1989, 17. 153 Barrett 1938, 263. 154 Fraser 1989, 158#150;59; Montfort: Tuchman 1979, 74#150;75. 155 Fraser 1989, 307#150;22; Richardson and dedication Howes 1993; Carras 1995; Harris 1995; Nelson and Chowdhury eds. 1994; Genovese ed. 1993; Norris 1997; Williams 1995; cf. Victoria: Monypenny and Buckle 1912, 1089. 156 Boudreau 1995, 75, 78#150;79. 157 Number: D#146;Amico 1995, 24#150;25; McGlen and narrative surfing Sarkees 1993.

158 Burwell and Sarkees 1993, 111, 115; Jeffreys-Jones 1995, room 175; Morin 1995, 274; McGlen and dedication to husband Sarkees 1993, 2#150;3; DuBois 1995. 159 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 76, glass 83, 87; Burwell and Sarkees 1993, 117#150;31. 160 McGlen and human essays Sarkees 1993, 196#150;215, differed 211, process 254, affect 283, overall 302. 161 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 37, 46, 47. 162 Holsti and Rosenau 1981; selected: Cantor and thesis dedication Bernay 1992.

163 Morin 1995, striking 264, 266, 270, 272; McGlen and Sarkees 1993, send 300. 164 Von Habsburg 1969, 123#150;24; Knecht 1982, 219; Brandi 1939, 279#150;80.

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How to Choose Your Cheer Captains. Let’s face it. As cheerleading coaches, we’ve seen (or even, at some point, been) a leadership nightmares. That’s why choosing your cheer captains is thesis to husband one of the plan of any company most important decisions you’ll make this year. I often find it is the most difficult decision as well. Thesis Dedication? In our program, we limit those who are eligible to those who have already cheered both football and basketball seasons with us–which often significantly narrows our field. Here’s the business plan of any company rundown of my personal cheer captain selection process. There needs to dedication to husband, be a baseline. Each girl wanting to be cheer captain must fill out a common application which includes a few short essay questions:

Describe your leadership style. Sacrifice Essays? If you were a captain of the squad, what would you do differently from the leadership last year? What would you do the same? These questions give us some insight into how they lead and what their priorities are. We also require that they incorporate a stunt into a cheer or chant and to husband teach it to the entire squad. This shows us how well they teach as well as their capacity for creativity and dealing with their teammates. This year, instead of going purely off of the applications and teaching moments, the other coach and research writing I decided to implement an interview process. We loved it. It gave us a chance to address concerns and give positive feedback so that each girl felt heard and valued, and we got to see how they interact with us (which is an important part of their job). We took a couple of dedication hours one afternoon and spent about 15 minutes with each girl who applied to be a cheer captain. We asked questions and had them ask questions and offer insight.

It was actually a great experience, and sacrifice we will be making that a part of the process from dedication to husband, now on. Once the application are all turned in, each candidate gets to teach their cheer or chant and dialogue essay music describe the stunt incorporation. This part I love because you see their creativity, their ability to take control of the room (or not), and how the squad responds to them. The other coach and dedication I watch intently, take notes about what we liked and dialogue essay music didn’t like, and use them for discussion later. Quite honestly, these are the dedication to husband moments that the reality girls surprise me most often.

And you can tell a lot about the thesis dedication to husband captain candidates by how they teach and how the team reacts to their style. It’s easy for me to have a bias. Essays? I’m human. It just happens. So to help combat the temptation to make a hasty decision by taking several days to pray about it before really taking the time to dedication to husband, consider all that I have read and seen. This happens throughout the business plan company entire process. I want to make sure that I can have clarity about the process and my decision. It also provides peace after the decision is dedication made to pray through and still feel assured that what you’re doing is the right thing. After all we’ve seen and heard, the other coach and I sit down to discuss the essay surfing needs of the team, the dedication to husband strengths and weaknesses of the candidates, and the needs of the candidates themselves.

Each year brings a new team with new challenges. In the human first couple of weeks, we assess what we think will be the unique challenges for the year, and that is a huge determining factor in thesis dedication, our selection of cheer captain. For both captain and co-captain positions, it is reality tv important that their cheerleading skills are credible but also that they can lead together and on their own a team of our size (over 20 girls). Usually we select the head position first and decide her two co-captains after to supplement her weaknesses. Because our team is large, three leaders is thesis to husband a good number for us and provides balance for on importance them. The discussion can be intense at times, but every year I think we have made the dedication best decision we could have. I always confidently stand by plan of any the decision. Announcing Your New Cheer Captains. This is where heartbreak happens and to husband the part I dread. It’s never fun to dash the hopes of young women, but choosing the essays against right leaders is important for having a successful year.

We begin by talking about the process and the needs of the thesis team and the people we’ve chosen. Groove Music? Then we announce the specific new leaders. This always at the end of a practice to avoid too much distraction during the practice time. We typically meet with the new leaders right after and offer ourselves to discuss the thesis dedication to husband decision with the others the business next day to give them time to process. When talking with them (or their parents), it’s important to be gentle and kind. They don’t need a laundry list of their weaknesses. Help them see their strengths and give them a small way to improve. And find other ways they can contribute. Just because they don’t have the title “cheer captain” doesn’t mean that they can’t still lead. I often find that there are not a lot of wrong answers. You just have to choose the to husband best people you can and dialogue essay groove music mentor them to be the leaders that you know they can be.

If you know you will enjoy working with them and they have basic leadership skills, mentoring can bring them the rest of the way. Sometimes the right people just need the opportunity to lead in thesis dedication to husband, order to grow. Sometimes born leaders need to be told “no” in order to grow. Embrace the process and do what is best for the team and the individuals. Then stand by your decision. This is incredibly important.

If you don’t choose cheer captains you believe in, you’ll cave under the smallest amount of pressure … and narrative parents will gladly provide that pressure. You’ll get calls or e-mails. As I said before, be kind and loving because they are hurting. Dedication? But stand behind your decision. After a few weeks, the anger will have subsided and the year can continue.

If after the year is over (or as it progresses) and you feel that you made the wrong choice, own that and essays against tv learn from it. Thesis Dedication? A good leader takes responsibility and ownership of their decisions. But I confidenly believe that often (not always) the sacrifice essays difference between the right cheer captain and the wrong one is how well you lead and mentor them as leaders. Thesis Dedication To Husband? You are the difference between right and human sacrifice essays wrong. Invest the time, because it will also make you a better leader. What do you incorporate into your process for thesis dedication choosing cheer captains? Do you only choose seniors for surfing your captains and co-captains?

This year my squad does not have a strong senior class. I have two juniors who are strong cheerleaders (this is thesis their 3rd year on varsity). They are talented cheerleaders, know their stuff, live and essays against reality tv breath cheer, can dance, choreograph and have been champions at thesis to husband state. We were thinking of making them junior captains (since they are juniors) and they would be good back up for the one senior who is narrative essay worthy of being the team captain. I was just wondering what your thoughts were on thesis dedication to husband, this. I only choose from those who have been on the team for at essays against least a year since I need them to have a whole season’s worth of experience. I have chosen two juniors over a senior before, but it was a rough transition for the senior. Thesis To Husband? She did not take it well. So you’d just have to watch out for the way you communicate with them.

I think it’s also important that it’s about leadership skills in addition to cheerleading skills. If you have a senior who can do it, then I would go that way. I think one or two junior captains could be a big help too. Just make sure there’s a good balance of leaders to non-leaders. Business? I wouldn’t do three leaders if you’ve only got 10 people. Thesis To Husband? 15+ perhaps. I have a small team of all freshman, I have one girl who stood out to narrative essay surfing, me and I want to give her the privilege of the captain spot. I feel she deserves it. Is it a good choice to thesis, pick her, or should I just let it be an not announce a captain at all for this season?

If you feel she’s the right one, then I’d go with it. If you think it’ll be controversial, be sure you can back it up with reasons (and examples or data) if you have them. I think leadership for narrative the team is dedication to husband important, so it’s good to an essay, pick a captain. Maybe you can offset the choice with a co-captain if it’s going to be VERY controversial. To Husband? It gives a little padding. Great article!

Thank you! Our family just recently moved and the high school my two daughters are attending didn’t have a cheerleading team. Essays Against? My girls were so disappointed, as they were both on a cheer and dance team in their previous school. Eons ago, I was a cheerleader myself and I have coaching experience (swim team), and so we asked the dedication principal if we could form a team. He said yes.

We are now 4 weeks in and I have 14 girls on write an essay on importance of discipline, the squad. We actually cheer our first football game tonight!! Anyway, I would LOVE to chose a captain and co-captain, but I am wondering…..should I let my own two daughters even apply? Even if I stay out thesis to husband, of the judging it is clear that they both have the most experience and have been a HUGE help in teaching an entire squad of girls from basically nothing. I am leaning towards waiting until next year to allow people to apply, just to give everyone experience, but I could sure use the help a couple of captains could give me. Human Essays? What are your thoughts? If they’re qualified they absolutely should apply. I would just be careful to balance one of them being selected (if that’s what’s best) with others who could bring something to the table. No matter what you do or who you choose, people will be upset. So I just encourage you to thesis dedication, stand your ground and human essays have clear reasoning why you made whatever decision you make.

Captains can really be helpful, but it could also be beneficial especially in this first year to rotate captains to give everyone experience and help you get to know the team a little better so you can choose next year. That may be the best bet in a situation like yours, and maybe calling on a small group of parents or cheerleaders to thesis to husband, help with some of the things you need help with. Best of of discipline luck! As a coach, I have come to this blog a few times to get information, or read the articles. Your insight is such a blessing.

I am struggling with choosing a captain this year, as the next in line isn’t really ready. At any rate, I just wanted to say I appreciate that you included to pray about it. As a believer, I sometimes forget to include prayer into the day-to-day decisions and not just the thesis to husband big huge things. Our friend and counselor is so great at providing answers. I just wanted to thank you for allowing your faith to shine through your work!

Thank you for the encouragement, TJ! I appreciate hearing from you. I had a Junior captain last year and we are in on importance, the midst of tryouts and I’m not sure if I want her to “remain” a captain. She was a good choice last year because I did not have a good leader with my sole Senior girl. But now, she’s not displaying very captain like behavior. She’s a good leader and I can count on her for help, but she tends to dedication, be very bossy. Any advice? I think you’ve got a couple of options. You could talk to her and let her know your concerns and see if she’s willing to change.

You could give her a co-captain that’s her level or who can balance her out. Reality? Or if you really think it’s bad, you can take her out of the role. I had to to husband, do that once and didn’t regret it. I did regret how I handled it. Methods? So I’ll tell you what I think I should’ve done. Thesis Dedication To Husband? I should’ve told her first before I announced in front of everyone so she didn’t feel blindsided. I even thought about essay music, putting her in a different kind of leadership role, we were just a tiny squad and it wouldn’t have worked out well for us that year.

Best of luck! What kind of questions did you ask them in the interview? I asked about their leadership style, what they would change from last year or what they would keep the same, a few scenario questions, and things like that. I am watching the dedication to husband current pool of juniors on my competitive Varsity squad for future leadership. Human Essays? A handful of them made Varsity as sophomores last year and thesis dedication are exhibiting some “mean girl”, britches are too big traits and one of them got caught up in a social media scandal that almost resulted in her removal from the squad. They are assuming that they are going to be named co-captains based on the vote. Business Plan Of Any? For the past 2 years, I have allowed the squad to vote for 1 and I pick the thesis other 2, however, if history has taught me anything is that this method has become a popularity contest and not the research for thesis writing best leaders are chosen by the squad. I took over the program 2 years ago and I am in the process of redefining the philosophy and culture to exemplify the leadership spirit of the school community. Thesis Dedication To Husband? I was thinking about choosing the narrative surfing co-captains myself next year and taking the thesis to husband squad vote out of the equation, but I don’t want the squad voice to be lost.

I’m trying to narrative surfing, do what is best for the whole! Need help and advice! I think you can still ask them as part of the process so they’re voice is heard (and I think it’s important to thesis to husband, hear where they stand) but know that you will have the final say. I’d also make a “job description” for the roles and what kind of person is best, then I’d give that to all applicants as well as let cheerleaders know that before they “vote” so perhaps they think more critically about their choice! The last year has been rough with one of my two captains. I have one junior and one senior captain. The junior is over groove music powering, demanding and puts the team down when they mess up. Thesis? So my assistant coach and I are looking in to having no captains next year and research methods writing have “committees” instead. Such as committee of posters, fundrasing, team bonding etc.

I would schedule out every week two people to call cheers and decide on what to wear for the games this week so everyone has a chance. Any advice. The junior cheerleader is an amazing cheerleader and student so I know she will have no problem with making it, but as soon as she has some power it goes straight to her head and she becomes a different person!! We actually did something similar for our junior high level cheerleaders and thesis to husband it worked well to find the right person for captain at a higher level. Essay Groove? It’s definitely a creative solution!