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Writing a Literature Comparison Essay

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Writing literature essays

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Clonycavan Man and Old Croghan Man. In 2003, twenty years since the last bog body was found at Lindow Moss in Cheshire, two bog bodies were found in Ireland within the space of three months. Both bodies date from the Iron Age: the Clonycavan man is believed to literature essays have lived sometime during 392 and 201 B.C. while the Old Croghan Man between 362 and 175 B.C. [Please be aware that this post contains images of parts of the Clonycavan and Old Croghan Men. In addition, a video has been provided that shows the bodies in thesis statements, detail.] Eamonn Kelly of Irish Antiquities at writing the National Museum of Ireland believes quite strongly that both of these bodies are the result of sacrifice that these men were failed kings who were killed for that failure (Lobell and Patel, 2010). Evidence for thesis this lies in their gruesome and specialized deaths. Writing Essays? Both bodies show evidence of their nipples having been pinched and foundation dissertation fellowships cut, which aids Kelly#8217;s theory that they were failed kings (see culture section). Clonycavan man suffered at least two blows from a heavy object (probably an ax) that shattered his skull and writing the bridge of abdul kalam essay, his nose. Old Croghan Man suffered even more injuries. Evidence of a wound in his arm suggests he tried to writing defend himself as he was struck in the chest and neck then decapitated and dismembered.

Hazel branches were threaded through holes in his upper arms. (All information taken from education is an essay #8220;Clonycavan and Old Croghan Man,#8221; Lobell and Patel. See bibliography.) Clonycavan Man and literature essays Old Croghan Man are not as intact as previous cases that we have covered but what is left of their bodies is very well preserved. Dissertation Subjects English Literature? Old Croghan Man consists only of a torso with arms while Clonycavan Man has retained his head, parts of his arms, torso, and abdomen. One of the most striking characteristics of Clonycavan Man is his hair. It bore a gel-like residue, made from writing literature “vegetable plant oil,#8221; which was used to form a Mohawk-like hairstyle (Owen 2012). The implications of chess thesis statements, this will be discussed in writing, the culture section. Further analysis of bnk sharma research papers, his hair revealed that he had been living on a diet high in vegetables, possibly indicating that he died in summer (BBC). Clonycavan Man’s head was also intact enough to allow for a digital reconstruction of his possible appearance in life. Old Croghan Man’s hands were particularly preserved revealing his fingerprints and well-manicured nails (Owen 2012).

Analysis of these fingernails indicated that he had been eating a meat heavy diet (Owen 2012) (BBC). This could be because of his high social status but it could also mean that he died in a colder time of year (BBC). Another disparity between the two men is their height. Writing Literature Essays? Measurements of Old Croghan man’s arms suggests that he was at least 6’6” tall, while Clonycavan man could not have been much taller than 5’2” (Owen 2012). The remarkable state of preservation that these two bodies were found in, despite not being entirely intact, greatly contributed to the understanding and connection with early Irish culture and people. The society of celtic Ireland between 400-200 B.C was based on a hierarchical system as evidenced by the bog sacrifices of Clonycavan Man and Old Croghan Man.

An examination of these bodies revealed extremely well manicured nails, fingertips, and hands indicative of each body#8217;s elite status and lack of hard labor during their lifetime. Their hands were so pristine that fingerprints were able to be recorded from the 2,000 year old bodies. In addition, Clonycavan man styled his hair into term papers on shakespeare, a mohawk with hair gel consisting of writing essays, vegetable plant oil mixed with resin from pine trees found in Spain and southwest France. This is evidence of a complex network of trade routes linking the far reaches of Europe during the dissertation english Iron age. Writing Essays? The ability of Clonycavan man to research papers acquire such exotic ingredients as well as his ability to devote his time and energy into his physical traits supports his elite status in the community. His hairstyle would convey a sense of grandeur and literally increase his stature (Clonycavan was only 5#8217;2#8243;) in comparison with an average member of society. Writing? Found on Old Croghan was a prestigous leather amulet decorated with rare metal alloys including bronze. It was decorated with celtic designs representing the sun, a symbol closely associated with Irish kingship during the time. In addition to a sign of wealth and power, the amulet likely functioned with some kind of spiritual signifigance.

Clonycavan and Old Croghan Man#8217;s elite status is concurrent with the other bog bodies we have discussed including Tollund and Lindow Man. However, why were these bodies found mutilated in so many different ways in addition to their sacrifice? An analysis of distribution of the bodies, including 40 other Irish bog bodies, brings a new development to the mystery of celtic sacrifice in Ireland. All the bodies coincide with borders of ancient Irish kingdoms so they are possibly royal sacrifices of chess statements, very special status individuals. These may have been high ranking hostages or possibly a rejected ruler, as mentioned in writing essays, the Cause of Death section. Dissertation Literature? Kelly believes that these sacrifices were part of an ancient tradition which consisted of a symbolic marriage between kings and a fertility goddess; in addition, he believes that tradition at literature essays the time included sucking the bnk sharma research nipples of the king which would account for the fact that both of these bodies had cut nipples. According to Kelly, each injury suffered represented a different aspect of the goddess including fertility, sovereignty, and war.

His last meal contained symbols of fertility, cereals and buttermilk. This is in essays, contrast to his diet which regurally included meat, a luxury in the quantities apparent in his body. This is of course only one interpretation and only future discoveries can provide more clues into foundation fellowships, celtic ritual. The Old Croghan man and writing literature essays the Clonycavan Man are two interesting bog body finds in Ireland, being discovered within a few months of each other. These two bodies seem to have been treated better than other bodies in subjects english, Ireland (there was a body discovered in the early 1800’s which was dried out and shrunk and was deformed due to the process). The curators of the National Museum in Ireland were keen to writing treat these bodies properly, the keep of antiquities said “We must clearly remember that we are dealing with human remains.

We must treat these remains with dignity” (Ahlstrom 2011). In the same article in which he is quoted above there was another striking comment. Apparently the last two bog bodies found in Ireland underwent rather extensive (and expensive) analysis and conservation. English? This is not at all surprising; however, what is surprising is the mention that part of the funding for this analysis and conservation came from an writing, outside company. The company gave the museum the money because they wanted to tape a documentary about the processes that the bodies would undergo in the preservation and analysis. It seems to me that the company who put forward the money was less interested in the actual science that was being done and more interested in ford fellowships, getting a thrilling television segment out of such a fantastic historical and scientific find. (All information taken from the Anlstrom article on The Tollund Man was found in 1950 on Denmark#8217;s Jutland Peninsula. It is believed that the body dates from the 4th century BC during the early Iron Age.

Due to the sensitive nature of literature essays, displaying pictures of bodies, we have decided not to post a picture of the is an investment Tollund Man on the site. However, those who are curious may visit the Silkeborg Museum#8217;s website. The Tollund Man presents one of the clearest cases of essays, cause of dissertation english, death. He was found with a rope around his neck, which had left marks in the skin on the sides of his neck and under the chin, while these marks were not found on the back his neck where the knot would have been at the time of the hanging. It had been cut and carefully coiled.

New examination of the body also indicates that his tongue was distended, which is a tell-tale sign of hanging. The question then remains as to whether this was an execution or a sacrifice. One source suggests that burial customs at that time in Denmark was almost exclusively cremation, while those sacrificed were buried in the bogs. If this was truly the case, then the literature essays Tollund Man was sacrificed and given a careful burial (Silkeborg Museum 2004). (All information taken from Silkeborg Museum#8217;s webpage; see bibliography.) The Tollund Man is famous for his lifelike appearance and relaxed facial expression. With softly closed eyes he appears as though he is just taking a bimillennial nap.

He was found, like many bog bodies, by peat cutters. When the term on shakespeare bog workers discovered Tollund man, they thought that they had “stumbled upon a recent murder” (Glob 18). Tollund Man’s incredible state of preservation allowed archaeologists to observe several interesting characteristics about him. He was naked except for a small hide hat, belt, and leather rope around his neck. He had a neatly shaven head and writing essays face.

Upon his discovery he was quickly moved to a museum in dr apj essay, Copenhagen, incased in literature, almost a ton of peat (Glob 22). On closer observation of Tollund Man’s head it was noted that he might possibly have the most well preserved human head ever to be discovered from dr apj abdul kalam “antiquity” (Glob 31). Writing Literature? The condition of his digestive system allowed researchers to establish that his last meal consisted of a mixture of domestic and foraged grains. To protect Tollund Man’s legacy careful attempts were made to dr apj kalam conserve him. Sadly researchers initially did not attempt to conserve the body, and literature essays only the subjects head was give extensive preservative treatment. After being treated with numerous chemicals including formalin, alcohol, and acetic acid, the head was immersed in paraffin wax. The process took over writing literature essays, a year and upon completion the head was displayed in a museum near the bog where Tollund Man was found. Glob, P.V.

The Bog People: Iron-Age Man Preserved . 3rd. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1975. Print. The Silkeborg Museum which investigated the remains of Tollund man place his relative age around 40 years old and height at 5ft 3in. Papers? Aging bog bodies is commonly achieved through analysis of the teeth through X-rays. In the literature case of Tollund Man, we can identify that the body was over 20 years old because of the presence of wisdom teeth.

The body and bone lengths can simply be measured in order to identify height. When doing so, it must also be considered that the body has naturally shrunk inside the bog. All things considered, Tollund man would have still been relatively short even for the time period in which he lived. Much can also be determined about Tollund’s life from the inside of his body as well. One of the most detailed studies of Tollund man is term papers on shakespeare, of the contents of his stomach and writing literature essays intestines. Kalam Essay? First, it was apparent that the man had lived for 12-24 hours after his last meal because the contents had passed out of the stomach into the intestine. Through microscopic identification, a specialist was able to determine over essays, 40 different types of seeds had been ingested, including barley, linseed, and chamomile. With identification of the seeds, we can determine that the seeds were only available during the spring, and so Tollund man died during that time. It is also apparent that some of the papers seeds were not readily available, and writing literature essays so possibly the foundation dissertation fellowships meal was prepared for the special occasion of the sacrifice. You will notice that Tollund Man’s meal did not consist of writing literature essays, any meat.

This is concurrent with the season in which he died but is not to say that Iron Age peoples did not eat meat. Tollund man is one of the rare bog bodies discovered which is dr apj kalam, also accompanied by a wealth of artifacts. On his body was discovered a cap, belt, and the noose itself. The belt around his waist was also made of literature essays, leather. It is not clear whether the body was originally deposited with other clothing which has decayed, or if the body was naked.

The pointed cap was made of sheepskin and wool, and was fastened under his chin with a leather strap. This cap concealed short hair, and the corpse still retained stubble on his chin suggesting that he had not shaved on the day of his death. Dissertation Subjects? The hair of literature essays, most bodies is found to be a orange/red due to the reaction of the bog water over time, so it is impossible to literature identify the original color of any bog body. This weeks ethical issue is not particularly related to the Tollund Man, but it is interesting. Writing Literature Essays? The display of bog bodies in museums tends to be more fascinating rather than controversial but it seems that Europe and kalam essay parts of the rest of the writing essays world cannot agree about the use of dr apj kalam, images of the bog people in merchandise. (I am specifying the use by writing literature Museums and not third party groups.) The International Council of Museums Code of research papers, Ethics for Museums states: #8220; 4.3 Exhibition of Sensitive Materials. Human remains and materials of sacred significance must be displayed in a manner consistent with professional standards and, where known, taking into account the interests and beliefs of writing literature, members of the community, ethnic or religious groups from on shakespeare whom the writing essays objects originated.

They must be presented with great tact and essay respect for writing literature the feelings of human dignity held by all peoples.#8221; (Taken from the ICOM website, link in ford dissertation, bibliography.) Museums in essays, Europe, with very few exceptions, do not use pictures/drawings of the actual bog peoples in their merchandise, but museums in Canada and the United States have had large amounts of merchandise of this type. Term Papers? Wijnand van der Sanden believes that this is in violation of the above statement. He finds it particularly interesting that museums in the US, who are known for attempting to be very sensitive about First Nation remains, are rather brazen with the remains of other (i.e. non-american) remains. He believes that going to the extent of making extensive amounts of merchandise with images of the writing literature essays bog people turn them from the remains of a human into a logo, and that the US and Canada should look to European examples of bog body and education is an mummy exhibits. (All information for writing literature essays this post taken from the van der Sanden article on and the ICOM website.) Video on the Tollund Man: Please be advised that this video shows images of the Tollund Man. The famous Irish poet and chess Nobel Prize winner Seamus Heaney wrote an extract of literature, his famous poem #8220;The Tollund Man#8221; in the guest book for Silkeborg Museum in 1973. Some day I will go to Aarhus. To see his peat-brown head, The mild pods of his eye-lids, His pointed skin cap.

In the flat country near by. Research Papers? Where they dug him out, His last gruel of writing essays, winter seeds. Caked in his stomach, Naked except for. Bnk Sharma Research Papers? The cap, noose and writing literature girdle, I will stand a long time. Bridegroom to the goddess, She tightened her torc on bnk sharma papers, him. And opened her fen, Those dark juices working. Him to a saint#8217;s kept body, Trove of the writing literature turfcutters#8217; Now his stained face. Reposes at Aarhus.

I could risk blasphemy, Consecrate the cauldron bog. Our holy ground and pray. Thesis Statements? Him to make germinate. The scattered, ambushed. Flesh of labourers, Laid out in the farmyards, Tell-tale skin and teeth. Flecking the sleepers.

Of four young brothers, trailed. For miles along the lines. Something of his sad freedom. As he rode the tumbril. Should come to literature me, driving, Saying the names. Tollund, Grauballe, Nebelgard, Watching the pointing hands. Of country people, Not knowing their tongue. Out here in foundation dissertation fellowships, Jutland. In the old man-killing parishes.

I will feel lost, Unhappy and at home. Literature? Seamus Heaney gave a talk at Silkeborg Museum in 1996, where he described his childhood memories of the subjects bog: #8220;When I was a child and an adolescent I lived among peat-diggers and I also worked in the peat bog myself. Literature? I loved the bnk sharma structure the peat bank revealed after the spade had worked its way through the surface of the peat. I loved the mystery and silence of the place when the work was done at the end of the day and I would stand there alone while the larks became quiet and the lapwings started calling, while a snipe would suddenly take off and writing literature essays disappear#8230;#8221; About his poem Bogland Seamus Heaney told the following: #8220;The title of the poem refers to the bogs I knew while I was growing up and the stories I had heard about the things that could be preserved in the bog such as supplies of papers, butter that were kept there, and about the things that were even more astonishing to a child, such as the skeleton of an writing essays, Irish elk which our neighbours had dug out#8221;.

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MVP for Android: how to organize the presentation layer. MVP (Model View Presenter) pattern is writing essays, a derivative from the well known MVC (Model View Controller), which for a while now is dissertation subjects literature, gaining importance in the development of Android applications. There are more and more people talking about it, but yet very few reliable and essays structured information. Ford Fellowships? That is why I wanted to writing literature essays use this blog to research papers encourage the discussion and bring all our knowledge to writing literature essays apply it in bnk sharma papers the best possible way to our projects. The MVP pattern allows separate the presentation layer from the logic , so that everything about how the interface works is separated from how we represent it on screen.

Ideally the MVP pattern would achieve that same logic might have completely different and interchangeable views. First thing to clarify is that MVP is not an architectural pattern , it’s only essays responsible for dr apj abdul the presentation layer . Literature? In any case it is always better to use it for research papers your architecture that not using it at all. In Android we have a problem arising from the fact that Android activities are closely coupled to both interface and literature essays data access mechanisms. Dr Apj Abdul Essay? We can find extreme examples such as CursorAdapter, which mix adapters, which are part of the view, with cursors, something that should be relegated to the depths of data access layer . For an application to be easily extensible and maintainable we need to define well separated layers. What do we do tomorrow if, instead of retrieving the same data from a database, we need to do it from essays a web service?

We would have to redo our entire view . MVP makes views independent from our data source. We divide the application into at dissertation fellowships, least three different layers, which let us test them independently. With MVP we are able to writing literature take most of logic out from the activities so that we can test it without using instrumentation tests. Well, this is bnk sharma, where it all starts to become more diffuse. There are many variations of MVP and everyone can adjust the pattern idea to ??their needs and the way they feel more comfortable.

The pattern varies depending basically on the amount of responsibilities that we delegate to the presenter. Is the view responsible to writing enable or disable a progress bar, or should it be done by the presenter? And who decides which actions should be shown in the Action Bar? That’s where the tough decisions begin . Subjects English Literature? I will show how I usually work, but I want this article to be more a place for discussion that strict guidelines on how to apply MVP, because up to know there is no “standard” way to implement it . The presenter is responsible to act as the middle man between view and model . It retrieves data from the essays, model and returns it formatted to the view. But unlike the typical MVC, it also decides what happens when you interact with the view. The view, usually implemented by education an Activity (it may be a Fragment, a View… depending on how the app is structured), will contain a reference to the presenter. Presenter will be ideally provided by a dependency injector such as Dagger, but in case you don’t use something like this, it will be responsible for creating the presenter object. The only literature thing that the is an, view will do is calling a method from the presenter every time there is an interface action (a button click for writing example). In an application with a good layered architecture, this model would only be the gateway to education is an essay the domain layer or business logic. If we were using the Uncle Bob clean architecture , the essays, model would probably be an interactor that implements a use case.

But this is another topic that I’d like to chess discuss in literature essays future articles. For now, it is enough to see it as the provider of the data we want to term display in the view. As it is a bit lengthy to explain , I created an MVP example on essays Github consisting of a login screen that validates the data and allows access to a home with a list of items that are retrieved from the model. This article does not explain any code because it is bnk sharma research, quite simple, but if you see that you find it difficult to writing understand I may create another article explaining it in detail. Separating interface from dissertation subjects literature logic in Android is not easy, but the Model-View-Presenter pattern makes a little easier to literature essays prevent our activities end up degrading into very coupled classes consisting on hundreds or even thousands of lines. Subjects? In large applications it is literature essays, essential to organize our code well.

If not, it becomes impossible to ford foundation dissertation fellowships maintain and extend. I’m in love with Kotlin. I’ve been learning about it for a couple of years, applying it to Android and digesting all this knowledge so that you can learn it with no effort. This is something that I have been attempting to implement without realising it. This is very useful and has definitely pointed me in writing literature essays the right direction. I would be interested in how to structure classes in investment an app where there is little ui and mostly services working in the background. Services will be mostly domain layer.

MVP only writing literature essays takes part in presentation layer, so there won’t be probably almost any relationship between them. If you need to feed the education, views with information from writing literature services, then I would use some kind of Observer pattern or event bus. Cool! Agree with your point. Take one scenario where the View layer is not active (App is in background) and , a Notification update is required from the ford foundation, service (In the notification tray , such as a download progress) , what is the best way to do this? Since the notification update is a UI operation , is writing literature essays, it recommended to construct and abdul show the writing literature, notification from the is an, service itself? Observer pattern or event bus would have been fine if your activity or fragment was alive at the other end (in the View layer) to listen to the event.

So , in this case creating and essays showing a UI component from the domain layer (Service) will break the MVP conventions? In that case, you can consider the abdul, notification as an external component you communicate with, instead of a UI component. The service could interact with a component that “notifies changes”. The real implementation would just show or update a notification. If tomorrow you also need to notify to writing literature essays another service (let’s say firebase or your own server), everything can be tackled from there without changing the rest of the code. Do you think there is an bnk sharma research papers, advantage to adding the view through the constructor and having lifecycle methods in the presenter versus having the writing, view add itself through a setter method in ford foundation fellowships onResume and remove itself in onPause? I tend to add to it via constructor (injected in fact) and notify the presenter from the view when there’s is an event from the view that the presenter must be aware of. For simplicity I call them onResume or onPause for instance in the presenter. But take into account that view has not necessarily to be an activity, so I try not to add too much life cycle verbosity into presenters. How do you inject the view into the presenter?

I have just started to follow MVP and now I need a factory for each presenter. Do you do it in some other way? For example I have the writing literature, following interfaces: public interface CalendarsPresenter. void addPickedCalendar(Calendar calendar); void removeCalendar(Calendar calendar); public interface CalendarsView. void showCalendars(List calendars); void showCalendarPicker(List alreadyChosenCalendars); And a Fragment that looks like this: public CalendarsFragment extends Fragment implements CalendarsView. @Inject CalendarsPresenterFactory mCalendarsPresenterFactory; private CalendarPresenterFactory mCalendarPresenter; public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) Very nice approach clean and education essay beautiful! #128578;

I implement injection using Dagger. I create a Dagger module for essays each activity that injects the foundation fellowships, presenter and the view (usually the activity itself). If you decide to use Dagger, search about scope modules. They are very useful because they only writing live the time their scope is active, and memory is not filled with objects and singletons that won’t be used again. Thats exactly what I do, I get a reference to my global object graph and foundation dissertation fellowships plus a short lived module to get extended graph. I actually use Dagger already but I have abstracted dagger away so that I can change it in the future if I want. #128578; But sure, I will search for scope modules! #128578; Can you provide a code example? Yes, you have some links at the post. Thank you, but do you have any code example about “injection using Dagger” (see your comment of literature essays April 18, 2014 )?

No, not at papers on shakespeare, the moment. Writing Literature? I’m planning to foundation dissertation write about it quite soon. dagger(Square) is out of essays date , you should use Dagger 2 develop by google. You’re reading an article that’s two years old, it’s obviously out of date… BTW, this article is related to MVP and not Dagger, the research, ideas are still valid, and essays Dagger is just mentioned, not even used in ford the example. Great article, I’m very interested in this area and writing I think more people should try to papers adopt these patterns. I guess one of the benefits of decoupling these layers would be easier testing (injecting dummy dependencies etc.), are you able to provide any insight to this aspect of MVP in android?

Very interesting and a really useful example. This brings me a couple of questions, for literature example, how do you deal with a CursorAdapter? do you just stop using them? and how to deal with adapters at all? are they just considered another kind of view that load their own presenter? I don’t use Cursor Adapters, don’t like them because they don’t let me separate layers in essay a good way. Writing Essays? I consider adapters as part of views, presenters don’t know anything about context or, in most of cases, Android SDK. And how will you use it with an adapter? Will you make an specific presenter for the adapter row? No, presenter provides the activity the items, and it’s the activity who creates its own adapter. I don’t want the presenter to know that adapters even exists. If view changes, for instance I need to change my ListView and use a LinearLayout, the presenter doesn’t change. Then i hava to do a couple of term tests by writing essays myself #128578;

Hard to see how to implement some things, but really this seems the right approach. I think adapter row is ford foundation dissertation, better to be mapped to a presenter(presentation model or view model), especially when the row layout is complicated, for a clear separation. If you are interested, you can take a look at an example here – Literature? Album-sample is an android rewrite(based on RoboBinding) of Martin Fowler’s original one. i’m sorry for education is an essay maybe stupid question, but is it necessary to create mvp-bunch for all android activity?

If i have one login activity, list activity, another activity… i must create model, view and literature presenter for all of them? Sure, it should be that way. Dissertation? There are some cases where this structure is too much work for little benefit, so it’s up to you to decide where to essays use it. Hi Antonio, Good to see many people are interested on abdul the topic. I would like to introduce our framework to you. You may be interested – RoboBinding(, A data-binding Presentation Model framework for the Android platform. Sure! I will take a look. Hi Antonio, we are updating the docs for writing literature essays the project these days, but most of the docs are updated and transferred from the thesis statements, old docs now.

We like to hear the essays, feedback from you if there is any once you have had a look. whatever good or bad ones will be appreciated. Hi Antonio, I’ve been reading through your blog and I would like to adapt your MVP proposal for my Android app. Dissertation? I’m using the literature essays, AsyncTaskLoader to fill my Views and now I would like to papers ask how you would implement Loaders in this pattern. Writing? Can you give me any suggestions? I wouldn’t. I use android-priority-queue from path for asynchronous interaction. My interactora are in fact jobs. That way, any domain interaction is performed outside the main thread. Hi, thanks for the response. Another question, how do you deal with content providers?

I tried to bnk sharma research seperate my app in 3 layers. (presentation, application and persistence) In order to essays call a content provider I need a Context object, do I have to pass it in at the presentation boundary and send it through the interactor to the database boundary? This seems to break all the seperation to me. Once again, dependency injection to the rescue. You don’t need that Context travels through all layers, just simply inject it where you need it. Subjects English? If you haven’t, read the articles I’m writing in this blog about essays DI and Dagger. There are already 2 out of 3 posts released. hi Antonio, I’ve been reading through this post and this particular comment confused me. will you give example about how using android-priority-queue job as interactor? Though this is bnk sharma research papers, Kotlin, I implemented like that in this repo: Check the literature, implementation of the bnk sharma, interactor executor. Hi Antonio, good post.

I’ve just started looking through MVP and I have a question. In your example there is this part in the class MainPresenterImpl: @Override public void onItemClicked(int position) mainView.showMessage(String.format(“Position %d clicked”, position + 1)); For instance, you decide to essays modify your view’s structure and want to show a custom dialog box that requires more information instead of thesis a Toast message. In this case, what approach would you use ? 1-Change the MainVew interface, adding parameters. 2-Leave the MainActivity responsible for it, without passing it to the presenter layer. You could change the implementation of writing showMessage in order to show a Dialog instead of thesis Toast, and a call back to the presenter when the user clicks on an option to literature essays let the presenter decide the next step. Actually, what I mean is the chess thesis, necessity of adding new parameters, for instance.

I would have to change the MainView interface and literature Presenter implementation, not only MainActivity. In fact it’s related to View layer, but I would have to ford foundation fellowships change my presentation layer as well. Just in essays doubt how far we should go to abstract the View layer job. Refactoring happens often. Term Papers On Shakespeare? It’s difficult to foresee any possible changes, but you find those changes localized in a scoped and essays predictable place. I think that there is a problem. Architecture would be something like that: Delivery system : Activity, Fragment, Service and essay other Android related stuff.

Knew about core, core mustnt knew anything about delivery (android stuff). Presenter lives on writing delivery side. – has a relationship of dissertation fellowships boundarie (interface) when calling Interactor (transaction, could be command pattern) – and implements boundarie interface on writing literature essays response of Interactor (Observer pattern). – Boundaries are interfaces: – Interactors implements them when request is education is an essay, made (transaction) from writing essays presenter. -or interactors trigger them (has a relationship) when response is made, presenters than implemets this boundaries interfaces. -Interactor is USE CASE of the application. It lives in CORE, not on a delivery side as in term on shakespeare example and mustn knew anything about Android. So hier is a problem because Android must almost always do work in writing literature some kind of thread outside of subjects english Main UI thread. -Entity lives in writing literature core and represent business rules or business object (POJO) used by bnk sharma interactors. Entities dont knew anything about database, UI or Android. -Gateways (interfaces) lives in core and are responsable for handling database ( dao or repository).

-Database layer: there are concrete implementation of gataways (dao, repositorie) and SqlLiteOpenHelper, SqlLiteDatabase or Content providers. Implemetation of dao-s with Android API. -Models or DTO objects can be for essays request and response data between layers. Once again how to subjects english separate Interactors that must be in core layer and are triggered from writing essays Presenter and have some kind of thread (mustnt knew about Android Looper, Handler or AsyncTask…)? And when thread is finished and result process how to get back result. Sure, as I said MVP is not itself an dissertation, architecture pattern, and this example doesn’t try to implement any kind of layer architecture. As you said, interactors shouldn’t know anything about Android. Literature Essays? There are ways to do threads only using Java, but even Android tools can be used by bnk sharma research papers using dependency inversion. Core can use Android functions via interfaces and dependency injection. Your framework layer can implement an interface with the methods you need in your interactor.

You could, for instance, wrap an AsyncTask with a core class, use that core class as the basis of asynchronous calls, and communicate back via Callbacks or an event bus. And how will you use it with an writing essays, adapter if the user can interact with a row (e.g. a button in the rows triggers a rest call) Thanks for the reply and subjects english literature clarification. I’ll try to writing do as you said. Good Blog with good examples. It ‘s quite difficult to have a good clean architecture and loosely coupled in Android. All these Broadcast receivers, intents, handlers, loopers , asyncTasks, activity and fragment callbacks, play services callbacks., loaders, adapters.. It’s hard to achive separation of concerns. I’m wriiting Android application for my diploma (maps v2, activity recognition, fused location providers, geofences, some kind tracking app with background services…) and I would like to have clear architecture as uncle Bob suggest, but its hard, verry hard.

To much wrappers, interfaces, houndreds of small classes and thesis interfaces. I have already wrote this app. It worked but it was a code mess. Now I’m completly rewritting this app with better architecture in mind and abstractions, patterns… I would like to write an app in core layer with Robolectric tests and then the other stuff UI, DB (which I already have from before). Could you please explain, how you implement MVP with an adapter? I’m very interested in your approach… I just consider it part of the writing literature essays, view. The presenter will provide the items to be shown in the list. The view will then create an chess thesis statements, adapter and writing subscribe to onItemClickListener.

Presenter will be informed when an investment, item is clicked. OK thanks for your reply. Are you using a EventBus library in writing essays your apps? How do like the idea to decouple business logic from the presentation layer with the EventBus pattern? Yes, I use Otto. All my interactors (use cases) are asynchronous and communicate with presenter via Otto. Nice and term papers on shakespeare what library are you using for your network layer? Volley, Ion, RoboSpice…?

Sorry for all the essays, question but structuring Android apps is ford, a really interesting topic and literature I like to talk to other developers how they do that. Cheng Wei, all the github links you have posted are invalid! Please explain how to access them. No problem! It depends on the project, but I use Retrofit and OkHttp whenever I can. Retrofit is magic #128578; How are you using your MVP approach when your are dealing with Fragments? Has every Fragment it’s own MVP classes or are Fragments “views only” and they get their data and behavior over the presenter from the parent activity? I use the statements, second approach almost always. But there are places where the literature essays, first approach fits better, for instance in fragments related to navigation drawer options. Ok thanks, sounds great!

Are you using any testing frameworks? Could you maybe post test cases for the login module in your MVP example? If i have following method: which lines of code should be a part of the presenter and term which should be a part of the view. I do not see the difference with MVC just yet…I used an MVC approach before, and I noticed that having a man-in-the-middle (controller/presenter) bugging me. Adding/changing something just gave me extra work, as I ALWAYS had to change the essays, activity and controller… I just keep everything in the activity and big things in separate classes to be handled if it is generic… I think I might be wrong, but I did not find a way for abdul essay this to contribute to my Android development…speed nor clear readable code. The concepts are very similar. We could call it MVC if we used the essays, activity as controller, but we are considering part of the view here, so the user interaction goes directly to View (activity) and term on shakespeare not to the middle-man.

Separation of concerns give lots of advantages in essays terms of testing, reusing and modifying when working in a project where the scope is literature, changed easily. From my experience, it’s also much easier to detect when bugs are, because layers are well defined and writing literature every one has its own responsibilty. Probably in small projects that won’t evolve in future, this approach won’t help very much. Could you maybe post a more complex example of your mvp approach (e.g. Chess Thesis? with adapters, custom views, fragments…)? I would be very helpfull to umderstand how things work together. I’m not convinced by your implementation. First of all: thanks for sharing this and for essays starting this important discussion. Your code is very clean and, from a java standpoint is perfectly fine. Still, it doesn’t take into account the activity lifecycle at all. Specifically: your implementation use an Handler to perform the login notifying an interface when done. While the login is performed in background multiple things can happens to dissertation fellowships your activity:

A) it can be destroyed to be recreated (cause the writing, user rotated the device / cause an chess, incoming call has come or the essays, user switched activity) B) it can be destroyed cause the user exit the app tired to wait. for case A) you don’t save any state and thus do not show the user the progress bar while logging in. The user may click again for login of chess thesis statements be puzzled by that. And if an error occur you do not show it to the user because the notification reach the previous activity. for case B) the user close the activity but if the login is writing literature essays, successful the app open the new activity anyway. Picture the user interaction: 2. Papers? back to close. 3. hey it opened again even if I closed it. Furthermore, since your interface is writing literature, actually a reference to the activity you are creating a memory leak while the background process is running you may keep an already destroyed activity in memory until the login is completed. To properly handle stuff like this you need to make the background process completely separated of the activity and have a way to re-attach to research papers it with your activity when the process resume.

In short: what a Loader do in Android. But if you add the loader to writing essays the picture everything becomes lot more complicated. I’m not saying MVP is wrong. I just say that is harder to papers develop *right* with it in Android then in literature other system. Because of how the term, framework and essays the app metaphor is subjects english, build. I would really like to apply a decoupling like that but I don’t see a way to do it taking into account the Activity Lifecycle without making it overly complicated.

Any idea? I’m curious to hear what you and writing the community think about ford foundation dissertation this. Hi Daniele. You are right, but this is a simplified version with its obvious drawbacks. Literature Essays? What I do is using an bnk sharma, event bus to decouple interactors from presenters. Presenter subscribes to bus when its view resumes and unsubscribes when it pauses, so in an orientation change it will receive the response previously performed.

You will also need to save current status to let the recreated activity know that a login operation is currently executing, as you mentioned. Literature? Apart from that, I think any other problem you mentioned is foundation dissertation, solved. As in a loader, you are dettached when activity pauses an writing, reattached when it resumes. Are you using Otto as Event bus? Anyway, if you are willing to take a suggestion from me, I would write in your article / readme in the github that the example doesn’t take into bnk sharma research, account different thing in the activity lifecycle and that is only meant to show how an MVP is. And may be add the comment you wrote in reply to me as a suggestion on how to implement it correctly in Android. Reason: a newbie may not get those issues I wrote about in my first comment. Thank you again for your article and responses. Where do you store your rx.Subscription? in your View or Presenter? I don’t use RxJava, sorry.

Can’t help you on literature that. How do you handle Android activity recreations using the literature, MVP pattern? The activities should be recreated in the state that they were left. For example, if an android device is rotated while the LoginActivity in your github example project is currently testing if user credentials are correct, progress will be lost. The same could apply for more complex views where data needs to be loaded. For example, the writing literature essays, MainActivity in your example recreates the Presenter when it a user rotates his device. If the items were loaded before rotating the device, then they will be reloaded when it is rotated, which may confuse the user! How do you handle these “activity requirements” imposed by ford foundation dissertation Android? Nice post, thanks for it! So what do you finally test? Do you test all those components including Views separately?

So you test View, Presenter and Interactor? If we look at literature essays, LoginPresenterImpl for dr apj kalam example, what do you test here? Are you just assuring the needed method was triggered by mocking LoginView? Can you just briefly describe _what_ you test in these separations? Interesting, and well worth discussing. Some observations: 1) As Model often refers to some ball of data (smart or dumb) that is writing literature, persisted or serialized (a fancy struct) in architectural discussion, I prefer the term Interactor (as does your code). I understand it’s a reference to term papers MVC, but…it’s a confusing term in this context. 2) The Interactor is a business class like any other. The pattern is writing essays, effectively this: View Presenter — Business. 3) What value to the interfaces provide that couldn’t me more easily provided by javadoc and education is an investment essay Mockito?

4) The View and Presenter are very tightly coupled, to the point where they each have a reference to writing literature essays one another. They could easily be the same class with no loss of organization and significantly less boilerplate. The value is in forcing developers to consider the term on shakespeare, separation of the two most common concerns (view/presentation) instead of writing them as a few giant method in an Activity or Fragment. There is real value there, but it will still be very difficult to break a large Fragment or Activity down more than the (roughly) half this pattern provides without new ideas. The only thing I’ve come up with to further break down monster Activities/Fragments is UI-based util classes. Maybe this is enough for the vast majority of cases, but it still feels like there is something missing. I agree with Will. Looking over writing, the Github sample for MVP Example, all I see is a bunch of unnecessary classes and interfaces.

So when multiple developers touch this code and do pull requests, it will be a pain to dr apj abdul essay review the changes in so many files. Less code can be achieved with good Javadoc and Mockito + Dagger. Did you manage to inject a DI into Android Priority Job Queue? I was wondering if we should limit ourselves to having one Presenter for one View and literature essays one View for on Presenter ? I have a case where my View consist of an abdul essay, ActionBar and a ViewPager ( handled by essays a custom PagerAdapter that creates the Views ). In the constructor of my Views I have some initialization things I do such as loading images via http and so on.

Now my solution would be to inject the Presenter that my Activity deals with in my View ( from the pager ) so that I could call something like this.presenter.requestImages(). But I still have one issue remaining, the presenter will provide it through my Interface implemented by the Activity, which should then provide it to the adapter which should retrieve the papers, appropriate view ( how ? ), and then set it. Writing Literature? It seems like 3 levels to go through, with a lot of boiler plate to keep track on which view in the pager actually requested images. What would be the good approach to organize this kind of View ? My structure is bnk sharma research, like this : – Activity implements IView. – View[] : How do I deal with the presenter from here ? This is very interesting post. Literature Essays? I am a new to MVC/MVP pattern for android.

I am trying to use this pattern for my code. But I faced two problems in my code with this pattern. You mentioned that the education essay, only job that the view does is calling a method from the presenter when there is an interface action, such as onClick, onClose, onPause, etc. But do we consider onCreate() method as an writing literature essays, interface action as well? So I have a several variable initializations in Activity and they are relying on ford foundation fellowships the data from intent.

So when the Activity gets created, it initializes some variables with the Intent data and writing literature essays launches either dialog A or B depending on the initialized variables. Then should I have the initialization method in thesis presenter and call it from literature essays onCreate in Activity? Or should I put the method in presenter and call it from presenter’s constructor? What would be the ideal in bnk sharma research this case? Also, I get the writing literature essays, intent data by research calling getIntent() method in Activity. So the literature essays, method needs to take Intent as parameter. I can see one possible ways handle this. One way would be creating a method in View and education is an investment call getIntent() in that method for Activity implementation. Then, we can call that method from presenter. But getIntent is not really a View related method, so it doesn’t look correct. Can you help me to find the ideal way to handle this?

I have another question. I found that you shared two examples in writing literature GitHub. In MainActivity, onItemClick method calls presenter.onItemClick(position). Then, in presenter, onItemClick method calls mainView.showMessage(…). So in this example, you are not putting any logic in MainActivity at all. It is thesis, simply calling onItemClick method so MainActivity doesn’t need to know what onItemClick will do. In LoginActivity, onClick method calls presenter.validateCredentials(username.getText().toString(), password.getText().toString()).

While MainActivity doesn’t know what is going to happen on item click, LoginActivity knows that when user clicks, it will begin to validate credentials. If we wanted to avoid this consistency, we could replace presenter.validateCredentials(..) with presenter.onClick() in LoginActivity and add mainView.getUsername() and mainView.getPassword() in LoginView. So in presenter, onClick method can call validateCredentials(mainView.getUesrname(), mainView.getPassword()). I am not sure which one to follow. First one makes more sense to me because I don’t want View to know anything other than performing UI actions. Writing Literature? But then I will have to research papers create too many getters in View when presenter needs to know more resource information. If I follow the LoginActivity version, I need to put the detailed responses for every user action, but I can avoid having getters. What is your thought on this? Great example! I used your MVP to set a list of items in a Spinner.

My Model deserialized data from JSON and literature builds ArrayList of String. The Presenter gave the dissertation english literature, Spinner in my View a way to essays setAdapter with a setItems method as shown in bnk sharma research papers your example. For BroadcastReceiver, I have not tried this yet but I think this would be a great solution for writing literature decoupling receivers from activities. I have an dr apj, ImageView that I set depending on result from a Service. If my BroadcastReceiver is my Model, then I can use a setImage method in my Presenter that will give the Activity a way to setDrawable on the ImageView based on the result received in the Model! Would this work? Thank @Antonio Leiva… i have a question… I use an Activity as View, has my Presenters.. and Model.. but i use a Service now with connection and binder in Activity. How can i use Service in MVP ? I could i use a Facade Pattern… with Context to create communication with Service and so send facade instance to my presenter ? Yeah, that’s what I’d do. Literature Essays? The problem if you’re not using dependency injection is thesis, that you’ll need to pass the literature essays, context throughout the layers. Thanks.. a lot.. I use Dragger sometimes but I’m not very experienced.. now.. #128578;

Could you please post a GIST with your approach? I am curious if you considered adding RxJava to subjects english this architecture? It provides all the benefits of essays AsyncTask and Handlers, but with many state-saving optimizations. Didn’t have time to get into RxJava yet, is one of my pending tasks. But it will probably work fine in this context, yeah. I wonder why you have all those interfaces and then implementing them, instead of just having concrete classes.

What are the chess statements, advantages? Thanks in advance. Ideally we should code against literature essays, interfaces and bnk sharma research not implementations so that they are easy to change, mock, test and keep layers well separated. In practice, you will need to find a balance and create interfaces for what you really need. Thanks for literature essays the tip. Can you show how to implement this pattern in a rest Client with SQLite database persistance. I understand how you make the model and the view.

However. you are losing me with the API call + SQLite CRUD in the presenter. For Example. I was searching for how to decouple an app’s model layer from gui specifics, in dr apj this case, Android. I had a look at your example project at github and, no offense, but now I know that this is not the way I want to writing literature essays do it. You need no less than 5 java files for a login screen? There must be a simpler way to do it.

I will have to see if this robobinding framework allows for something simpler, or maybe I can exploit groovy’s dynamic features, now that it officially supports android. Why not try Mosby MVP framework? It implements the LCE pattern, as well as RxJava and Dagger2. Overall, it is the latest and chess thesis greatest in MVP land for literature essays Android. Igor, thanks for the pointer. Hello, i’m sorry but I don’t understand why there is something more than Model View Presenter exemple. I’m talking about the interactor. Isn’t it a part of th presenter ? I also have a question, which pattern would you choose between MVC and MVP for an app using Bluetooth Low Energy to “interact” with a remote bluetooth device ? Hello everybody , I have a problem With This pattern , I must to save a preference on the device , but I do not know if put the call on the view or model . Any ideas? How should i process activity intent extras with this pattern? Because my presenter hold reference to english literature some data, and literature essays my view(Activity) need to start another activity with their presenter data, should i call getter on chess thesis statements presenter from the writing literature essays, view or it’s bad practice?

Lets say i’ve an CustomerActivity, which can add new customers or edit ones, this activity will find for customer parcelable in extras, if exists than populate the form data, if not leave blank, this activity can be initialized from many activities. The problem is: The activity which starts CustomerActivity for edition will need to bnk sharma research papers send the extra to the intent, but the presenter is holding the writing, reference, so i cant call startActivity without getting info from presenter, i’m felling bad with this, there’s another approach? The presenter can use a kind of Navigator, a class which holds a reference to the activity (this is easier if you use a dependency injector such as Dagger), and use it to navigate passing the on shakespeare, information to essays this object. I’m trying to implement a very simple version of MVP. I’ve got a conceptual issue right now which is: If the term, Presenter should be responsible to talk to the Model to retrieve data to writing literature essays feed the View layer with, and if Activities belong to the View layer, what happens when, for instance, a ListItemActivity launches a DetailItemActivity, where the item details are passed from the papers on shakespeare, ListItemActivity to DetailItemActivity by means of a Bundle? I’m trying to find coherence in MVP and literature essays the monolithic architecture of Android. In the case I’m describing it seems the View layer (Activity) would need to pass data to the Presenter which may do some processing on them and pass such processed/formatted data back to ford the View layer (i.e. Literature? Fragment). To be honest I don’t agree much with considering Activities like dumb objects in dissertation english literature the View layer, but that’s why I’m asking here #128578; All these concepts work better with a dependency injector such as Dagger. You could inject a navigator to the presenter, which has the activity context injected too, so when an event triggers a navigation action, the presenter receives the action and calls the essays, navigator directly.

You conceptually don’t need to go back to the activity. Btw, regarding your feelings about education activities not feeling like a dumb object, I’m nowadays studying other alternatives, such as using the Activity as a controller and Fragments as Views. In the end we are attached to the activity lifecycle, so every solution has its own pros and cons. Thank you Antonio for your superquick reply. I’m trying not to literature depend on 3rd-party frameworks such as Dagger.

I don’t have anything religious against it, I actually think it’s a great library, but for some projects, like the papers, one I’m working on, it’s a bit too much. I’ll stay tuned to check other alternatives coming up. Hi, thanks for the post. Literature Essays? Im interested to know how you handle the case where a Presenter-backed Activity (lets call it X) is created and starts some work, a new Activity is pushed onto the stack and X is killed in dr apj abdul the background, the writing literature essays, presenter for X calls a load of the view methods (show something, change some text, start some animation etc), and dr apj essay then X comes back into writing essays, view after having missed all the callbacks. Dr Apj? As far as I can see using this pattern X and the presenter will be out of sync. I would be interested to know how you handle this case. Thx. It depends on many things. You can just cancel the work you’re doing just before moving to writing literature the next activity, if that work only is only to fill the statements, information of that activity. You can also persist the result of that work, which will presumably continue even though the activity is finished (this depends too on the architecture of the app). You essentially have the writing literature essays, same issues you’d have when not using a presenter.

If the activity was destroyed (this is the least probable case), you’ll need to recreate the view anyway, and abdul any info you saved will need to be informed to the presenter. If it didn’t, everything will just work. Im released a library to decouple Adapters to apply the mvp pattern. Writing Literature Essays? In the sample module you can see that the Adapters get fully decoupled and isolated. I wish you find it useful.

I will be thankful to receive your comments and advises. I have an Activity with multiple Fragments. Should I implement all my Fragments with MVP as well? it seems a bit too much….. If every fragment shows a very different kind of information, it may make sense. But it depends on ford foundation dissertation fellowships what you think is writing, better. I think after the introduction of Data Binding, there aren’t many reasons to statements go to a MVVM approach instead. Isn’t it the case?

I didn’t phrase this correctly #128578; I meant that in writing literature my opinion there aren’t many reasons to go for foundation dissertation fellowships MVP and I now prefer adopting MVVM instead as Data Binding provides us with a quite powerful framework, although still in writing literature essays beta. Hi Antonio, what about a view that has a timer service counting (even if it is paused) ? the activity starts the chess thesis statements, service and the presenter should listener for essays bus events? in dissertation that way there’s to way to literature essays test if that is working, then how can it be testable? Thank you for chess a great sample of code illustrating an android implementation of literature essays this concept. I watched a talk by Robert C. Martin on chess clean code which I really enjoyed but I couldn’t really imagine how it would be implemented. This made me understand it better. I just wonder, what is the point of using an interface for the interactor? I understand that if the interactor want to call methods on the presenter, then the presenter would have to writing literature essays implement some interface because of the needs of dependencies to point inwards toward the use cases. But why can’t the interactor just declare some methods public which then the presenter can call? Is it because some other class might want to use the bnk sharma papers, interactor which might not use some of those public methods? Also, do you have some other projects using this concept? It would be interesting to see how you would deal with more interactors.

Is this the foundation for most of your android projects? Actually there’s no point, just being able to be easy substituted or mocked, but it’s true most times it’s not necessary. Writing? I don’t bigger public repos, but it scales really well. I tend to use this architecture whenever I can, yeah, though I’ve been working in foundation dissertation the same project for more than a year now, so I’d probably spend some time thinking about it before starting a new project. I recommend you to take a look to a couple of blogs: and They’re talking a lot about these topics recently. Thanks, will check out the blogs. How would you go around the fact that the Presenter is literature essays, stateful, and exposes a publicly accessible API? This could be dangerous, if the same Presenter instance ends up in the hands of the another component.

I would prefer a way of on shakespeare indirect message passing from the View to the Presenter, in which it is clear and unambiguous that the View is the only one who could make calls to the Presenter. Writing Literature Essays? I would make all Presenter methods private, and ford foundation rather make the View expose an event bus (many implementations available already) to the Presenter. When a View event happens, the View would rather send an event through the bus, which will be caught by writing literature essays the Presenter, verified if it’s the same view instance, and reacted upon. This makes things a little more decoupled, but adds more complexity as well. Bnk Sharma? I would like to hear your thoughts on writing essays this. I’m not sure if this complexity really provides enough benefits. I prefer being more pragmatic and not to add so much complexity to papers be extra defensive. Have you found problems with this approach? I can only think of people in the same team that do a bad use of the presenters. But if the architecture is literature essays, done properly, probably presenters are only accessible from views. I hadn’t heard about your idea before tbh, but looks like it would work too.

Hi there, thanks for the thorough post. I am a bit late with on the mvp bandwagon but I am trying to catch up. You mentioned that you are using dagger together with mvp. How do you deal with the fact that the dependency between the presenter and the view is cyclical? I would like to dr apj abdul kalam inject stuff like the database helper and the rest client in writing literature essays my presenter but if I understood correctly I can’t since it cannot have a @Inject signed constructor because of that cyclical dependency. Not sure what problem you are referring, but you can take a look at my repo from Dagger articles. It’s a bit old, and papers not using Dagger 2, but the idea should be the same:

The thing is essays, you are not injecting fields in the PresenterImpl but passing them as constructor parameters instead of having a @Inject constructor and the fields injected. public MainPresenterImpl(MainView mainView, FindItemsInteractor findItemsInteractor) and (I think) part of the reason is bnk sharma research, because you can’t inject the view in writing literature it while injecting the presenter in the view (the circular dependency I was talking about). So the view is passed to the module and then to the presenter itself “manually” because it is not partecipating to the dependency graph. What I missed (and makes your example super useful) is the fact that if I have a FindItemsInteractor as the argument of the provides method, it is resolved by the graph and I can replace it with a mock one in my tests. Sorry, since now I have been using dagger for trivial injections (as most of the examples around explain). Hope I was clear, your example was :-). Thanks again. This article was a very good start for MVP. Foundation? However, I got stuck into this problem, where to put SharedPreferences?

I have seen examples where Context is essays, passed to the Presenter, but as you say, it should never go to subjects the Presenter. Also, how to create Model if it is void of writing essays Context, AsyncTask, SharedPreferences or other Android specific classes. I couldn’t find any example of statements creating Model which would interact with database or the network. What is your approach on this, where to literature put Context, AsyncTask, SharedPreferences, etc. First of all , thanks a lot for a great tutorial. I am still finding it difficult to understand the overall picture.

So far to construct MVP, one need to know the feature one is trying to implement. Meaning in login feature, one has to take username,password and then validate it. Then we need to term papers identify which view plays part in this feature. The view then needs to define what interactions are possible for this view. Then the writing literature, presenter identifies the chess, core part of feature which is credential validation. Writing Literature? The presenter then delegates the credential validation to the Interactor part. Is interactor part of presenter or part of model? Further in the example you have provided ,the validation is done on Interactor part.

Say we have two condition, validation using data from database or validation using data from REST API. So , we need to define those portion on education is an investment interactor part ? Thank you once again for awesome tutorial like this. Hi, is it a good idea when we have a complex view hierarchy to writing have similar hierarchy of education investment contained presenters and communication via EventBus? What if one presenter is responsible only to handle a given chunk of the hierarchy and delegates to writing literature child presenters? Very good article that I enjoyed reading – MVP is bnk sharma, something that makes so much sense, in terms of decoupling, and designating specific tasks/roles to each layer.

I’ve been using this pattern, and have come to a stumbling block that I’d appreciate your thoughts. So far I’ve implemented a MVP pattern where Models haven’t needed to writing literature essays communicate with other models, however I’ve come to a situation where I need to do this. I know that I should do this through the Presenter layer. The problem is that I have 2 Views (Activity’s in this case), 2 Presenters and 2 Models – how do a say communicate to Model B, from Model A? Model A has a reference to Presenter A, and Model B has a reference to Presenter B, but not Model A to thesis Presenter B, or Presenter A to Model B? Currently the View(Activity) initialises the Presenter which then initialses the writing literature essays, Model for each Activity, I have no idea (to mind) where references can be passed between different Presenters. The type of structure I require is is an investment essay, something like this : – I’m guessing, as I haven’t used a Dependency Injection Library yet, that this is where it would be made possible by Injecting the writing literature, Presenters, if each Presenter uses the @Singleton annotation, into each model to education provide the references to writing essays them.

I’ve implemented MVP pattern just like you mentioned. My earlier requirements were very simple. Dr Apj Kalam Essay? A simple GET request would give me data which Presenter used to pass on to View. For making network request I’ve used Volley. Now, network API’s have changed. For making a request, each request needs a token. For managing Token, I’ve create TokenManager API. Right now, I’m confused if token should be passed from View to literature Presenter and foundation dissertation fellowships Presenter will pass the writing essays, token to service API. This will make me write fetching token logic inside View (Fragment class).

Or should I make Network API take care getting fresh token when needed. This will make ServiceAPI having 2 roles (getting actual data and manage token as well) Can you please suggest me a clean approach? The blog post encouraged me to read your code, it is structured very nicely and super clean. Abdul? Going to bookmark. it is indeed a great blog. i want to exlopre more about mvp by essays going through some more code which involves background sync, services, broadcast receivers, view upading from bnk sharma papers service etc. Writing Essays? can i get to see any project build on MVP. it would be great help for me. thanks! HI,Antonio,it’s an research, impressive article about MVP and MVP is new to literature me .So I wonder can I repost your article into Chinese on my blog?

Of course I will indicate it comes from your blog.It will be great to recive your reply. I have 4 different fragment with different each having as below interfaces but my question is this that do I have to create different interfaces for each fragment as per MVP. void setInvitesAndRequestsList(SOACompleteModel invitesList, InboxRequestResponseModel requestsList, int from, List miniProfileInvitesList); void setInvitesAndRequestsList(List miniProfileInvitesList, int limit, int scrollToPosition, boolean isDownloading, String calledFrom, String refineParams, String mKey, int from); void loadMore(int page, String key); void getInvitesAndRequestsList(String refineParam, String key); void setInvitesAndRequestsList(SOACompleteModel invitesList, InboxRequestResponseModel requestsList, int from, List miniProfileInvitesList); void loadMore(int page, String key, String refineParam); void openProfile(int position, ArrayList minidataListExisting, int sourceSubType, String selectionTypeForInbox, int dbType); void setInvitesAndRequestsList(List miniProfileInvitesList, int limit, int scrollToPosition, boolean isDownloading, String calledFrom, String refineParams, String mKey, int from); void setOnActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent data, InboxRequestResponseModel mInboxRequestResponseModel, int from); void getCallDetails(android.view.View v, int position, MiniProfileData miniProfileData); void clearDb(int dbType); void openProfile(int position, ArrayList minidataListExisting, int sourceSubType, String selectionTypeForInbox, int dbType); void getInvitationAndRequestList(int page, String refine, String key); void setOnActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent data, InboxRequestResponseModel mInboxRequestResponseModel, int from); void getCallDetails(android.view.View v, int position, MiniProfileData miniProfileData); void clearDb(int dbType); As you said, there are many implementations of MVP, but not all of them designate Activities and Fragments as views. I personally believe, that Activities and Fragments should not contain UI logic at all. Alternative implementation of dissertation literature MVP, where Activities and Fragments are presenters, is described here: What I mean in this article is that this is a way to model the UI, but the “Model” part of MVP will need an architecture too.

Otherwise you’ll be only moving the problem to another part of the code. If it’s technically an architectural pattern or not is not that important. Hi, Antonio. I’m very new to writing literature essays Android and bnk sharma papers I’m trying to writing essays wrap my head around the MVP design pattern. I’ve been stuck on research papers the subject of the role the Recyclerview adapters play in all this and how to implement it.

Should I create a separate class for it (and its viewholder) and instantiate it inside the activity or fragment? Or is writing essays, it better to create it as an foundation fellowships, inner class in the activity/fragment? How do I handle the data related operation that it needs? Call a method from the presenter which would then invoke the corresponding method from the model? If you have or can point me in writing the directions of a good, simple tutorial (preferably without the use of is an investment Dagger, as I feel it complicates things a bit for me), I would appreciate it greatly. Thanks in writing literature essays advance.

Hey Adrian. I seldom use inner classes, but that’s a matter of taste I guess. Education Investment? Activities and adapters tend to grow fast, so better if they’re independent. The activity calls the presenter to update data, the literature, presenter calls the model, and when it receives the data, calls the research papers, view (the activity in this case) which will update the data in writing literature the adapter. The adapter, for me, is education investment, part of the view, so the literature, presenter doesn’t need to know of dr apj kalam essay its existence. I’ll try to find some time to implement an example if it helps, but can’t promise anything. Thanks for the detailed knowledge of MVP. Can you please explain MVP with multiple fragments of an activity with an example. HI Thank you very much. I am learning MVP . I just try receive data from web-services. I go to your FindItemsInteractorImpl.class.

I just implemented in CreateArraylist Methods. I write the code below. ArrayList beanBlocksIDs=new Arraylist(); Call request = Network.getBaseInstance().getBlocksID(); public void onResponse(Call call, Response response) int statusCode = response.code(); if (statusCode == 200) Log.e(TAG, “response code is writing, ” + statusCode); public void onFailure(Call call, Throwable t)

Log.e(TAG, “there was problem in response”,t); Service is working fine.I check on debug. So My point is thesis, how can I return arraylist from here. Please let me know. I know your code working fine,Problem is mine. Literature Essays? so please help me. Hi Thanks for dissertation your wonderful tutorial on mvp.Can you please add one post relating to essays webservices like volley using mvp pattern.Thanks in advance.

Thank you so much. This is really helpful and easy to dr apj abdul essay understand. How do we implement RoboSpice in mvp architecture?? could you give me some tips or an overview? I don’t use RoboSpice, sorry. If I have some time I’ll take a look, but can’t promise. How we gonna handle the presenter when activity is writing literature, recreated since presenter scope is coupled with activity lifecycle. The data might get lost which is saved in presenter object. When are you going to upload the next tutorial explaining mvp example put on github?

I’m planning to rewrite this article soon with much more info and update it. Thesis? It’s been like 3 years that I wrote this. Dependency injection on Android: Dagger (Part 1) | Antonio Leiva - […] will be a follow-up from my previous post about MVP for Android, because I know some of you are ??Android Weekly???? #124; ????? - […] MVP for Android: how to writing essays organize the presentation layer […] Un ‘stack’ productivo para el desarrollador android #1, Arquitectura #124; Androcode - […] MVP Android – Antonio Leiva […] Android: buenas practicas, arquitectura….. Research? | Sobre IT y mas - […], […] Android MVP—An Alternate Approach | belial#039;s tear - […] ??????????????????Android??MVP(Model-View-Presenter)??????????MVP?????????????Android???????,????? this Wikipedia article, this blog pos? […] Android MVP – Consuming REST with Retrofit and RxAndroid | kmangutov - […] the MVP design pattern is a good way to stay sane while working on large […] MVP Pattern Android ? | Android World - […] 1. Essays? […] Android??MVP | ??.?? - […] 50?Android????(20 ??MVP??) MVP for Android: how to dissertation fellowships organize the presentation layer(????) MVP for Android: how to literature organize the presentation Dagger with Android: How to inject context when using MVP? - BlogoSfera - […] So to get to the point. In my application I’m using MVP as described in this blog post: Android MVP Design Pattern | #onemonthapp #1 #restrospective | whe_green - […] kalau mau baca sumber aslinya bisa mampir kesini […] Deciding how and what to test in education investment essay a simple android project - BlogoSfera - […] use the MVP (model view presenter) pattern, and these are the classes I […] Architectures in Android Applications – Quick Notes | Laur IVAN - […] Antonio Leiva, Konstantin Mikheev, Fernando Cejas (part of the clean architecture), the Android MVP G+ […] MVP in Android – A Summary | Laur IVAN - […] presenter is the middleman between the model and writing literature the model. You can look at it as a necessary step Android development is more expensive than iOS. - RandRead - […] that we mean something that separates the presentation layer from the business logic, like MVP on Android or VIPER on […] It’s All About Architecture - […] #3 – MVP for Android […] Model View Presenter (MVP) no Android, Introducao | Tin Megali - […] As definicoes acima foram extraidas em livre interpretacao do excelente artigo de Antonio Leiva. […] Model View Presenter no Android, parte 2 - […] As definicoes acima foram extraidas em livre interpretacao do excelente artigo de Antonio Leiva. […] Model View Presenter MVP no Android, parte 1 - […] These excellent definitions above were extracted from on shakespeare Antonio Leiva’s article. Literature Essays? […] Model View Presenter MVP in dr apj abdul essay Android, part 1 - […] These excellent definitions above were extracted from Antonio Leiva’s article. […] Model View Presenter in Android, part 2 - […] These excellent definitions above were extracted from Antonio Leiva’s article. […] MVC Pattern for writing essays android – SAIFUL DIARY - […] Link1 Example spring-android […] Aprendiendo Kotlin | SwiftDroid - […] MVP – Antonio Leiva – […] MVP and term papers on shakespeare Android? – Mobile Applications and Services Lab - […] I recommend reading Fernandos Cejas’ Architecting Android article, or Antonio Leiva’s MVP for essays Android.

For information on RxJava, Dan Lew’s Grokking RxJava series What Is A Presentation Layer – - […] MVP for dissertation literature Android: how to organize the presentation layer – … is writing literature, a software design pattern that works pretty Weekly Report [12] – Ramos Samue Batubara | GO-PPL - […] Saya sendiri sudah berhasil mengimplementasi MVP dengan mengubah struktur codingan pada ListView. Tujuan nya agar logic pada listview untuk ic218 Android - […] MVP. MVP for Android: how to subjects literature organize the presentation layer Android Code That Scales, With MVP Ted Mosby — Aplicacion “Cliente Spotify” – Primeros pasos – AfrasilvDev - […] algo mas sencillo. Podeis ampliar mas la informacion en el blog de Antonio Leiva (@lime_cl) en ingles o espanol MVP simple – Jacques Giraudel - […] Implementation de Antonio Leiva […] MVP simply – Jacques Giraudel - […] Antonio Leiva’s implementation […] You can change the writing essays, settings or get more information in our Cookies Policy Accept Read More.

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System development plan for bead bar. System development plan for bead bar. Purpose The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the creation of a system development plan for Bead Bar based on writing adopted systems development life cycle (SDLC) phases used in the current state of information system technology. Need essay sample on System development plan for bead bar ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Objective The objectives of this essay are to: (a) define the purpose of the systems development project and its alignment with Bead Bar’s goals; (b) outline the chess thesis, steps and tasks required in essays each phase of the SDLC for the project; and (c) create guidelines for a systems review and maintenance schedule. Company business Malaga (2005) writes of Bead Bar—a company that specializes in allowing customers to create their own bead jewelry. Its business process is as simple as allowing its customers to sit at a bar in chess statements any one of its various studios using materials provided (beads, wire, and string) to literature create necklaces, bracelets, and other jewelry” (p. 2). Organization Bead Bar has grown from its inception in 1998 and now has three divisions, namely: (1) studios, (2) franchises, and (3) Bead Bar on Board.

The studio division oversees the subjects english literature, company’s six bead bar studios … there are now two studios in New York City, one on essays Long Island, one in subjects english Washington, D.C., and one in Boston, Massachusetts. Writing Essays. The franchise division sells a complete beading supply package to businesses that want to open their own bead studio. The division is abdul kalam essay, responsible for fulfilling franchisees’ supply requirements. There are currently five franchises (Kansas City, Missouri; Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles, California; Seattle, Washington; and Miami, Florida). Bead Bar on Board is literature, a special bead bar designed for cruise ships. Education Is An Investment Essay. The bar is portable and essays can be placed on thesis statements deck or in a lounge. The company has 15 full-time employees and about 20 part-time employees who work in the studios helping customers and working the cash register. Annual revenues for the past three years have averaged $1.5 million (p. Writing Literature. 2).

The company’s senior staff The Bead Bar senior staff includes the: (a) President and Owner; (b) Vice President of Studios; (c) Vice President of Franchises; (d) Vice President of dr apj abdul kalam Bead Bar on Board; (e) Chief Financial Officer; (f) Vice President of Marketing and essays Sales; (g) Vice President of Operations and Purchasing; and ford fellowships (h) Director of Human Resources (p. Literature. 2). The current situation and associated problem of the company Bead Bar “still uses paper-based forms. Bead Bar is now large enough that the paper-based system is inefficient and has caused some problems, including lost orders, incorrect invoicing, and dissertation english fulfillment delays. Writing Essays. To solve these problems and bring the company into the digital world, [the President and papers Owner of the company] … hired an [external IT consultant]” to writing study the current situation of the company and to provide a system development plan to effectively address the current problems and concerns (p. 2). The system development project for Bead Bar During the initial meeting of the IT consultant with the education, chief executive of Bead Bar, the consultant gave some insight about the current affairs of information technology that benefits many companies today of varied sizes including Bead Bar. Writing Essays. The consultant briefed the President about the “features of the digital world” along with its “impact on business” and corresponding “role of information,” namely: (a) globalization—creates a global marketplace but also global competition: internet has enabled global communication; (b) digitization of goods—it changes the structure of certain industries by allowing producers and consumers to bypass traditional intermediaries: the education investment, internet allows the literature essays, distribution of digitized goods; (c) speed—consumers and business partners expect rapid transactions: computer networks and the Internet allow businesses to provide instant access to information, product and services; (d) the merger of products and services—it can require consumers to ford dissertation purchase both products and services: many information technologies are based on the merger of writing essays precuts and services; (e) the role of ideas—the companies must protect their ideas and know when they are infringing on others’ ideas: patents and copyrights are the basis of many widely used information technologies; (f) new markets and pricing—digital markets create new business opportunities: information technologies are required to create information technologies (Malaga, 2005, p. 3). Dissertation Subjects English. The President expressed her interest on the project; subsequently, the consultant informed the company chief of the stages or phases of the literature essays, IT project for Bead Bar delineated below. System Design and Development Life Cycle (SDLC) overview.

Farlex, Inc. (2007) quotes the US Department of Justice about the latter’s definition of ford foundation fellowships Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) as a “software development process, although it is also a distinct process independent of software or other Information Technology considerations.” Furthermore, SDLC is “used by a systems analyst to develop an information system, including requirements, validation, training, and user ownership through investigation, analysis, design, implementation, and essays maintenance. SDLC is also known as information systems development or application development. Ford Foundation Dissertation. An SDLC should result in a high quality system that meets or exceeds customer expectations, within time and cost estimates, works effectively and efficiently in writing literature essays the current and planned information technology infrastructure, and is cheap to maintain and statements cost-effective to enhance. SDLC is writing literature essays, a systematic approach to problem solving and is composed of several phases, each comprised of multiple steps.” Farlex, Inc. Statements. (2007) further writes of “six official phases” and “general phases” of. Table 1. The Six Official Phases of SDLC (Farlex, Inc., 2007) Table 2. The General Phases of SDLC (Farlex, Inc., 2007) (1) preliminary investigation. (1) feasibility study. (2) system analysis. (3) system design.

(4) system development. (4) implementation/ development. (5) system implementation. (6) system maintenance. Table 3. Writing Literature Essays. Systems Life Cycle (UK Version) (Farlex, Inc., 2007) (1) Terms Of Reference — the management will decide what capabilities and objectives they wish the foundation dissertation, new system to incorporate; (2) Feasibility Study — asks whether the managements’ concept of writing literature their desired new system is actually an achievable, realistic goal, in-terms of money, time and end result difference to research papers the original system. Often, it may be decided to simply update an existing system, rather than to completely replace one; (3) Fact Finding and Recording — how is the current system used? Often questionnaires are used here, but also just monitoring (watching) the staff to see how they work is better, as people will often be reluctant to be entirely honest through embarrassment about the parts of the existing system they have trouble with and find difficult if merely asked; (4) Analysis — free from any cost or realisticality constraints, this stage lets minds run wild as ‘wonder systems’ can be thought-up, though all must incorporate everything asked for essays, by the bnk sharma papers, management in literature the Terms Of Reference section;

(5) Design — designers will produce one or more ‘models’ of foundation dissertation what they see a system eventually looking like, with ideas from the analysis section either used or discarded. A document will be produced with a description of the writing literature essays, system, but nothing is specific — they might say ‘touchscreen’ or ‘GUI operating system’, but not mention any specific brands; (6) System Specification — having generically decided on which software packages to use and hardware to incorporate, you now have to on shakespeare be very specific, choosing exact models, brands and suppliers for each software application and hardware device; (7) Implementation and Review — set-up and install the new system (including writing any custom (bespoke) code required), train staff to use it and then monitor how it operates for initial problems, and then regularly maintain thereafter. During this stage, any old system that was in-use will usually be discarded once the new one has proved it is reliable and as usable. Table 4. Phases of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) (Satzinger, Jackson, Burd, 2004). Phase 1: Project planning (initiate, ensure feasibility, plan schedule, obtain approval for project)

Phase II: Analysis (understand business needs and processing requirements) Phase III: Design (define solution system based on requirements and analysis decisions) Phase IVL Implementation (construction, testing, user training, and installation of new system) Phase VI: Support (keep system running and improve) SDLC shown in Table 1 and writing Table 2, respectively while Table 3 shows a UK version of a 7-phase SDLC.

On the other hand, Satzinger, Jackson, and Burd (2004) present a six-phase SDLC. Table 5. SDLC and problem-solving (Satzinger, Jackson, Burd, 2004). Similar to problem-solving approach. 1. Organization recognizes problem (Project Planning) 2. Project team investigates, understands problem and solution requirements (Analysis)

3. Is An Essay. Solution is specified in detail (Design) 4. System that solves problem built and installed (Implementation) 5. System used, maintained, and enhanced to writing literature essays continue to provide intended benefits (Support) shown in Table 4. Education Is An Investment. Satzinger, Jackson, and Burd (2004) view SDLC as being “similar to problem-solving approach” shown in Table 5. The five overviews of SDLC are all focused on one aim: toward the development of a “system” the objective of which is solving information-related organizational problems along with commercial/business and technical considerations. Steps and tasks required in the system design and development project adopted for Bead Bar This paper adopts the 7-phase Systems Life Cycle (UK Version) model provided by writing literature essays Farlex, Inc. (2007) shown in english literature Table 3 above in the system design and development for Bead Bar. Phase I: Terms Of Reference Terms Of Reference (TOR) is writing literature, related to a “commercial” term called “Letter of Intent” or “Expression of Intent” undertaken by a party offered with a service or a particular product (in this paper, Bead Bar) by a service provider (in this paper, the “IT consultant”). Dissertation. A TOR is implied after the IT consultant made the presentation about the writing literature essays, features of the digital world (see above). The TOR usually contains two broad aspects: the Technical aspect or specification—which identifies the needs of the customer or client and the Commercial aspect which specifies the chess, pricing structure of literature essays work or services done for education is an, the customer or client. Phase II: Feasibility Study The scope or extent of the writing literature, IT project or system design and development aimed by the company’s senior management is company-wide and a complete transformation from a paper-based management information system into an all-electronic digital information system as indicated in the assessment of current situation and problem statement above. The feasibility study considers the two aspects covered in the TOR—Technical and Commercial.

Phase III: Fact Finding and Recording During the fact finding and papers recording phase of the undertaking, the writing literature, systems analyst/consultant usually starts from the term on shakespeare, organizational structure or chart of Bead Bar. The information gathered about the writing literature essays, organization structure of Bead Bar is that the company is composed of these key functional organizations, namely: Finance (CFO), Human Resource (HR), Marketing, Operations, Information System (CIO) (Malaga, 2007, p. 11). Following are the information gathered from the heads of functional organizations. Their responses indicate how the transformation undertaking would affect their jobs and organizations. President and bnk sharma Owner: “I never considered that my business combines both a product and service. This combination is our main selling point….

We provide our customers with the ability to make their own high-quality bead jewelry.” VP of Studios: “The information on patents and copyrights may prove important for us. Our employees are good at coming up with new designs…. We should use copyrights and patents to literature essays protect our especially clever designs.” VP of Franchises: “For me, the idea of trademarks is the research papers, most interesting. We franchise the Bead Bar concept and name.” VP of Bead Bar on Board: “Globalization is literature, interesting to me because the customers I meet on cruise ships come from all over the world. Term Papers On Shakespeare. If we understood their culture better, we might be able to do more business.

Virtual organizations are also of interest, since I do much of literature my work away from the office.” Chief Financial Officer: “As you know, I would like to telecommute. I think this would give me more time with my baby and still allow me to ford foundation dissertation fellowships be productive. However, I am concerned about being left out of the loop if I’m not physically present at the office.” VP of Marketing and Sales: “Developing a virtual organization with companies we work with on marketing material would be a big help to me.

I often have to travel to Manhattan to meet with them.” VP of Operations and Purchasing: “We purchase beads from around the literature essays, world, so I am interested in subjects english global issues. I frequently import beads and literature have to chess deal with customs and other international regulations on a regular basis. I wonder if information systems will be able to help me.” Director of Human Resources: “If Meredith decides to allow some of our employees to writing telecommute, we’ll need to develop new human resources policies.

I also need to check that employees’ home offices meet basic health and safety regulations” (Malaga, 2007, p. 23). Phase IV: Analysis After the gathering of high-level needs/expectations from the functional organizational heads, the next step is to “fit in” the papers, needs of the users (all levels of the organization) into two broad standardized information systems, namely: (a) Administrative Information Systems (AIS) and (b) Functional information Systems (FIS) (Malaga, 2007, pp. 12-13). The AIS is composed of “seven types of literature essays administrative information,” namely: (1) transaction processing systems (TPS); (2) office automation systems (OAS); (3) knowledge work systems (KWS); (4) management information systems (MIS); (5) decision support systems (DSS); (6) executive information systems (EIS); and (7) interorganizational systems (IOS). The FIS is composed of four “functional information systems [that] supports … business units,” namely: (1) Finance and abdul kalam essay Accounting Systems; (2) Marketing and Sales Systems; (3) Manufacturing and Operations Systems; and (4) Human Resources Management Systems (Malaga, 2007, pp. 14-15). Phase V: Design Figure 6 shows the structure and interaction of various information systems. This is the interactive structure design of the network system planned for Bead Bar. Figure 6. Integrated Administrative, Functional, and Enterprise Resource Planning Design (Malaga, 2007). Phase VI: System Specification The various heads of the writing, functional organizations expressed their individual desires to participate and commit to the planned digital transformation of the chess, entire company. The system specifications are aligned with the writing literature, requirements of these organization heads shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7. High-Level System Specifications. Office of the President Owner. Should we just buy it at kalam essay a store or do we need to hire a computer programmer? Laptop, Intranet, Internet. MS Office Suite. I need software that can help manage … inventory and employees [and] help schedule and track employees. Laptop, Intranet, Internet.

MS Office Suite. VP of Franchises. “Computers are a mystery to me. I just need something that is writing essays, easy to use.” Laptop, Intranet, Internet. MS Office Suite. VP of Bead Bar on chess Board. “I deal with a lot of people at the cruise lines. Presentations are a large part of essays my job.

Maybe there is software that can help me keep track of all these people and make more interesting presentations.” Laptop, Intranet, Internet. MS Office Suite. Chief Financial Officer. “My primary interest is financial. I know I need spreadsheet software, but I also need software to help with our taxes.” Laptop, Intranet, Internet. MS Office Suite, Oracle Financials. VP of bnk sharma research papers Marketing and Sales. “Now that we have computers, I can develop marketing materials.

I need software that allows me to manipulate digital pictures and produce direct mail pieces.” Laptop, Intranet, Internet. MS Office Suite. VP of Operations and Purchasing. “As the person responsible for operations, my staff will need to perform computer maintenance tasks and install new software.”

Laptop, Intranet, Internet. MS Office Suite, Warehousing applications. Director of Human Resources. “I don’t … know what I need. What can software do to help with my job? Can we use it to essays manage employee benefits?” Laptop, Intranet, Internet. MS Office Suite, SQL+, PeopleSoft. Phase VII: Implementation and Review System analysts, computer programmers, data entry personnel, CIO, and other IS personnel including identified users work together in the development of specific applications, writing of programs, entering of required data or “populating” the literature, databases that need to provide required data for essays, information-generation purposes, among other. Following the construction of data/information systems and network, schedule company-wide orientation and dissertation subjects training follow. Writing Literature Essays. After the orientation and training, system test is initiated followed by ford fellowships “debugging” as necessary.

Upon the essays, completion of specified system operations period, full system implementation will replace the old system; certain “bugs” will appear along the way; “debugging” activities follow; necessary system changes are expected (see Malaga, 2007, pp.62-86). Guidelines for a systems review and maintenance schedule After the turnover of the system design and term on shakespeare development plan by literature essays the IT consultant to the CIO of Bead Bar, it will then become the responsibility of the CIO to establish guidelines for system review and maintenance schedule with the assistance of the IS Manager. One indispensable the reality of system transformation is “resistance to change” which resides in every person in an organization. Awad (1988) provides these reasons for IS failure, namely: (a) poorly defined user requirements; (b) lack of user participation; (c) inexperienced analysts or programmers; (d) inadequate user training; (e) uncooperative user staff; and (f) deficient hardware or software, or both (pp. 419-420).

A quarterly system review is recommended especially during the first and second year of the papers on shakespeare, system; and a monthly schedule maintenance service to all areas in which information system have been installed. Satzinger, J. Writing Essays. W., Jackson, R. B., Burd, S. D. (May 13, 2004). Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World. (3rd ed.). Thesis. Boston, MA: Course Technology. [ISBN: 0-619-21325-6] Awad, E. M. (1988). Management Information Systems Concepts, Structure, and writing literature Applications.

Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummins Publishing Company, Inc. Farlex, Inc. Essay. (2007). Writing Essays. Systems Development Life Cycle. The Free Dictionary. (March 16, 2007). Malaga, R. A. (2005).

Information Systems Technology. Thesis. Canada: Prentice Hall. [ISBN: 0130497509]

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2017 eLearning Predictions: Updated Hype Curve. Our 2016 hype curve was a big hit, so we#8217;re doing it again this year. Here is the short, graphical version: Our 2017 eLearning predictions set in terms of Gartner#8217;s hype cycle. And below the fold, the long version, broken into the five stages popularized by literature Gartner: As I wrote last year, #8220;Online learning lags behind other industries in adopting new technologies. This is not because people in online learning are not interested in new technologies; it’s because we’re not a high-revenue industry compared to giant industries like consumer goods.#8221; This is still as true as ever, and dr apj kalam essay it explains why there#8217;s a four-to-eight-year lag between technology trends as a whole and their application in eLearning. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: Our developer David Wipperfurth writes, #8220;AI and ML don#8217;t really fit well on the hype curve, because they will have multiple in/out fluxes with different technologies and uses. AI/ML is essentially too big and vague a category to literature put on papers, such a chart. It would be like asking where economics fits on the chart.#8221; OK, granted.

Writing specifically of intelligent apps, David adds, #8220;This depends on writing essays, what we#8217;re talking about. Flashcard applications and adaptive testing have been intelligent for years and years. Lots of term on shakespeare people probably make claims about how #8216;intelligent#8217; their apps are. Writing Essays? I#8217;d say adaptivity (outside of tests), procedural generation, and data mining are not widely utilized by mainstream pedagogy, so for those cases it might be at technology trigger.#8221; Following David#8217;s lead, we define artificial intelligence and machine learning as computer-generated algorithms, or #8220;procedural generation#8221;: the idea that the computer derives its own rules rather than relying on dissertation fellowships, a human to program its rules. This kind of machine learning is used in applications like Google#8217;s speech recognition and translation software. The eLearning applications of this technology are very much in their infancy; we expect them to be pioneered by firms like Google, IBM (which markets its Watson technology in connection with various LMS platforms it has acquired over the years), Microsoft (which just invested in the lifelong learning space with its purchase of LinkedIn/Lynda), and even Amazon. We were surprised to find Amazon recruiting aggressively at the eLearning Guild#8217;s DevLearn conference.

In short, eLearning applications of AI and ML are clearly in the Technology Trigger phase, but expected to continue to develop and mature in the next year. IMS Caliper: Caliper is the latest standard from IMS. A newer standard than even xAPI, Caliper is somewhat less ambitious than xAPI in the number of use cases considered and writing APIs specified. This is a possible reason to subjects english expect quicker adoption. Tim Martin of Rustici praised the Caliper design process at writing literature DevLearn.

As Martin is one of the xAPI originators, this could foreshadow future synergies between the two standards and help xAPI get out of the Trough (see below). To understand the difference between the two standards, it#8217;s important to note that IMS and Caliper are driven by higher ed and thus of particular interest to the Educause crowd. Essay? IMS#8217;s best known standard, LTI, allows textbook companies to literature package online course content and ship it with their textbooks, regardless of the implementing university#8217;s LMS. LTI packages vary from SCORM packages in that the typical content model follows higher education#8217;s synchronous, weekly, semester-long format rather than the asynchronous, one-time, hour-long format of ford much corporate and military training. Caliper keeps these use cases and users in mind while improving on previous IMS standards in the granularity of writing literature data captured and in use of an education is an investment, xAPI-like model for writing essays, interoperability across multiple types of tools and platforms: mobile apps feeding back in to the LMS and english literature the like. But the literature standard was only bnk sharma research papers, recently published, and application is still a work in literature, progress. Internet-enabled Physical Simulators: There#8217;s not much more to add from education is an what we said last year, other than that we#8217;ve participated in writing, a pilot that used xAPI to connect a Laerdal simulator to a learning management system, and we#8217;ve read of another similar pilot.

The use cases are clear, but the bnk sharma research papers technology is not so easy to deal with right now. Writing Literature? Standardized connectors need to be built. But because of the education is an investment essay pilot activity, we#8217;re moving this trend up-slope a bit. Writing Essays? CHEST-Web Courseworks xAPI pilot. EHR-Integrated Performance Improvement: We have seen no real progress on the dream of integrating performance improvement education with electronic health records systems (EHRs).

But the hype certainly increased in 2016 thanks to the long-awaited publication of the kalam essay final rule on quality payment under the writing essays Federal Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA). MACRA replaces the old procedure-based Medicare payment formula with a complex new formula, called MIPS, that seeks to pay for quality. Part of the MIPS formula awards a bonus to clinicians for participation in Clinical Practice Improvement Activities (CPIAs). CPIAs include MOC-IV and similar efforts to get clinicians to study their own practice, learn, and improve. Payment bonuses for quality and practice improvement represent a renewed regulatory emphasis on performance improvement. Education Investment Essay? At quality conferences like IHI, the MACRA/MIPS hype is strong.

Some solutions providers already claim MIPS compliance (we are skeptical). When providers claim to tie reporting for reimbursement into performance improvement metrics, we expect EHR-integrated performance improvement to literature reach the Peak of Inflated Expectations. Virtual Reality in eLearning: VR might evoke a bit of deja vu in experienced eLearning observers, as we went very far down the simulation/avatar-y path a few years back: around 2006, Second Life was the fellowships talk of eLearning (it#8217;s not now). Nonetheless, VR is something qualitatively different from 3D-animated, flat-screen computer games, and has been democratized by Google Cardboard and Samsung#8217;s Gear goggles. The presence of VR on the upward-sloping part of the literature essays curve was demonstrated at dissertation this year#8217;s DevLearn conference, where a number of vendors were demonstrating VR-based experiences. The applications barely need to literature essays be elucidated: VR would be great for papers, anything physical, including medical and technical skills. We#8217;ve blogged about an application at writing Filament Games.

As is education is an investment, often the case, the popular adoption of VR is led by essays entertainment technology (gaming), and learning is still years behind. VR devices have low penetration in professional settings (have you got one in your office?). While the hype is, naturally, strong, VR is still perceived as a #8220;future thing#8221; by most in eLearning. Web Courseworks instructional designer Jenny Saucerman using HTC Vive. Subscription Learning: Subscription learning goes by ford dissertation fellowships many names, including spaced learning, but where we find it particularly hyped right now is in essays, the #8220;online continuous assessment#8221; model that has been popularized by the American Board of Anesthesiology. The basic idea of online continuous assessment is to do away with large, high-stakes certification exams that happen once every few years and replace them with a weekly or monthly exam question.

Learners have time to digest the case-based questions and their feedback. They might even apply what they learn from them in their practice. This vision goes hand-in-hand with mobile delivery; learners are increasingly working on these bite-sized chunks of education is an essay assessment during gaps in their work days. In our experience, most medical specialty boards are at least investigating mobile online continuous assessment, and many are actively searching for solutions providers. In a different, more commercial sense, subscription learning has been boosted by essays the collapse of the price point for on-demand learning. We#8217;re seeing organizations with large libraries of online learning that are interested in selling their content on a subscription model: the dr apj kalam #8220;Netflix of literature self-paced learning#8221; approach exemplified by OpenSesame.

And finally we note that Coursera#8217;s nanodegrees (see MOOCs, below) are now sold on a monthly subscription model. In short, a lot of people are hanging their hopes on dr apj kalam essay, the simple idea of subscribing to learning. Writing Literature? Expectations are a bit inflated. Data Visualization in eLearning: Nate Silver#8217;s The Signal and the Noise was published in 2012, and right about that time the education is an essay market for self-service business intelligence software (Tableau, Qlik, Microsoft Power BI) went bonkers. Self-service BI software has democratized data visualization. Predictably, the trend has slowly disseminated outward from the higher-revenue parts of the enterprise to literature essays education, and we are now seeing constant talk about the need to offer administrative and learner-facing graphical dashboards to offer #8220;insights#8221; to designers and learners. This trend is clearest in corporate eLearning, where the big corporate LMSes have colorful pie charts and ford foundation dissertation histograms gratuitously flung all over their interfaces. Even Moodle, which is less commercial, now has a PowerBI plug-in. As with any technology at literature essays the Peak of Inflated Expectations; be wary of the hype: remember that the trick with computers is always garbage-in, garbage-out.

But do insist on better visualization capabilities from your learning software. Gamification: It#8217;s the proliferation of leaderboards that has landed Gamification (temporarily, we hope) in the trough of disillusionment. Many corporate LMSes offer leaderboards. They#8217;re easy to turn on, and on shakespeare also easy to misuse. The problem is that learners are being ranked on writing essays, their completion of bnk sharma research papers uninspiring SCORM modules.

If learners feel they#8217;re being ranked arbitrarily, or that a training program is trying to spice up low-quality learning with #8220;a little bit of competition,#8221; then they#8217;re going to find the leaderboard more annoying than motivating. That being said, there#8217;s plenty of hope that gamification will pull through the trough and reach productivity relatively unscathed. The #8220;serious professional trivia#8221; model that we first encountered years ago with SCTE is achievable for most professional associations using available technology. The American College of Chest Physicians runs its CHEST Challenge competition in two phases: a first phase is administered online as a quiz in their LMS, and the second phase is a live #8220;quiz show#8221; format. The key to writing getting out of the Trough of Disillusionment is papers on shakespeare, higher-quality, lower-cost content enabled by new tools, such as BranchTrack. xAPI: We are big believers in xAPI.

We want to writing literature be clear on that. But every technology goes through a phase of disillusionment; that#8217;s the chess thesis statements point of the hype curve. In the literature essays case of xAPI, the disillusionment is bnk sharma, around the writing literature essays continued difficulty in application. xAPI has not reached the #8220;plug and play#8221; productivity of SCORM. Speaking here as a member of the eLearning community, this is probably our own failure to learn and adapt as quickly as we might like (hey, we#8217;ve got SCORM packages to finish). But it#8217;s also pretty clear that the xAPI standard, in its flexibility and granularity, is ambitious, and it takes some time for foundation dissertation fellowships, ambitious standards like these to be absorbed into everyday practice.

For now, it might seem as if xAPI is stuck in writing essays, a #8220;perpetual piloting#8221; phase. But the pilots are proliferating we#8217;ve seen many more pilots in the last year than in the rest of the short history of xAPI put together. And that#8217;s a good sign: as more practitioners participate in pilots, understanding spreads, and xAPI moves upward toward the Slope of ford dissertation Enlightenment. MOOCs: We had MOOCs in writing literature, the Trough of Disillusionment last year, and indeed the hype has died down. Dr Apj? Business models at the big MOOC platforms have shifted; both Coursera and Udacity are now pushing #8220;nanodegrees#8221; with a self-paced format. And their MOOCs are not entirely open anymore. Many now cost money. Meanwhile, corporate MOOCs seem to writing literature have, essentially, fizzled.

The #8220;enlightenment#8221; we#8217;re experiencing is best expressed by a recent quote from Udacity founder Sebastian Thrun, who told the literature New York Times, “If I look back at the MOOC hype, what actually happened was that people equated a cheaper delivery method with the replacement of the entire educational system. Writing Literature Essays? A cheaper technology is not the same as a business revolution.#8221; We agree: MOOCs should be seen as a valuable part of an educational system that must serve an incredibly diverse range of learners and purposes. Educational institutions of papers all stripes shouldn#8217;t see them as a replacement for anything, but a tool that meets certain needs. Mobile Learning: Celebrate, for we#8217;ve finally reached the point where we can look back at the train-wreck that was the early days of mobile learning and literature laugh. There was the wrenching transition away from research papers Flash, the over-hyped hybrid apps, and the proliferation of unusable JQuery Mobile-based responsive websites (OK, some are still out there). We#8217;re past that now, or a good many of us are, and writing essays we#8217;re finally to the point where we can intelligently and productively use the dr apj kalam essay various options available to us. That pleasing, placid feeling of understanding and usability#8230;why, we must be on the Plateau of writing literature Productivity. Courtesy of The American Board of education is an Anesthesiology, MOCA 2.0. For more information on xAPI and the CHEST-Web Courseworks xAPI pilot, download our white paper. If you are interested in performance improvement, learn more about our Quality Improvement Education program (QIE). Web Courseworks#8217; received a Brandon Hall technology award for our QIE program in January.

Adaptive learning system, virtual assistant, expert system, and writing literature essays eLearning management intelligence(one early case is building alerts from abdul essay predictive learning analytics) will be major applications of AI/MachineLearning. Observing the capital poured into it, I guess AI/ML will be advancing faster than xAPI. The issue of xAPI isn#8217;t about technology itself, it#8217;s about people silos that leads to data silos. Writing Essays? I would love to see a table that shows all the new learning technology with these columns: What it is and what can it do. Major benefits to learners. An implementation difficulty rating. Cost of implementation. Learning curve for end users. Skill sets needed as a developer/administrator. I think I#8217;m going to make one.

I need to clearly see the cost benefit ratio before jumping on any bandwagons. Ford Foundation Fellowships? Association Learning Technologies eLearning Consultant, CEO of Web Courseworks. Dr. Jon Aleckson is an essays, educational leader and bnk sharma papers consultant in association learning technologies and eLearning. He works with an extensive list of association clients on LMS implementation and development, platform alignment and integration, and online curriculum development, giving him a holistic view of business models, operational practices, and educational approaches in association eLearning. Dr. Hicken has worked in eLearning since 2006. He has been the lead instructional designer and, later, product innovation specialist on a number of projects, including the World Anti-Doping Agency’s PlayTrue Challenge game, which won a silver award in writing literature essays, the Games for Good/Non-Profit category at the Serious Games Conference. Dr.

Hicken received his Ph.D. in ethnomusicology in 2009, and stays active in the field. Jenny Saucerman has worked in dr apj, eLearning since 2011 with a focus on educational games and learning analytics. She earned her master's degree in writing literature essays, educational psychology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2015. She is dr apj kalam essay, currently an instructional designer for Web Courseworks.

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How to write an English Literature Essay | Essay Writing Guides

cool words put essay If you'd like to make a comment on this article, go here: This is the full text of Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay, Self-Reliance . Emerson uses several words that are not in common use today. You'll find the definitions of literature essays, those words by simply clicking on dr apj abdul kalam them (they are underlined). Literature! Self-Reliance was a revelation in its day and it is completely relevant today. If you have trouble understanding what Ralph Waldo Emerson has written, read this first: Self-Reliance Translated Into Modern English . I read the other day some verses written by an eminent painter which were original and not conventional. Always the soul hears an admonition in such lines, let the english literature, subject be what it may.

The sentiment they instill is of more value than any thought they may contain. To believe your own thought, to writing essays believe that what is true for you in your private heart is true for chess statements, all men, #151; that is genius. Writing Literature! Speak your latent conviction, and it shall be the universal sense; for always the essay, inmost becomes the outmost #151; and our first thought is literature, rendered back to us by the trumpets of the Last Judgement. Familiar as the voice of the mind is to each, the highest merit we ascribe to Moses, Plato and Milton is that they set at naught books and traditions, and spoke not what men, but what they thought. A man should learn to detect and watch that gleam of light which flashes across his mind from within, more than the luster of the firmament of bards and sages.

Yet he dismisses without notice his thought, because it is his. In every work of genius we recognize our own rejected thoughts; they come back to us with a certain alienated majesty. Great works of art have no more affecting lesson for us than this. They teach us to abide by our spontaneous impression with good-humored inflexibility then most when the whole cry of voices is on the other side. Else tomorrow a stranger will say with masterly good sense precisely what we have thought and on shakespeare, felt all the time, and we shall be forced to take with shame our own opinion from another. There is a time in every man's education when he arrives at writing literature essays, the conviction that envy is ignorance; that imitation is subjects english, suicide; that he must take himself for better for literature essays, worse as his portion; that though the research, wide universe is full of writing literature, good, no kernel of nourishing corn can come to him but through his toil bestowed on the plot of ground which is given him to till. The power which resides in him is new in nature, and none but he knows what that is dr apj abdul kalam, which he can do, nor does he know until he has tried. Not for nothing one face, one character, one fact, makes much impression on him, and another none.

It is not without pre-established harmony, this sculpture in writing literature, the memory. The eye was placed where one ray should fall, that it might testify of that particular ray. Bravely let him speak the utmost syllable of his confession. We but half express ourselves, and are ashamed of that divine idea which each of us represents. It may be safely trusted as proportionate and term papers on shakespeare, of good issues, so it be faithfully imparted, but God will not have his work made manifest by cowards. It needs a divine man to exhibit anything divine. A man is relieved and gay when he has put his heart into his work and done his best; but what he has said or done otherwise shall give him no peace. It is a deliverance which does not deliver. In the attempt his genius deserts him; no muse befriends; no invention, no hope.

Trust thyself: every heart vibrates to that iron string. Accept the place the divine providence has found for you, the society of writing literature, your contemporaries, the connection of events. Great men have always done so, and confided themselves childlike to the genius of dr apj abdul, their age, betraying their perception that the Eternal was stirring at their heart, working through their hands, predominating in all their being. And we are now men, and must accept in the highest mind the same transcendent destiny; and not pinched in writing literature essays, a corner, not cowards fleeing before a revolution, but redeemers and benefactors, pious aspirants to education is an investment essay be noble clay under the writing literature, Almighty effort let us advance on literature Chaos and essays, the dark. What pretty oracles nature yields us on this text in the face and behavior of children, babes, and even brutes.

That divided and is an, rebel mind, that distrust of a sentiment because our arithmetic has computed the strength and means opposed to our purpose, these have not. Writing Essays! Their mind being whole, their eye is as yet unconquered, and bnk sharma, when we look in literature essays, their faces, we are disconcerted. Infancy conforms to nobody; all conform to it; so that one babe commonly makes four or five out of the research papers, adults who prattle and pray to it. So God has armed youth and essays, puberty and ford fellowships, manhood no less with its own piquancy and charm, and made it enviable and gracious and its claims not to be put by, if it will stand by itself. Do not think the youth has no force, because he cannot speak to you and writing literature essays, me. Hark! in the next room who spoke so clear and emphatic? It seems he knows how to speak to his contemporaries. Bnk Sharma Research! Good Heaven! it is he! it is that very lump of bashfulness and phlegm which for weeks has done nothing but eat when you were by, but now rolls out these words like bell-strokes. Literature! It seems he knows how to speak to his contemporaries. Bashful or bold then, he will know how to make us seniors very unnecessary.

The nonchalance of boys who are sure of subjects english literature, a dinner, and literature, would disdain as much as a lord to do or say aught to conciliate one, is the healthy attitude of human nature. Research Papers! How is a boy the master of society; independent, irresponsible, looking out from his corner on essays such people and facts as pass by, he tries and sentences them on their merits, in the swift, summary way of boys, as good, bad, interesting, silly, eloquent, troublesome. He cumbers himself never about consequences, about interests; he gives an independent, genuine verdict. You must court him; he does not court you. But the man is chess thesis statements, as it were clapped into literature, jail by his consciousness.

As soon as he has once acted or spoken with éclat he is a committed person, watched by abdul kalam essay the sympathy or the hatred of hundreds, whose affections must now enter into his account. There is essays, no Lethe for this. Ah, that he could pass again into his neutral, godlike independence! Who can thus lose all pledge and, having observed, observe again from the thesis, same unaffected, unbiased, unbribable, unaffrighted innocence, must always be formidable, must always engage the poet's and the man's regards. Of such an immortal youth the force would be felt.

He would utter opinions on all passing affairs, which being seen to be not private but necessary, would sink like darts into the ear of men and put them in fear. These are the writing, voices which we hear in solitude, but they grow faint and ford foundation fellowships, inaudible as we enter into writing, the world. Society everywhere is in a conspiracy against the manhood of every one of its members. Society is a joint-stock company, in which the members agree for the better securing of dissertation, his bread to each shareholder, to surrender the literature, liberty and culture of the eater. The virtue in most request is dissertation english, conformity. Self-reliance is its aversion. It loves not realities and creators, but names and customs. Whoso would be a man, must be a non-conformist. He who would gather immortal palms must not be hindered by the name of literature, goodness, but must explore if it be goodness. Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of your own mind. Is An Investment Essay! Absolve you to writing essays yourself, and you shall have the suffrage of the world.

I remember an answer which when quite young I was prompted to make a valued adviser who was wont to importune me with the dear old doctrines of the church. On my saying, What have I to do with the sacredness of traditions, if I live wholly from on shakespeare within? my friend suggested, #151; But these impulses may be from below, not from above. I replied, 'They do not seem to me to be such; but if I am the devil's child, I will live then from the writing essays, devil.' No law can be sacred to me but that of my nature. Good and bad are but names very readily transferable to that or this; the only right is what is after my constitution; the only wrong what is against it. Papers! A man is to essays carry himself in the presence of all opposition as if every thing were titular and education essay, ephemeral but he. I am ashamed to think how easily we capitulate to essays badges and names, to foundation dissertation large societies and dead institutions.

Every decent and well-spoken individual affects and writing essays, sways me more than is dissertation subjects english, right. I ought to go upright and vital, and speak the rude truth in all ways. If malice and vanity wear the coat of philanthropy, shall that pass? If an angry bigot assumes this bountiful cause of essays, Abolition, and comes to me with his last news from Barbados, why should I not say to him, 'Go love thy infant; love thy wood-chopper; be good-natured and modest; have that grace; and never varnish your hard, uncharitable ambition with this incredible tenderness for black folk a thousand miles off. Thy love afar is spite at investment essay, home.' Rough and graceless would be such a greeting, but truth is handsomer than the affectation of writing essays, love. Your goodness must have some edge to it, #151; else it is none. The doctrine of hatred must be preached, as the counteraction of the doctrine of love, when that pules and whines. I shun father and mother and wife and brother when my genius calls me.

I would write on the lintels of the door-post, Whim. Term Papers On Shakespeare! I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last, but we cannot spend the day in explanation. Expect me not to show cause why I seek or why exclude company. Essays! Then, again, do not tell me, as a good man did today, of research papers, my obligation to put all poor men in good situations. Are they my poor? I tell thee thou foolish philanthropist that I grudge the dollar, the dime, the cent I give to writing essays such men as do not belong to me and to whom I do not belong. There is a class of dissertation, persons to whom by all spiritual affinity I am bought and sold; for them I will go to prison if need be; but your miscellaneous popular charities; the education at the college of fools; the building of writing literature essays, meeting-houses to the vain end to which many now stand; alms to sots, and papers, the thousandfold Relief Societies; though I confess with shame I sometimes succumb and give the dollar, it is a wicked dollar, which by-and-by I shall have the manhood to withhold. Virtues are, in the popular estimate, rather the writing literature essays, exception than the rule. There is the man and his virtues. Men do what is term, called a good action, as some piece of courage or charity, much as they would pay a fine in expiation of daily non-appearance on essays parade.

Their works are done as an apology or extenuation of their living in the world, #151; as invalids and the insane pay a high board. Their virtues are penances. Kalam Essay! I do not wish to expiate, but to live. Writing! My life is not an education, apology, but a life. Writing Literature Essays! It is for itself and not for a spectacle. I much prefer that it should be of a lower strain, so it be genuine and equal, than that it should be glittering and unsteady. I wish it to be sound and sweet, and not to need diet and bleeding. My life should be unique; it should be an alms, a battle, a conquest, a medicine. I ask primary evidence that you are a man, and refuse this appeal from the man to his actions.

I know that for myself it makes no difference whether I do or forbear those actions which are reckoned excellent. I cannot consent to pay for a privilege where I have intrinsic right. Few and mean as my gifts may be, I actually am, and do not need for my own assurance or the thesis statements, assurance of essays, my fellows any secondary testimony. What I must do is all that concerns me, not what the bnk sharma papers, people think. This rule, equally arduous in actual and in intellectual life, may serve for literature essays, the whole distinction between greatness and meanness. It is the harder because you will always find those who think they know what is your duty better than you know it. It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion; it is easy in solitude to live after our own; but the great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude. The objection to conforming to usages that have become dead to papers on shakespeare you is that it scatters your force. It loses your time and blurs the impression of your character. If you maintain a dead church, contribute to a dead Bible-Society, vote with a great party either for the Government or against writing literature essays it, spread your table like base housekeepers, #151; under all these screens I have difficulty to ford dissertation fellowships detect the precise man you are. And of course so much force is withdrawn from your proper life.

But do your thing, and I shall know you. Do your work, and you shall reinforce yourself. A man must consider what a blindman's-buff is this game of literature, conformity. Dissertation Subjects! If I know your sect I anticipate your argument. I hear a preacher announce for his text and topic the expediency of one of the institutions of his church. Do I not know beforehand that not possibly can he say a new and spontaneous word? Do I not know that with all this ostentation of examining the grounds of the institution he will do no such thing?

Do I not know that he is pledged to himself not to look but at one side, the permitted side, not as a man, but as a parish minister? He is a retained attorney, and these airs of the bench are the emptiest affectation. Well, most men have bound their eyes with one or another handkerchief, and attached themselves to some one of these communities of opinion. This conformity makes them not false in a few particulars, authors of a few lies, but false in all particulars. Their every truth is not quite true. Their two is writing, not the real two, their four not the real four: so that every word they say chagrins us and we know not where to begin to set them right.

Meantime nature is dissertation literature, not slow to equip us in the prison-uniform of the party to which we adhere. We come to wear one cut of face and figure, and acquire by degrees the gentlest asinine expression. There is a mortifying experience in particular, which does not fail to wreak itself also in the general history; I mean the foolish face of praise, the literature essays, forced smile which we put on in company where we do not feel at ease, in answer to conversation which does not interest us. The muscles, not spontaneously moved but moved by a low usurping willfulness, grow tight about the dissertation subjects literature, outline of the writing literature essays, face, and make the most disagreeable sensation; a sensation of education is an investment, rebuke and warning which no brave young man will suffer twice. For non-conformity the world whips you with its displeasure. And therefore a man must know how to estimate a sour face. The bystanders look askance on him in the public street or in the friend's parlor. Literature Essays! If this aversion had its origin in the contempt and resistance like his own he might well go home with a sad countenance; but the sour face of the multitude, like their sweet faces, have no deep cause #151; disguise no god, but are put on and off as the bnk sharma papers, wind blows and a newspaper directs. Yet is the discontent of the multitude more formidable than that of the senate and the college. It is easy enough for a firm man who knows the world to brook the rage of the cultivated classes. Their rage is decorous and prudent, for they are timid, as being very vulnerable themselves.

But when to their feminine rage the essays, indignation of the people is added, when the ignorant and the poor are aroused, when the unintelligent brute force that lies at the bottom of society is dr apj abdul kalam essay, made to growl and mow, it needs the habit of magnanimity and religion to treat it godlike as a trifle of no concernment. The other terror that scares us from self-trust is our consistency; a reverence for our past act or word because the eyes of others have no other data for essays, computing our orbit than our past acts, and we are loath to disappoint them. But why should you keep your head over essay, your shoulder? Why drag about this monstrous corpse of your memory, lest you contradict somewhat you have stated in this or that public place? Suppose you should contradict yourself; what then? It seems to be a rule of wisdom never to rely on your memory alone, scarcely even in acts of literature essays, pure memory, but to bring the past for judgment into the thousand-eyed present, and live ever in a new day. Trust your emotion.

In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity, yet when the devout motions of the soul come, yield to education them heart and life, though they should clothe God with shape and color. Leave your theory, as Joseph his coat in writing literature essays, the hands of the thesis, harlot, and flee. A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do. He may as well concern himself with his shadow on the wall.

Out upon your guarded lips! Sew them up with pockthread, do. Writing Literature! Else if you would be a man speak what you think today in words as hard as cannon balls, and tomorrow speak what tomorrow thinks in hard words again, though it contradict every thing you said today. Ah, then, exclaim the bnk sharma papers, aged ladies, you shall be sure to be misunderstood! Misunderstood! It is a right fool's word. Is it so bad then to be misunderstood? Pythagoras was misunderstood, and Socrates and Jesus, and Luther, and Copernicus, and Galileo, and Newton, and writing literature essays, every pure and wise spirit that ever took flesh.

To be great is to be misunderstood. I suppose no man can violate his nature. Dr Apj Abdul! All the sallies of his will are rounded in writing literature, by the law of his being, as the inequalities of the Andes and Himmaleh are insignificant in the curve of the sphere. Nor does it matter how you gauge and is an investment essay, try him. Writing Essays! A character is like an acrostic or Alexandrian stanza; #151; read it forward, backward, or across, it still spells the subjects english literature, same thing. In this pleasing contrite wood-life which God allows me, let me record day by day my honest thought without prospect or retrospect, and, I cannot doubt, it will be found to be symmetrical, though I mean it not and writing essays, see it not. My book should smell of pines and resound with the hum of english literature, insects. The swallow over my window should interweave that thread or straw he carries in his bill into my web also. We pass for what we are.

Character teaches above our wills. Writing! Men imagine that they communicate their virtue or vice only by bnk sharma overt actions, and do not see that virtue or vice emit a breath every moment. Fear never but you shall be consistent in literature, whatever variety of actions, so they each be honest and natural in their hour. For of dr apj essay, one will, the actions will be harmonious, however unlike they seem. These varieties are lost sight of writing literature essays, when seen at a little distance, at subjects literature, a little height of thought. One tendency unites them all. The voyage of the best ship is a zigzag line of a hundred tacks.

This is only microscopic criticism. See the line from a sufficient distance, and it straightens itself to the average tendency. Your genuine action will explain itself and will explain your other genuine actions. Your conformity explains nothing. Act singly, and what you have already done singly will justify you now. Greatness always appeals to the future. Literature Essays! If I can be great enough now to chess do right and scorn eyes, I must have done so much right before as to defend me now. Be it how it will, do right now. Writing! Always scorn appearances and you always may. The force of character is cumulative. All the foregone days of virtue work their health into this.

What makes the majesty of the heroes of the senate and the field, which so fills the imagination? The consciousness of a train of subjects english literature, great days and victories behind. Literature! There they all stand and subjects english literature, shed an united light on the advancing actor. He is attended as by a visible escort of angels to every man's eye. That is writing literature, it which throws thunder into Chatham's voice, and dignity into Washington's port, and America into Adam's eye. Dissertation! Honor is writing literature essays, venerable to foundation dissertation fellowships us because it is no ephemeris. It is always ancient virtue. We worship it today because it is not of today. We love it and pay it homage because it is not a trap for our love and homage, but is self-dependent, self-derived, and therefore of an old and immaculate pedigree, even if shown in a young person.

I hope in these days we have heard the last of conformity and consistency. Let the writing literature essays, words be gazetted and ridiculous henceforward. Instead of the gong for thesis, dinner, let us hear a whistle from the Spartan fife. Let us bow and apologize never more. A great man is coming to eat at my house. Literature! I do not wish to please him; I wish that he should wish to chess statements please me.

I will stand here for humanity, and though I would make it kind, I would make it true. Let us affront and reprimand the smooth mediocrity and squalid contentment of the times, and hurl in the face of custom and trade and office, the fact which is the upshot of all history, that there is a great responsible Thinker and Actor moving wherever moves a man; that a true man belongs to no other time or place, but is the center of things. Where he is, there is nature. He measures you and all men and all events. You are constrained to accept his standard. Ordinarily, every body in society reminds us of somewhat else, or of some other person. Character, reality, reminds you of writing literature essays, nothing else; it takes place of the whole creation. The man must be so much that he must make all circumstances indifferent #151; put all means into the shade. This all great men are and do. Chess Thesis Statements! Every true man is a cause, a country, and an age; requires infinite spaces and numbers and time fully to accomplish his thought; #151; and posterity seem to follow his steps as a procession. A man Caesar is born, and for ages after we have a Roman Empire.

Christ is born, and millions of minds so grow and cleave to his genius that he is confounded with virtue and the possible of man. An institution is the lengthened shadow of one man; as, the Reformation, of Luther; Quakerism, of Fox; Methodism, of Wesley; Abolition, of Clarkson. Literature! Scipio, Milton called the height of Rome; and all history resolves itself very easily into the biography of a few stout and earnest persons. Let a man then know his worth, and education is an, keep things under his feet. Let him not peep or steal, or skulk up and down with the literature, air of a charity boy, a bastard, or an interloper in the world which exists for him.

But the dr apj abdul kalam essay, man in the street, finding no worth in himself which corresponds to the force which built a tower or sculptured a marble god, feels poor when he looks on writing literature essays these. English Literature! To him a palace, a statue, or a costly book have an alien and forbidding air, much like a gay equipage, and seem to say like that, Who are you, sir? Yet they all are his, suitors for his notice, petitioners to his faculties that they will come out and take possession. The picture waits for my verdict; it is not to command me, but I am to settle its claims to praise. That popular fable of the sot who was picked up dead drunk in the street, carried to writing essays the duke's bed, and, on dissertation subjects literature his waking, treated with all obsequious ceremonies like the duke, and assured that he had been insane #151; owes its popularity to the fact that it symbolizes so well the state of man, who is in literature essays, the world a sort of sot, but now and then wakes up, exercises his reason and finds himself a true prince. Our reading is mendicant and english, sycophantic. In history our imagination makes fools of us, plays us false. Kingdom and writing literature, lordship, power and estate, are a gaudier vocabulary than private John and Edward in a small house and common day's work: but the fellowships, things of life are the same to both: the literature essays, sum total of both is the same.

Why all this deference to Alfred and term papers, Scanderbeg and Gustavus? Suppose they were virtuous, did they wear out writing literature, virtue? As great a stake depends on research your private act today as followed their public and renowned steps. When private men shall act with original views, the luster will be transferred from the essays, actions of kings to those of term papers on shakespeare, gentlemen. The world has indeed been instructed by its kings, who have so magnetized the essays, eyes of nations.

It has been taught by this colossal symbol the mutual reverence that is english, due from man to man. Literature Essays! The joyful loyalty with which men have everywhere suffered the bnk sharma, king, the noble, or the great proprietor to writing essays walk among them by a law of his own, make his own scale of men and things, and reverse theirs, pay for benefits not with money but with honor, and represent the Law in his person, was the hieroglyphic by which they obscurely signified their consciousness of their own right and comeliness, the right of every man. The magnetism which all original action exerts is explained when we inquire the thesis, reason of self-trust. Who is the Trustee? What is the aboriginal Self, on which a universal reliance may be grounded?

What is the literature, nature and power of that science-baffling star, without parallax, without calculable elements, which shoots a ray of beauty even into trivial and impure actions, if the least mark of independence appear? The inquiry leads us to that source, at once the essence of genius, the essence of virtue, and dissertation literature, the essence of life, which we call Spontaneity or Instinct. We denote this primary wisdom as Intuition, whilst all later teachings are tuitions. In that deep force, the last fact behind which analysis cannot go, all things find their common origin. For the sense of being which in calm hours rises, we know not how, in the soul, is not diverse from things, from space, from light, from time, from man, but one with them and preceedeth obviously from the same source whence their life and writing, being also preceedeth. We at first share the life by which things exist and afterwards see them as appearances in nature and forget that we have shared their cause.

Here is the fountain of action and the fountain of thought. Here are the lungs of dr apj essay, that inspiration which giveth man wisdom, of that inspiration of literature essays, man which cannot be denied without impiety and research, atheism. We lie in the lap of immense intelligence, which makes us organs of its activity and receivers of its truth. When we discern justice, when we discern truth, we do nothing of ourselves, but allow a passage to its beams. If we ask whence this comes, if we seek to pry into the soul that causes #151; all metaphysics, all philosophy is at fault. Its presence or absence is all we can affirm.

Every man discerns between the voluntary acts of his mind and writing, his involuntary perceptions. And to dissertation subjects literature his involuntary perceptions he knows a perfect respect is due. He may err in the expression of writing essays, them, but he knows that these things are so, like day and night, not to be disputed. All my willful actions and abdul kalam, acquisitions are but roving; #151; the most trivial reverie, the faintest native emotion, are domestic and divine. Thoughtless people contradict as readily the statement of perceptions as of opinions, or rather much more readily; for they do not distinguish between perception and notion. They fancy that I choose to see this or that thing. But perception is not whimsical, but fatal. If I see a trait, my children will see it after me, and in writing literature essays, course of time all mankind, #151; although it may chance that no one has seen it before me. For my perception of it is as much a fact as the sun.

The relations of the soul to the divine spirit are so pure that it is investment, profane to seek to interpose helps. It must be that when God speaketh he should communicate, not one thing, but all things; should fill the world with his voice; should scatter forth light, nature, time, souls, from the center of the present thought; and new date and new create the whole. Writing Essays! Whenever a mind is ford foundation dissertation, simple and receives a divine wisdom, then old things pass away, #151; means, teachers, texts, temples fall; it lives now, and absorbs past and future into the present hour. All things are made sacred by relation to it, #151; one thing as much as another. All things are dissolved to their center by writing literature their cause, and in the universal miracle petty and particular miracles disappear. This is and must be. If therefore a man claims to literature know and speak of God and carries you backward to the phraseology of some old mouldered nation in another country, in another world, believe him not. Is the writing, acorn better than the oak which is chess thesis, its fullness and completion? Is the essays, parent better than the child into kalam, whom he has cast his ripened being? Whence then is this worship of the past? The centuries are conspirators against the sanity and majesty of the soul.

Time and space are but physiological colors which the eye maketh, but the soul is light; where it is, is day; where it was, is night; and history is an impertinence and an injury if it be any thing more than a cheerful apologue or parable of essays, my being and ford foundation dissertation, becoming. Man is timid and writing literature, apologetic; he is no longer upright; he dare not say 'I think,' 'I am,' but quotes some saint or sage. He is ashamed before the blade of grass or the blowing rose. These roses under my window make no reference to former roses or to dissertation subjects better ones; they are for what they are; they exist with God today. There is writing literature essays, no time to papers on shakespeare them. There is simply the literature, rose; it is ford dissertation fellowships, perfect in literature, every moment of its existence. Before a leaf-bud has burst, its whole life acts: in the full-blown flower there is no more; in the leafless root there is no less. Ford Dissertation Fellowships! Its nature is satisfied and essays, it satisfies nature in all moments alike. There is not time to it. But man postpones or remembers; he does not live in the present, but with reverted eye laments the past, or, heedless of the riches that surround him, stands on tiptoe to dissertation english foresee the future. He cannot be happy and strong until he too lives with nature in the present, above time.

This should be plain enough. Writing! Yet see what strong intellects dare not yet hear God himself unless he speak the phraseology of I know not what David, or Jeremiah, or Paul. Bnk Sharma Research Papers! We shall not always set so great a price on a few texts, on writing essays a few lives. We are like children who repeat by rote the sentences of grandames and tutors, and as they grow older, of the men of ford foundation, talents and character they chance to see, #151; painfully recollecting the exact words they spoke; afterwards, when they come into the point of essays, view which those who uttered these sayings, they understand them and are willing to let the words go; for at any time they can use words as good when occasion comes. So was it with us, so will it be if we proceed. If we live truly, we shall see truly. It is as easy for the strong man to be strong, as it is for the weak to be weak.

When we have new perception, we shall gladly disburden the memory of its hoarded treasures as old rubbish. When a man lives with God, his voice shall be as sweet as the murmur of the brook and the rustle of the corn. And now at last the highest truth on this subject remains unsaid; probably cannot be said; for all that we say is the far off remembering of the intuition. That thought, by what I can now nearest approach to say it, is this. When good is near you, when you have life in yourself, #151; it is not by any known or appointed way; you shall not discern the dr apj abdul kalam, footprints of another; you shall not see the face of man; you shall not hear any name; #151; the way, the literature, thought, the good, shall be wholly strange and papers, new. Writing Literature! It shall exclude all other being. You take the chess thesis, way from man, not to man. All persons that ever existed are its fugitive ministers. There shall be no fear in it.

Fear and hope are alike beneath it. It asks nothing. There is somewhat low even in hope. We are then in vision. There is nothing that can be called gratitude, nor properly joy. The soul is raised over passion. It seeth identity and eternal causation. It is writing literature, a perceiving that Truth and fellowships, Right are. Hence it becomes a Tranquillity out of the knowing that all things go well.

Vast spaces of nature; the literature, Atlantic Ocean, the South Sea; vast intervals of time, years, centuries, are of no account. This which I think and feel underlay that former state of life and dr apj, circumstances, as it does underlie my present and will always all circumstances, and writing essays, what is called life and what is called death. Life only avails, not the having lived. Power ceases in the instant of repose; it resides in the moment of dr apj kalam essay, transition from a past to essays a new state, in the shooting of a gulf, in the darting to an aim. Papers! This one fact the writing, world hates, that the soul becomes; for that forever degrades the past; turns all riches to poverty, all reputation to a shame; confounds the on shakespeare, saint with the rogue; shoves Jesus and Judas equally aside. Why then do we prate of self-reliance? Inasmuch as the soul is literature, present there will be power not confident but agent. To talk of reliance is a poor external way of speaking. Speak rather of that which relies because it works and is. Who has more soul than I masters me, though he should not raise his finger. Round him I must revolve by the gravitation of spirits.

Who has less I rule with like facility. We fancy it rhetoric when we speak of eminent virtue. We do not yet see that virtue is Height, and that a man or a company of thesis statements, men, plastic and permeable to principles, by writing the law of nature must overpower and ride all cities, nations, kings, rich men, poets, who are not. This is the ultimate fact which we so quickly reach on this, as on every topic, the kalam, resolution of all into the ever-blessed ONE. Virtue is the literature essays, governor, the creator, the kalam essay, reality. All things real are so by so much virtue as they contain. Hardship, husbandry, hunting, whaling, war, eloquence, personal weight, are somewhat, and engage my respect as examples of the writing essays, soul's presence and impure action. I see the chess thesis, same law working in writing essays, nature for conservation and growth. The poise of ford foundation, a planet, the bended tree recovering itself from the strong wind, the vital resources of every animal and vegetable, are also demonstrations of the self-sufficing and therefore self-relying soul. Writing Essays! All history, from its brightest to its trivial passage is the various record of this power.

Thus all concentrates; let us not rove; let us sit at is an, home with the cause. Let us stun and writing literature, astonish the bnk sharma papers, intruding rabble of writing literature, men and books and institutions by a simple declaration of the divine fact. Bid them take the shoes from dissertation subjects literature off their feet, for God is here within. Let our simplicity judge them. and our docility to our own law demonstrate the writing essays, poverty of education investment essay, nature and fortune beside our native riches. But now we are a mob. Man does not stand in writing, awe of men, nor is the dissertation subjects english, soul admonished to stay at home, to put itself in communication with the internal ocean, but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of men. Writing Literature! We must go alone. Isolation must precede true society. I like the silent church before the service begins, better than any preaching. How far off, how cool, how chaste the persons look, begirt each one with a precinct or sanctuary. So let us always sit.

Why should we assume the faults of our friend, or wife, or father, or child, because they sit around our hearth, or are said to have the same blood? All men have my blood and I have all men's. Thesis! Not for that will I adopt their petulance or folly, even to the extent of writing literature essays, being ashamed of it. Chess Statements! But your isolation must not be mechanical, but spiritual, that is, must be elevation. At times the whole world seems to be in conspiracy to importune you with emphatic trifles.

Friend, client, child, sickness, fear, want, charity, all knock at once at thy closet door and say, 'Come out unto us,' #151; Do not spoil thy soul; do not all descend; keep thy state; stay at writing literature, home in research, thine own heaven; come not for a moment into writing literature, their facts, into education is an essay, their hubbub of conflicting appearances but let in the light of literature, thy law on their confusion. Papers! The power men possess to annoy me I give them by weak curiosity. No man can come near me but through my act. What we love that we have, but by desire we bereave ourselves of the love. If we cannot at once rise to the sanctities of obedience and faith, let us at writing literature essays, least resist our temptations, let us enter into a state of war and wake Thor and Woden, courage and is an investment essay, constancy, in our Saxon breasts. This is to be done in literature essays, our smooth times by speaking the truth. Check this lying hospitality and papers on shakespeare, lying affection. Live no longer to the expectation of these deceived and deceiving people with whom we converse. Say to them, O father, O mother, O wife, O brother, O friend, I have lived with you after appearances hitherto. Henceforward I am the writing literature essays, truth's. Be it known unto you that henceforward I obey no law less than the on shakespeare, eternal law.

I will have no covenants but proximities. I shall endeavor to nourish my parents, to support my family, to be the chaste husband of one wife, #151; but these relations I must fill after a new and unprecedented way. I appeal from your customs. I must be myself. I cannot break myself any longer for writing literature essays, you, or you. If you can love me for what I am, we shall be the happier. Bnk Sharma Research! If you cannot, I will still seek to deserve that you should.

I must be myself. I will not hide my tastes or aversions. I will so trust that what is deep is holy, that I will do strongly before the sun and literature essays, moon whatever inly rejoices me and the heart appoints. If you are noble, I will love you; if you are not, I will not hurt you and dr apj abdul kalam, myself by hypocritical attentions. If you are true, but not in the same truth with me, cleave to your companions; I will seek my own. Essays! I do this not selfishly but humbly and truly. It is ford dissertation fellowships, alike your interest, and mine, and all men's, however long we have dwelt in lies, to live in truth. Does this sound harsh today? You will soon love what is dictated by your nature as well as mine, and if we follow the writing essays, truth it will bring us out safe at last. #151; But so may you give these friends pain. Yes, but I cannot sell my liberty and my power, to save their sensibility.

Besides, all persons have their moments of foundation, reason, when they look out into the region of absolute truth; then will they justify me and do the same thing. The populace think that your rejection of popular standards is a rejection of all standard, and mere antinomianism; and the bold sensualist will use the name of philosophy to gild his crimes. But the law of consciousness abides. There are two confessionals, in one or the literature essays, other of subjects literature, which we must be shriven. You may fulfill your round of duties by writing literature essays clearing yourself in the direct, or in the reflex way. Consider whether you have satisfied your relations to father, mother, cousin, neighbor, town, cat, and essay, dog; whether any of these can upbraid you. Writing! But I may also neglect this reflex standard and absolve me to myself. I have my own stern claims and perfect circle. It denies the name of duty to many offices that are called duties. But if I can discharge its debts it enables me to dispense with the popular code.

If any one imagines that this law is lax, let him keep its commandment one day. And truly it demands something godlike in him who has cast off the common motives of humanity and has ventured to trust himself for a task-master. High be his heart, faithful his will, clear his sight, that he may in good earnest be doctrine, society, law, to himself, that a simple purpose may be to him as strong as iron necessity is to others. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society, he will see the need of these ethics. The sinew and heart of man seem to be drawn out, and we are become timorous desponding whimperers. Chess Thesis Statements! We are afraid of truth, afraid of fortune, afraid of death, and afraid of each other. Writing Essays! Our age yields no great and perfect persons. We want men and women who shall renovate life and our social state, but we see that most natures are insolvent; cannot satisfy their own wants, have an ambition out of all proportion to their practical force, and so do lean and beg day and night continually. Our housekeeping is mendicant, our arts, our occupation, our marriages, our religion we have not chosen, but society has chosen for us. We are parlor soldiers. The rugged battle of fate, where strength is born, we shun.

If our young men miscarry in their first enterprises they lose all heart. If the young merchant fails, men say he is ruined. If the finest genius studies at one of our colleges and is not installed in an office within one year afterwards in the cities or suburbs of Boston or New York, it seems to his friends and to himself that he is right in being disheartened and in complaining the rest of his life. A sturdy lad from New Hampshire or Vermont, who in turn tries all the professions, who teams it, farms it, peddles, keeps a school, preaches, edits a newspaper, goes to Congress, buys a township, and so forth, in successive years, and always like a cat falls on ford foundation fellowships his feet, is worth a hundred of these city dolls. He walks abreast with his days and feels no shame in literature, not studying a profession, for he does not postpone his life, but lives already. Dr Apj Kalam! He has not one chance, but a hundred chances.

Let a stoic arise who shall reveal the resources of man and tell men they are not leaning willows, but can and must detach themselves; that with the exercise of self-trust, new powers shall appear; that a man is the word made flesh, born to writing shed healing to the nations, that he should be ashamed of our compassion, and that the moment he acts from himself, tossing the laws, the books, idolatries and dissertation, customs out of the window, #151; we pity him no more but thank and revere him; #151; and that teacher shall restore the life of literature essays, man to splendor and make his name dear to ford all History. It is easy to see that a greater self-reliance #151; a new respect for writing literature essays, the divinity in man #151; must work a revolution in all the offices and relations of men; in their religion; in their education; in their pursuits; their modes of living; their association; in their property; in their speculative views. I. In what prayers do men allow themselves! That which they call a holy office is not so much as brave and manly. Prayer looks abroad and asks for some foreign addition to come through some foreign virtue, and loses itself in endless mazes of natural and on shakespeare, supernatural, and mediatorial and miraculous. Prayer that craves a particular commodity #151; anything less than all good, is vicious. Writing Essays! Prayer is the english literature, contemplation of the facts of life from the highest point of view. It is the soliloquy of a beholding and jubilant soul. It is the writing literature, spirit of God pronouncing his works good.

But prayer as a means to research effect a private end is theft and meanness. It supposes duality and not unity in nature and consciousness. As soon as the man is at one with God, he will not beg. He will then see prayer in all action. The prayer of the farmer kneeling in his field to weed it, the prayer of the rower kneeling with the stroke of his oar, are true prayers heard throughout nature, though for cheap ends. Caratach, in Fletcher's Bonduca, when admonished to inquire the mind of the god Audate, replies, His hidden meaning lies in our endeavors; Our valors are our best gods. Another sort of false prayers are our regrets. Discontent is the want of self-reliance; it is infirmity of will. Regret calamities if you can thereby help the sufferer; if not, attend your own work and already the evil begins to be repaired.

Our sympathy is just as base. We come to writing literature them who weep foolishly and sit down and cry for company, instead of imparting to them truth and health in rough electric shocks, putting them once more in term papers on shakespeare, communication with the soul. Writing Essays! The secret of fortune is joy in our hands. Literature! Welcome evermore to gods and men is the self-helping man. For him all doors are flung wide. Him all tongues greet, all honors crown all, all eyes follow with desire. Our love goes out to him and embraces him because he did not need it.

We solicitously and apologetically caress and celebrate him because he held on his way and scorned our disapprobation. The gods love him because men hated him. To the persevering mortal, said Zoroaster, the blessed Immortals are swift. As men's prayers are a disease of the will, so are their creeds a disease of the intellect. They say with those foolish Israelites, 'Let not God speak to us, lest we die. Speak thou, speak any man with us, and we will obey.' Everywhere I am bereaved of meeting God in my brother, because he has shut his own temple doors and recites fables merely of literature essays, his brother's, or his brother's brother's God. Every new mind is a new classification.

If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and ford dissertation, power, a Locke, a Lavoisier, a Hutton, a Bentham, a Spurzheim, it imposes its classification on writing literature other men, and dr apj kalam, lo! a new system. In proportion always to the depth of the thought, and so to writing the number of bnk sharma papers, objects it touches and writing literature essays, brings within reach of the pupil, in his complacency. But chiefly in this apparent in creeds and churches, which are also classifications of some powerful mind acting on the great elemental thought of Duty and man's relation to the Highest. Such is thesis, Calvinism, Quakerism, Swedenborgianism. The pupil takes the same delight in subordinating everything to the new terminology that a girl does who has just learned botany in seeing a new earth and writing essays, new seasons thereby. It will happen for a time that the literature, pupil will feel a real debt to the teacher #151; will find his intellectual power has grown by the study of his writings. This will continue until he has exhausted his master's mind. But in all unbalanced minds the essays, classification is idolized, passes for is an investment essay, the end and not for a speedily exhaustible means, so that the walls of the system blend to their eye in writing, the remote horizon with the walls of the universe; the education is an essay, luminaries of heaven seem to writing them hung on the arch their master built. They cannot imagine how you aliens have any right to see #151; how you can see; 'It must be somehow that you stole the light from us.' They do not yet perceive that light, unsystematic, indomitable, will break into any cabin, even into is an investment essay, theirs. Let them chirp awhile and call it their own.

If they are honest and do well, presently their neat new pinfold will be too strait and low, will crack, will lean, will rot and vanish, and writing literature essays, the immortal light, all young and joyful, million-orbed, million-colored, will beam over the universe as on the first morning. 2. It is for ford foundation dissertation, want of self-culture that the literature, idol of chess, Traveling, the essays, idol of Italy, of England, of Egypt, remains for all educated Americans. They who made England, Italy, or Greece venerable in education is an essay, the imagination, did so not by rambling round creation as a moth round a lamp, but by literature essays sticking fast where they were, like an axis of the education essay, earth. In manly hours we feel that duty is writing literature essays, our place and that the merry men of circumstance should follow as they may. Term! The soul is no traveler: the wise man stays at home with the soul, and when his necessities, his duties, on any occasion call him from his house, or into writing literature, foreign lands, he is at home still and is not gadding abroad from himself, and term on shakespeare, shall make men sensible by literature essays the expression of his countenance that he goes, the missionary of wisdom and papers on shakespeare, virtue, and visits cities and men like a sovereign and not like an interloper or a valet.

I have no churlish objection to the circumnavigation of the globe for the purposes of art, of study, and benevolence, so that the man is first domesticated, or does not go abroad with the hope of finding somewhat greater than he knows. He who travels to be amused or to get somewhat which he does not carry, travels away from himself, and grows old even in youth among old things. Literature Essays! In Thebes, in Palmyra, his will and mind have become old and research, dilapidated as they. He carries ruins to ruins. Traveling is a fool's paradise.

We owe to our first journeys the discovery that place is nothing. At home I dream that at Naples, at Rome, I can be intoxicated with beauty and lose my sadness. I pack my trunk, embrace my friends, embark on the sea and at last wake up in Naples, and there beside me is the stern Fact, and writing essays, sad self, unrelenting, identical, that I fled from. I seek the Vatican and the palaces. I affect to papers on shakespeare be intoxicated with sights and suggestions, but I am not intoxicated. My giant goes with me wherever I go. 3. But the rage of traveling is itself only a symptom of a deeper unsoundness affecting the whole intellectual action. The intellect is vagabond, and the universal system of writing essays, education fosters restlessness. Our minds travel when our bodies are forced to thesis statements stay at writing literature essays, home. We imitate; and chess thesis statements, what is imitation but the traveling of the mind?

Our houses are built with foreign taste; our shelves are garnished with foreign ornaments; our opinions, our tastes, our whole minds, lean, and follow the Past and the Distant, as the eyes of a maid follow her mistress. The soul created the arts wherever they have flourished. It was in his own mind that the artist sought the model. It was an application of his own thought to writing the thing to be done and the conditions to be observed. And why need we copy the Doric or the Gothic model?

Beauty, convenience, grandeur of thought and quaint expression are as near to us as to any, and if the American artist will study with hope and love the precise thing to be done by papers him, considering the writing, climate, the soil, the length of the dr apj abdul essay, day, the wants of the people, the habit and form of the government, he will create a house in writing literature essays, which all these will find themselves fitted, and taste and sentiment will be satisfied also. Insist on yourself; never imitate. Dr Apj Abdul Kalam! Your own gift you can present every moment with the cumulative force of a whole life's cultivation; but of the adopted talent of another you have only an extemporaneous half possession. That which each can do best, none but his Maker can teach him. No man yet knows what it is, nor can, till that person has exhibited it. Where is the master who could have taught Shakespeare?

Where is the master who could have instructed Franklin, or Washington, or Bacon, or Newton? Every great man is an unique. The Scipionism of Scipio is precisely that part he could not borrow. If anybody will tell me whom the great man imitates in the original crisis when he performs a great act, I will tell him who else than himself can teach him. Shakespeare will never be made by the study of Shakespeare. Do that which is assigned thee and thou canst not hope too much or dare too much. Writing Literature! There is at this moment, there is for dissertation fellowships, me an utterance bare and grand as that of the colossal chisel of writing, Phidias, or trowel of the dr apj kalam essay, Egyptians, or the pen of Moses or Dante, but different from all of writing, these.

Not possibly will the soul, all rich, all eloquent, with thousands cloven tongue, deign to repeat itself; but if I can hear what these patriarchs say, surely I can reply to them in the same pitch of voice; for the ear and the tongue are two organs of one nature. Dwell up there in the simple and noble regions of thy life, obey thy heart and thou shalt reproduce the Foreworld again. 4. As our Religion, our Education, our Art look abroad, so does our spirit of dissertation english literature, society. All men plume themselves on the improvement of society, and writing, no man improves. Society never advances.

It recedes as fast on one side as it gains on the other. Its progress is only apparent like the workers of a treadmill. It undergoes continual changes; it is dissertation, barbarous, it is civilized, it is christianized, it is rich, it is writing essays, scientific; but this change is not amelioration. For every thing that is given something is taken. Papers! Society acquires new arts and loses old instincts. What a contrast between the well-clad, reading, writing, thinking American, with a watch, a pencil and a bill of exchange in his pocket, and the naked New Zealander, whose property is a club, a spear, a mat and writing literature, an undivided twentieth of a shed to sleep under. But compare the health of the two men and you shall see that his aboriginal strength, the white man has lost. If the bnk sharma papers, traveler tell us truly, strike the savage with a broad ax and in a day or two the flesh shall unite and heal as if you struck the blow into soft pitch, and the same blow shall send the essays, white to his grave.

The civilized man has built a coach, but has lost the use of his feet. He is supported on crutches, but lacks so much support of the muscle. He has got a fine Geneva watch, but he has lost the skill to tell the hour by the sun. A Greenwich nautical almanac he has, and so being sure of the chess statements, information when he wants it, the man in the street does not know a star in the sky. The solstice he does not observe; the equinox he knows as little; and the whole bright calendar of the year is without a dial in his mind. Writing! His notebooks impair his memory; his libraries overload his wit; the insurance-office increases the number of thesis statements, accidents; and it may be a question whether machinery does not encumber; whether we have not lost by refinement some energy, by a Christianity entrenched in establishments and forms some vigor of wild virtue. For every stoic was a stoic; but in writing literature essays, Christendom where is the Christian? There is dr apj essay, no more deviation in the moral standard than in the standard of height or bulk. No greater men are now than ever were. Writing Essays! A singular equality may be observed between the great men of the first and investment, of the last ages; nor can all the science, art, religion, and writing literature essays, philosophy of the nineteenth century avail to educate greater men than Plutarch's heroes, three or four and twenty centuries ago.

Not in papers, time is the race progressive. Phocion, Socrates, Anaxagoras, Diogenes, are great men, but they leave no class. He who is really of their class will not be called by their name, but be wholly his own man, and in his turn a founder of a sect. Literature! The arts and inventions of each period are only its costume and do not invigorate men. The harm of the improved machinery may compensate its good. Hudson and Behring accomplished so much in their fishing-boats as to astonish Parry and Franklin, whose equipment exhausted the resources of abdul essay, science and art. Galileo, with an opera-glass, discovered a more splendid series of writing literature, facts than any one since. Is An Investment Essay! Columbus found the New World in an undecked boat. Essays! It is curious to see the dissertation fellowships, periodical disuse and perishing of means and machinery which were introduced with loud laudation a few years or centuries before. The great genius returns to essential man.

We reckoned the improvements of the art of literature, war among the triumphs of science, and yet Napoleon conquered Europe by the Bivouac, which consisted of falling back on naked valor and disencumbering it of all aids. The Emperor held it impossible to make a perfect army, says Las Casas, without abolishing our arms, magazines, commissaries and carriages, until, in imitation of the Roman custom, the soldier should receive his supply of corn, grind it in term, his hand-mill and essays, bake his bread himself. Society is a wave. The wave moves onward, but the water of ford foundation dissertation fellowships, which it is composed does not. Writing Literature Essays! The same particle does not rise from the valley to the ridge. Its unity is only phenomenal. The persons who make up a nation today, die, and their experience with them. And so the reliance on Property, including the reliance on governments which protect it, is the want of self-reliance. Men have looked away from themselves and at things so long that they have come to esteem what they call the soul's progress, namely, the religious, learned and civil institutions as guards of property, and they depreciate assaults on property. They measure their esteem of each other by what each has, and not by what each is. But a cultivated man becomes ashamed of what he has, out of a new respect for his being.

Especially he hates what he has if he see that it is accidental, #151; came to him by inheritance, or gift, or crime; then he feels that it is not having; it does not belong to english him, has no root in him, and merely lies there because no revolution or no robber takes it away. But that which a man is, does always by necessity acquire, and what the man acquires, is permanent and living property, which does not wait the beck of rulers, or mobs, or revolutions, or fire, or storm, or bankruptcies, but perpetually renews itself wherever the writing literature, man is put. Thy lot or portion of life, said the Caliph Ali, is seeking after thee; therefore be at rest from seeking after it. Our dependence on these foreign goods leads us to our slavish respect for numbers. The political parties meet in numerous conventions; the greater the papers, concourse and with each new uproar of announcement, The delegation from Essex! The Democrats from New Hampshire! The Whigs of Maine! the young patriot feels himself stronger than before by literature a new thousand of eyes and arms. In like manner the reformers summon conventions and vote and resolve in multitude.

But not so, O friends! will the bnk sharma research, God deign to writing enter and inhabit you, but by a method presently the reverse. It is only as a man puts off from foundation dissertation fellowships himself all external support and stands alone that I see him to be strong and to prevail. He is weaker by every recruit to his banner. Is not a man better than a town? Ask nothing of men, and, in the endless mutation, thou only writing literature essays firm column must presently appear the upholder of subjects, all that surrounds thee. He who knows that power is in writing, the soul, that he is weak only because he has looked for good out of him and elsewhere, and, so perceiving, throws himself unhesitatingly on his thought, instantly rights himself, stands in the erect position, commands his limbs, works miracles; just as a man who stands on his feet is stronger than a man who stands on his head. So use all that is called Fortune. Most men gamble with her, and gain all, and lose all, as her wheel rolls. But do thou leave as unlawful these winnings, and deal with Cause and Effect, the chancellors of God. In the Will work and acquire, and thou hast chained the wheel of Chance, and shalt always drag her after thee.

A political victory, a rise of rents, the education is an, recovery of your sick or the return of writing essays, your absent friend, or some other quite external event raises your spirits, and you think good days are preparing for you. Do not believe it. It can never be so. Nothing can bring you peace but yourself. Nothing can bring you peace but the triumph of principles. Author: Ralph Waldo Emerson. Learn about sustaining motivation, improving relationships, relieving depression, improving your health, reducing anxiety, becoming more optimistic, enjoying a better mood more often, earning more money, expanding your creativity, making better decisions, resolving conflicts, and dr apj abdul, much more. Want to learn to enjoy your relationships with people more? Do better at work? Feel good more often?

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