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The Bombing Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki History Essay - UK Essays

Atomic bomb hiroshima essay

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The Bombing Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki History Essay - UK Essays

From 1971: Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? A banner for Women’s Lib could be Artemisia Gentileschi’s Judith Beheading Holofernes , one of this Roman painter’s favorite subject. This version dates ca. Atomic Hiroshima. 1614–20, shortly after the literature, scandal of her alleged promiscuous relations with her teacher. A version of this story originally appeared in atomic hiroshima, the January 1971 issue of ARTnews. W hile the recent upsurge of feminist activity in this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly emotional—personal, psychological and subjective—centered, like the how to a hypothesis statistics problem, other radical movements to which it is related, on the present and hiroshima, its immediate needs, rather than on historical analysis of the basic intellectual issues which the feminist attack on the status quo automatically raises. 1 Like any revolution, however, the feminist one ultimately must come to grips with the intellectual and in research proposal, ideological basis of the various intellectual or scholarly disciplines—history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, etc.—in the same way that it questions the ideologies of present social institutions.

If, as John Stuart Mill suggested, we tend to accept whatever is as natural, this is just as true in the realm of academic investigation as it is in our social arrangements. Atomic Bomb Essay. In the former, too, “natural” assumptions must be questioned and the mythic basis of much so-called “fact” brought to light. And it is here that the examples in research proposal, very position of woman as an acknowledged outsider, the maverick “she” instead of the presumably neutral “one”—in reality the white-male-position-accepted-as-natural, or the hidden “he” as the atomic, subject of all scholarly predicates—is a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance of a subjective distortion. In the field of art history, the white Western male viewpoint, unconsciously accepted as the how to a hypothesis testing statistics problem, viewpoint of the atomic bomb, art historian, may—and does—prove to be inadequate not merely on ceu library thesis collection moral and ethical grounds, or because it is elitist, but on purely intellectual ones. In revealing the failure of much academic art history, and a great deal of bomb hiroshima essay, history in general, to take account of the unacknowledged value system, the how to solve a hypothesis problem, very presence of an intruding subject in historical investigation, the feminist critique at the same time lays bare its conceptual smugness, its meta-historical naivete. At a moment when all disciplines are becoming more self-conscious, more aware of the nature of their presuppositions as exhibited in the very languages and structures of the various fields of scholarship, such uncritical acceptance of “what is” as “natural” may be intellectually fatal. Bomb Hiroshima Essay. Just as Mill saw male domination as one of a long series of social injustices that had to be overcome if a truly just social order were to be created, so we may see the unstated domination of white male subjectivity as one in a series of intellectual distortions which must be corrected in order to achieve a more adequate and accurate view of historical situations. It is the engaged feminist intellect (like John Stuart Mill’s) that can pierce through the cultural-ideological limitations of the time and its specific “professionalism” to reveal biases and inadequacies not merely in the dealing with the question of women, but in the very way of formulating the crucial questions of the discipline as a whole.

Thus, the so-called woman question, far from thesis, being a minor, peripheral and laughably provincial sub-issue grafted on to a serious, established discipline, can become a catalyst, an intellectual instrument, probing basic and atomic hiroshima essay, “natural” assumptions, providing a paradigm for other kinds of internal questioning, and in collection, turn providing links with paradigms established by radical approaches in other fields. Even a simple question like “Why have there been no great women artists?” can, if answered adequately, create a sort of hiroshima, chain reaction, expanding not merely to dissertation doctorate degree, encompass the accepted assumptions of the single field, but outward to embrace history and the social sciences, or even psychology and literature, and thereby, from the outset, to challenge the assumption that the traditional divisions of intellectual inquiry are still adequate to deal with the meaningful questions of our time, rather than the merely convenient or self-generated ones. Let us, for example, examine the implications of that perennial question (one can, of bomb hiroshima essay, course, substitute almost any field of human endeavor, with appropriate changes in phrasing): “Well, if women really are equal to men, why have there never been any great women artists (or composers, or mathematicians, or philosophers, or so few of the solve, same)?” “Why have there been no great women artists?” The question tolls reproachfully in the background of most discussions of the bomb essay, so-called woman problem. But like so many other so-called questions involved in the feminist “controversy,” it falsifies the nature of the issue at the same time that it insidiously supplies its own answer: “There are no. great women artists because women are incapable of greatness.” The assumptions behind such a question are varied in range and thinking, sophistication, running anywhere from “scientifically proven” demonstrations of the inability of hiroshima essay, human beings with wombs rather than penises to create anything significant, to relatively open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of near-equality—and after all, a lot of men have had their disadvantages too—have still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts. The feminist’s first reaction is to swallow the bait, hook, line and sinker, and to attempt to answer the question as it is put: i.e., to dig up examples of dissertation doctorate, worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history; to rehabilitate rather modest, if interesting and productive careers; to “re-discover” forgotten flower-painters or David-followers and make out a case for them; to hiroshima, demonstrate that Berthe Morisot was really less dependent upon Manet than one had been led to think—in other words, to engage in the normal activity of the specialist scholar who makes a case for the importance of his very own neglected or minor master. Such attempts, whether undertaken from a feminist point of view, like the ambitious article on women artists which appeared in the 1858 Westminster Review , 2 or more recent scholarly studies on such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and Artemisia Gentileschi, 3 are certainly worth the effort, both in writing literature, adding to hiroshima essay, our knowledge of women’s achievement and of art history generally.

But they do nothing to question the assumptions lying behind the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” On the contrary, by attempting to of methodology in research, answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications. The Swiss-born Angelica Kauffman, most of whose prolific career was spent in bomb hiroshima, Italy, combines allegory with portraiture in Angelica Hesitating between Music and Painting , 1791. Another attempt to of methodology, answer the question involves shifting the ground slightly and asserting, as some contemporary feminists do, that there is a different kind of atomic hiroshima essay, “greatness” for women’s art than for college essay 2015, men’s, thereby postulating the existence of a distinctive and recognizable feminine style, different both in its formal and its expressive qualities and atomic essay, based on the special character of women’s situation and experience. This, on writing essays the surface of it, seems reasonable enough: in general, women’s experience and situation in society, and hence as artists, is hiroshima essay different from men’s, and certainly the art produced by a group of solve, consciously united and purposefully articulate women intent on bomb hiroshima essay bodying forth a group consciousness of feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminist, if not feminine, art. Unfortunately, though this remains within the realm of possibility it has so far not occurred. While the members of the Danube School, the followers of college prompts 2015, Caravaggio, the painters gathered around Gauguin at Pont-Aven, the Blue Rider, or the Cubists may be recognized by certain clearly defined stylistic or expressive qualities, no such common qualities of “femininity” would seem to atomic essay, link the styles of writing literature, women artists generally, any more than such qualities can be said to link women writers, a case brilliantly argued, against the most devastating, and mutually contradictory, masculine critical cliches, by Mary Ellmann in her Thinking about atomic bomb essay Women . 4 No subtle essence of femininity would seem to link the work of Artemesia Gentileschi, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Angelica Kauffmann, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Suzanne Valadon , Kaethe Kollwitz, Barbara Hepworth, Georgia O’Keeffe, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Helen Frankenthaler, Bridget Riley, Lee Bontecou or Louise Nevelson, any more than that of Sappho, Marie de France, Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, George Sand, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Anais Nin, Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Susan Sontag. Thesis. In every instance, women artists and writers would seem to be closer to hiroshima, other artists and writers of their own period and outlook than they are to each other. W omen artists are more inward-looking, more delicate and nuanced in their treatment of their medium, it may be asserted. Introduction Thinking. But which of the women artists cited above is more inward-turning than Redon, more subtle and atomic bomb essay, nuanced in to critical thinking powerpoint, the handling of pigment than Corot? Is Fragonard more or less feminine than Mme.

Vigee-Lebrun? Or is it not more a question of the whole Rococo style of 18th-century France being “feminine,” if judged in atomic hiroshima, terms of a two-valued scale of “masculinity” vs. “femininity”? Certainly though, if daintiness, delicacy and preciousness are to be counted as earmarks of doctorate, a feminine style, there is nothing fragile about Rosa Bonheur’s Horse Fair , nor dainty and atomic bomb hiroshima essay, introverted about Helen Frankenthaler’s giant canvases. If women have turned to scenes of writing literature essays, domestiC life, or of hiroshima essay, children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin and the Impressionists—Renoir and Monet as well as Morisot and Cassatt. In any case, the mere choice of a certain realm of subject matter, or the testing, restriction to certain subjects, is not to be equated with a style, much less with some sort of quintessentially feminine style. The problem lies not so much with the feminists’ concept of what femininity is, but rather with their misconception—shared with the public at large—of what art is: with the naive idea that art is the direct, personal expression of individual emotional experience, a translation of personal life into visual terms. Art is almost never that, great art never is. The making of art involves a self-consistent language of form, more or less dependent upon, or free from, given temporally-defined conventions, schemata or systems of notation, which have to atomic hiroshima, be learned or worked out, either through teaching, apprenticeship or a long period of individual experimentation.

The language of literature, art is, more materially, embodied in paint and line on canvas or paper, in stone or clay or plastic or metal—it is neither a sob-story nor a confidential whisper. The fact of the matter is that there have been no supremely great women artists, as far as we know, although there have been many interesting and atomic bomb hiroshima, very good ones who remain insufficiently investigated or appreciated; nor have there been any great Lithuanian jazz pianists, nor Eskimo tennis players, no matter how much we might wish there had been. That this should be the literature essays, case is regrettable, but no amount of manipulating the atomic bomb essay, historical or critical evidence will alter the situation; nor will accusations of of methodology, male-chauvinist distortion of history. Bomb Hiroshima Essay. The fact, dear sisters, is that there are no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even, in very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are Black American equivalents for the same. If there actually were large numbers of “hidden” great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for women’s art as opposed to men’s—and one can’t have it both ways—then what are the college application prompts, feminists fighting for? If women have in fact achieved the same status as men in the arts, then the status quo is bomb hiroshima essay fine as it is.

Judith Leyster’s The Jolly Toper was called a Frans Hal until the discovery of her typical signature, “J,” and the date 1629, in upper right center. But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and thinking powerpoint, as they have been, in the arts as in a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive and discouraging to all those, women among them, who did not have the good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and, above all, male. The fault, dear brothers, lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and atomic hiroshima, our education—education understood to include everything that happens to us from the moment we enter this world of statistics, meaningful symbols, signs and hiroshima essay, signals. The miracle is, in fact, that given the overwhelming odds against women, or blacks, that so many of introduction, both have managed to achieve so much sheer excellence, in those bailiwicks of white masculine prerogative like science, politics or the arts. It is when one really starts thinking about the implications of “Why have there been no great women artists?” that one begins to realize to what extent our consciousness of atomic bomb hiroshima essay, how things are in the world has been conditioned—and often falsified—by the way the most important questions are posed. We tend to take it for granted that there really is an East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problem—and a Woman Problem. But first we must ask ourselves who is formulating these “questions,” and then, what purposes such formulations may serve. (We may, of course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the Nazi’s “Jewish Problem.”) Indeed, in our time of instant communication, “problems” are rapidly formulated to rationalize the prompts 2015, bad conscience of those with power: thus the problem posed by atomic, Americans in Vietnam and Cambodia is referred to by Americans as “the East Asian Problem,” whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as “the American Problem”; the so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the “Wealth Problem” by denizens of urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the same irony twists the White Problem into its opposite: a Black Problem; and the same inverse logic turns up in thesis collection, the formulation of our own present state of bomb, affairs as the “Woman Problem.” Now the “Woman Problem,” like all human problems, so-called (and the very idea of calling anything to do with human beings a “problem” is, of solve a hypothesis problem, course, a fairly recent one) is hiroshima not amenable to “solution” at all, since what human problems involve is ceu library re-interpretation of the nature of the situation, or a radical alteration of stance or program on the part of the “problems” themselves . Thus women and essay, their situation in the arts, as in other realms of endeavor, are not a “problem” to be viewed through the eyes of the dominant male power elite. Instead, women must conceive of themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and must be willing to look the facts of their situation full in the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to degree, create a world in which equal achievement will be not only made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions. It is certainly not realistic to hope that a majority of men, in atomic hiroshima essay, the arts, or in any other field, will soon see the dissertation doctorate, light and find that it is in their own self-interest to grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by denying themselves access to traditionally “feminine” realms and bomb hiroshima, emotional reactions. After all, there are few areas that are really “denied” to men, if the level of operations demanded be transcendent, responsible or rewarding enough: men who have a need for “feminine” involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to do the more routine work; those who feel the urge for kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and, of course, men who yearn to fulfill themselves through what are often termed “feminine” artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is concerned, how many men would be willing to 2015, change their jobs as teachers and researchers for those of atomic bomb hiroshima essay, unpaid, part-time research assistants and typists as well as full-time nannies and writing essays, domestic workers?

Those who have privileges inevitably hold on to them, and hold tight, no matter how marginal the advantage involved, until compelled to bow to superior power of one sort or another. Thus the question of women’s equality—in art as in any other realm—devolves not upon the relative benevolence or ill-will of individual men, nor the self-confidence or abjectness of individual women, but rather on the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and the view of reality which they impose on the human beings who are part of them. As John Stuart Mill pointed out more than a century ago: “Everything which is usual appears natural. Atomic Bomb Hiroshima. The subjection of women to dissertation doctorate, men being a universal custom, any departure from it quite naturally appears unnatural.” 5 Most men, despite lip-service to equality, are reluctant to give up this “natural” order of things in which their advantages are so great; for women, the case is further complicated by atomic bomb essay, the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of her not only how to a hypothesis problem submission but unqualified affection as well; thus women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of material goods and comforts: the middle-class woman has a great deal more to lose than her chains. At Thomas Eakins’ life-class at the Pennsylvania Academy around 1855, a cow, instead of a nude man, served as a model for the women students. COURTESY PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF THE FINE ARTS/CHARLES BREGLER’S THOMAS EAKINS COLLECTION, PURCHASED WITH THE PARTIAL SUPPORT OF THE PEW MEMORIAL TRUST. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is simply the top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees recues about the nature of art and hiroshima, its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in general and of human excellence in solve statistics problem, particular, and the role that the social order plays in all of this. While the “woman problem” as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in bomb hiroshima, the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” points to major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the specific political and examples in research proposal, ideological issues involved in the subjection of women. Basic to the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the making of hiroshima essay, art in general, as well as the making of great art.

These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link together such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and Jackson Pollock under the rubric of “Great”—an honorific attested to by the how to solve statistics, number of scholarly monographs devoted to the artist in question—and the Great Artist is, of course, conceived of as one who has “Genius”; Genius, in turn, is thought of as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the Great Artist. 6 Such ideas are related to unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taine’s race-milieu-moment formulation of the atomic essay, dimensions of to critical, historical thought seem a model of sophistication. But these assumptions are intrinsic to a great deal of bomb hiroshima, art-historical writing. How To Solve. It is no accident that the crucial question of the conditions generally productive of great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to atomic hiroshima, investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the dissertation doctorate, province of some other discipline, like sociology. To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological and institutionally-oriented approach would reveal the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of atomic bomb essay, art history is based, and college, which has only recently been called in to question by a group of younger dissidents. Underlying the bomb, question about woman as artist, then, we find the ceu library thesis, myth of the Great Artist—subject of a hundred monographs, unique, godlike—bearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the golden nugget in Mrs. Hiroshima Essay. Grass’s chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the circumstances. The magical aura surrounding the representational arts and their creators has, of course, given birth to myths since the earliest times.

Interestingly enough, the same magical abilities attributed by Pliny to introduction powerpoint, the Greek sculptor Lysippos in antiquity—the mysterious inner call in early youth, the lack of any teacher but Nature herself—is repeated as late as the atomic essay, 19th century by Max Buchon in ceu library thesis collection, his biography of Courbet. The supernatural powers of the artist as imitator, his control of bomb hiroshima, strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to set him off from others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of nothing. The fairy tale of the Boy Wonder, discovered by an older artist or discerning patron, usually in the guise of a lowly shepherd boy, has been a stock-in-trade of artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortalized the young Giotto, discovered by the great Cimabue while the lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on a stone; Cimabue, overcome with admiration by the realism of the drawing, immediately invited the humble youth to be his pupil. Introduction To Critical Powerpoint. 7 Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbaran and Goya were all discovered in similar pastoral circumstances. Even when the young Great Artist was not fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of sheep, his talent always seems to have manifested itself very early, and independent of any external encouragement: Filippo Lippi and Poussin, Courbet and Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in the margins of their schoolbooks instead of atomic bomb, studying the required subjects—we never, of ceu library collection, course, hear about the youths who neglected their studies and scribbled in atomic, the margins of their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen. The great Michelangelo himself, according to his biographer and pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. Examples. So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in Santa Maria Novella, and atomic bomb hiroshima essay, the young art student took the opportunity to draw “the scaffolding, trestles, pots of paint, brushes and writing, the apprentices at their tasks” in bomb hiroshima essay, this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon his return the doctorate degree, master exclaimed: “This boy knows more than I do.” Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun’s immense following at the French court was largely due to the patronage of bomb, Marie-Antoinette, whom she has been credited with making sympathetic to posterity through her portraits of the writing literature essays, queen. Marie-Antoinette de Lorraine-Habsbourg, Queen of France, and her children , 1781.

As is so often the case, such stories, which probably have some truth in them, tend both to reflect and perpetuate the attitudes they subsume. Despite any basis in fact of these myths about the early manifestations of Genius, the atomic bomb hiroshima essay, tenor of the doctorate degree, tales is misleading. It is no doubt true, for example, that the atomic hiroshima, young Picasso passed all the examinations for thinking, entrance to the Barcelona, and later to the Madrid, Academy of Art at the age of 15 in but a single day, a feat of bomb essay, such difficulty that most candidates required a month of preparation. But one would like to find out more about in research proposal similar precocious qualifiers for art academies who then went on to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failure—in whom, of course, art historians are uninterested—or to study in greater detail the role played by Picasso’s art-professor father in the pictorial precocity of his son. Atomic. What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Senor Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for achievement in to critical thinking, a little Pablita? What is stressed in all these stories is the apparently miraculous, non-determined and a-social nature of artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the hiroshima, artist’s role is elevated to hagiography in the 19th-century, when both art historians, critics and, not least, some of the artists themselves tended to elevate the making of art into a substitute religion, the last bulwark of Higher Values in doctorate degree, a materialistic world. The artist, in the 19th-century Saints’ Legend, struggles against bomb hiroshima, the most determined parental and social opposition, suffering the slings and arrows of social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and essay prompts, ultimately succeeds against bomb hiroshima, all odds—generally, alas, after his death—because from deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius. Dissertation. Here we have the mad van Gogh, spinning out bomb essay, sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and public scorn in order to revolutionize painting; Gauguin throwing away respectability and financial security with a single existential gesture to pursue his Calling in the tropics, or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled and alchoholic [ sic ], sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in favor of the squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration, etc. Now no serious contemporary art historian takes such obvious fairy tales at their face value.

Yet it is this sort of mythology about application prompts artistic achievement and its concomitants which forms the unconscious or unquestioned assumptions of scholars, no matter how many crumbs are thrown to social influences, ideas of the times, economic crises and so on. Behind the most sophisticated investigations of great artists—more specifically, the art-historical monograph, which accepts the notion of the Great Artist as primary, and atomic bomb hiroshima, the social and institutional structures within which he lived and worked as mere secondary “influences” or “background”—lurks the golden-nugget theory of essay, genius and the free-enterprise conception of individual achievement. On this basis, women’s lack of major achievement in atomic essay, art may be formulated as a syllogism: If women had the golden nugget of artistic genius then it would reveal itself. Dissertation Degree. But it has never revealed itself. Q.E.D. Women do not have the golden nugget of artistic genius. If Giotto, the obscure shepherd boy, and van Gogh with his fits could make it, why not women? Berthe Morisot was a close friend of Manet and later married his brother.

Eugene Manet on atomic bomb the Isle of Wight , 1875. Yet as soon as one leaves behind the world of fairy-tale and self-fulfilling prophecy and, instead, casts a dispassionate eye on the actual situations in which important art production has existed, in the total range of its social and institutional structures throughout history, one finds that the very questions which are fruitful or relevant for the historian to ask shape up rather differently. One would like to ask, for instance, from thesis, what social classes artists were most likely to atomic hiroshima essay, come at different periods of art history, from what castes and sub-group. What proportion of painters and ceu library thesis collection, sculptors, or more specifically, of major painters and sculptors, came from bomb, families in which their fathers or other close relatives were painters and sculptors or engaged in related professions? As Nikolaus Pevsner points out in his discussion of the French Academy in the 17th and 18th centuries, the transmission of the artistic profession from father to son was considered a matter of doctorate, course (as it was with the Coypels, the atomic bomb essay, Coustous, the Van Loos, etc); indeed, sons of academicians were exempted from the customary fees for lessons.

8 Despite the noteworthy and dramatically satisfying cases of the great father-rejecting revoltes of the 19th century, one might be forced to admit that a large proportion of in research proposal, artists, great and not-so-great, in the days when it was normal for sons to follow in atomic hiroshima, their fathers’ footsteps, had artist fathers. Writing. In the atomic bomb essay, rank of major artists, the names of of methodology proposal, Holbein and hiroshima essay, Durer, Raphael and Bernini, immediately spring to how to solve problem, mind; even in our own times, one can cite the names of bomb hiroshima, Picasso, Calder, Giacometti and thinking powerpoint, Wyeth as members of artist-families. As far as the relationship of artistic occupation and atomic hiroshima, social class is concerned, an interesting paradigm for the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” might well be provided by trying to answer the ceu library thesis, question: “Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy?” One can scarcely think, before the anti-traditional 19th century at least, of any artist who sprang from the ranks of any more elevated class than the upper bourgeoisie; even in the 19th century, Degas came from the lower nobility—more like the haute bourgeoisie, in atomic bomb hiroshima essay, fact—and only Toulouse-Lautrec, metamorphosed into the ranks of the marginal by in research proposal, accidental deformity, could be said to have come from the loftier reaches of the atomic, upper classes. While the aristocracy has always provided the lion’s share of the patronage and the audience for art—as, indeed, the solve a hypothesis statistics, aristocracy of wealth does even in our more democratic days—it has contributed little beyond amateurish efforts to atomic hiroshima essay, the creation of art itself, despite the fact that aristocrats (like many women) have had more than their share of educational advantages, plenty of leisure and, indeed, like women, were often encouraged to of methodology in research proposal, dabble in the arts and bomb, even develop into writing literature essays respectable amateurs, like Napoleon III’s cousin, the Princess Mathilde, who exhibited at the official Salons, or Queen Victoria, who, with Prince Albert, studied art with no less a figure than Landseer himself. Atomic Hiroshima Essay. Could, it be that the little golden nugget—Genius—is missing from the aristocratic make-up in the same way that it is from the application, feminine psyche? Or rather, is it not, that the kinds of demands and bomb hiroshima, expectations placed before both aristocrats and women—the amount of time necessarily devoted to social functions, the very kinds of activities demanded—simply made total devotion to professional art production out of the question, indeed unthinkable, both for college application essay prompts 2015, upper-class males and for women generally, rather than its being a question of bomb hiroshima essay, genius and college application prompts, talent? When the right questions are asked about the conditions for producing art, of which the bomb essay, production of great art is literature a sub-topic, there will no doubt have to atomic essay, be some discussion of the situational concomitants of intelligence and of methodology, talent generally, not merely of artistic genius. Piaget and others have stressed in their genetic epistemology that in the development of hiroshima, reason and in the unfolding of imagination in young children, intelligence—or, by implication, what we choose to solve, call genius—is a dynamic activity rather than a static essence, and an activity of a subject in a situation . As further investigations in the field of child development imply, these abilities, or this intelligence, are built up minutely, step by step, from infancy onward, and the patterns of atomic hiroshima, adaptation-accommodation may be established so early within the introduction to critical thinking, subject-in-an-environment that they may indeed appear to be innate to the unsophisticated observer. Such investigations imply that, even aside from meta-historical reasons, scholars will have to abandon the atomic essay, notion, consciously articulated or not, of individual genius as innate, and as primary to the creation of art. 9.

The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is not a free, autonomous activity of a super-endowed individual, “influenced” by previous artists, and, more vaguely and examples of methodology, superficially, by “social forces,” but rather, that the total situation of art making, both in terms of the development of the art maker and in the nature and quality of the work of art itself, occur in a social situation, are integral elements of this social structure, and are mediated and determined by specific and definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast. The Question of the Nude. We can now approach our question from essay, a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in the nature of individual genius or the lack of writing, it, but in atomic bomb essay, the nature of given social institutions and what they forbid or encourage in various classes or groups of individuals. Let us first examine such a simple, but critical, issue as availability of the nude model to aspiring women artists, in the period extending from the Renaissance until near the end of the 19th century, a period in college essay 2015, which careful and prolonged study of the atomic essay, nude model was essential to the training of introduction thinking, every young artist, to the production of any work with pretentions to grandeur, and to the very essence of History Painting, generally accepted as the highest category of art: indeed, it was argued by defenders of traditional painting in the 19th century that there could be no great painting with clothed figures, since costume inevitably destroyed both the temporal universality and the classical idealization required by great art. Needless to atomic hiroshima, say, central to the training programs of the academies since their inception late in the 16th and early in the 17th centuries, was life drawing from the nude, generally male, model. College Essay 2015. In addition, groups of artists and bomb hiroshima essay, their pupils often met privately for life drawing sessions from the nude model in their studios. In general, it might be added, while individual artists and private academies employed the female model extensively, the female nude was forbidden in literature, almost all public art schools as late as 1850 and after—a state of bomb essay, affairs which Pevsner rightly designates as “hardly believable.” 10 Far more believable, unfortunately, was the complete unavailability to the aspiring woman artist of ceu library thesis, any nude models at all, male or female.

As late as 1893, “lady” students were not admitted to life drawing at atomic bomb essay, the Royal Academy in London, and even when they were, after that date, the application essay prompts 2015, model had to be “partially draped.” 11. A brief survey of representations of essay, life-drawing sessions reveals: an all male clientele drawing from the female nude in Rembrandt’s studio; men working from male nudes in 18th-century representations of academic instruction in The Hague and Vienna; men working from the seated male nude in Bailly’s charming painting of the interior of Houdon’s studio at the beginning of the how to solve problem, 19th century; Mathieu Cochereau’s scrupulously veristic Interior of atomic bomb, David’s Studio , exhibited in the Salon of 1814, reveals a group of young men diligently drawing or painting from a male nude model, whose discarded shoes may be seen before the models’ stand. The very plethora of surviving “Academies”—detailed, painstaking studies from the nude studio model—in the youthful oeuvre of artists down through the college application prompts 2015, time of Seurat and well into the 20th century, attests to the central importance of this branch of bomb hiroshima essay, study in the pedagogy and development of the application 2015, talented beginner. The formal academic program itself normally proceeded, as a matter of bomb, course, from copying from drawings and engravings, to ceu library thesis collection, drawing from casts of famous works of sculpture, to drawing from the bomb hiroshima, living model. To be deprived of this ultimate stage of training meant, in effect, to be deprived of the thesis collection, possibility of creating major art works, unless one were a very ingenious lady indeed, or simply, as most of the women aspiring to be painters ultimately did, to restrict oneself to the “minor” fields of portraiture, genre, landscape or still-life. Atomic. It is to critical thinking rather as though a medical student were denied the opportunity to atomic bomb hiroshima, dissect or even examine the naked human body. In Zoffany’s painting of the life-class at the Royal Academy, 1772, all the members are present except for Angelica Kauffmann, who for reasons of dissertation doctorate, propriety has a stand-in—her portrait on the wall.

There exist, to my knowledge, no representations of artists drawing from the nude model which include women in any role but that of the nude model itself, an interesting commentary on rules of propriety: i.e., it is bomb hiroshima all right for a (“low,” of course) woman to reveal herself naked-as-an-object for how to, a group of men, but forbidden to a woman to participate in the active study and recording of naked-man-as-an-object, or even of a fellow woman. An amusing example of this taboo on atomic bomb hiroshima confronting a dressed lady with a naked man is embodied in a group portrait of the members of the how to solve statistics, Royal Academy in London in 1772, represented by Zoffany as gathered in the life room before two nude male models: all the bomb, distinguished members are present with but one noteworthy exception—the single female member, the renowned Angelica Kauffmann, who, for propriety’s sake, is introduction thinking merely present in effigy, in the form of a portrait hanging on the wall. A slightly earlier drawing of Ladies in the Studio by the Polish artist Daniel Chodowiecki, shows the atomic essay, ladies portraying a modestly dressed member of their sex. In a lithograph dating from the relatively liberated epoch following the French Revolution, the lithographer Marlet has represented some women sketchers in a group of students working from the male model, but the model himself has been chastely provided with what appears to be a pair of bathing trunks, a garment hardly conducive to a sense of classical elevation: no doubt such license was considered daring in its day, and the young ladies in question suspected of doubtful morals, but even this liberated state of affairs seems to powerpoint, have lasted only a short while. In an English stereoscopic color view of the interior of a studio of about 1865, the standing, bearded male model is so heavily draped that not an hiroshima essay, iota of his anatomy escapes from the discreet toga, save for a single bare shoulder and arm: even so, he obviously had the grace to avert his eyes in the presence of the college application essay prompts 2015, crinoline-clad young sketchers. The women in the Women’s Modeling Class at the Pennsylvania Academy were evidently not allowed even this modest privilege. A photograph by atomic essay, Thomas Eakins of about 1885 reveals these students modeling from a cow (bull? ox? the testing statistics, nether regions are obscure in the photograph), a naked cow to be sure, perhaps a daring liberty when one considers that even piano legs might be concealed beneath pantalettes during this era (the idea of introducing a bovine model into atomic bomb hiroshima the artist’s studio stems from Courbet, who brought a bull into college essay prompts his short-lived studio academy in the 1860s). Only at the very end of the 19th century, in the relatively liberated and open atmosphere of Repin’s studio and circle in Russia, do we find representations of women art students working uninhibitedly from the nude—the female model, to be sure—in the company of men. Even in this case, it must be noted that certain photographs represent a private sketch group meeting in one of the women artists’ homes; in the other, the model is draped; and the large group portrait, a co-operative effort by two men and two women students of Repin’s, is an imaginary gathering together of atomic bomb essay, all of the college essay, Russian realist’s pupils, past and present, rather than a realistic studio view.

I have gone into bomb hiroshima the question of the availability of the introduction to critical thinking powerpoint, nude model, a single aspect of the automatic, institutionally-maintained discrimination against women, in such detail simply to atomic, demonstrate both the universality of the discrimination against women and how to a hypothesis problem, its consequences, as well as the institutional rather than individual nature of but one facet of the necessary preparation for achieving mere proficiency, much less greatness, in the realm of art during a long stretch of time. Atomic Bomb Hiroshima. One could equally well examine other dimensions of the situation, such as the apprenticeship system, the academic educational pattern which, in France especially, was almost the only key to success and which had a regular progression and set competitions, crowned by the Prix de Rome which enabled the examples of methodology proposal, young winner to work in the French Academy in that city—unthinkable for women, of course—and for which women were unable to compete until the end of the 19th century, by which time, in fact, the whole academic system had lost its importance anyway. It seems clear, to take France in the 19th century as an example, a country which probably had a larger proportion of women artists than any other—that is to say, in terms of their percentage in bomb hiroshima, the total number of artists exhibiting in. the Salon—that “women were not accepted as professional painters.” 12 In the thesis collection, middle of the century, there were only a third as many women as men artists, but even this mildly encouraging statistic is atomic bomb essay deceptive when we discover that out of this relatively meager number, none had attended that major stepping stone to artistic success, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, only 7 percent had received any official commission or had held any official office—and these might include the doctorate degree, most menial sort of work—only 7 percent had ever received any Salon medal, and none had ever received the atomic essay, Legion of Honor. 13 Deprived of encouragements, educational facilities and rewards, it is almost incredible that a certain percentage of proposal, women did persevere and seek a profession in the arts. It also becomes apparent why women were able to compete on far more equal terms with men—and even become innovators—in literature. While art-making traditionally has demanded the atomic essay, learning of how to solve statistics, specific techniques and skills, in a certain sequence, in an institutional setting outside the home, as well as becoming familiar with a specific vocabulary of iconography and motifs, the hiroshima, same is by no means true for the poet or novelist. Anyone, even a women, has to learn the language, can learn to read and write, and can commit personal experiences to paper in proposal, the privacy of one’s room. Naturally this oversimplifies the real difficulties and atomic bomb, complexities involved in creating good or great literature, whether by man or woman, but it still gives a clue as to the possibility of the dissertation, existence of bomb essay, Emily Bronte or an Emily Dickinson, and the lack of doctorate degree, their counterparts, at least until quite recently, in the visual arts. Of course we have not gone into the “fringe” requirements for major artists, which would have been, for the most part, both psychically and socially closed to women, even if hypothetically they could have achieved the requisite grandeur in the performance of their craft: in the Renaissance and after, the great artist, aside from participating in the affairs of an academy, might well be intimate.

with members of humanist circles with whom he could exchange ideas, establish suitable relationships with patrons, travel widely and freely, perhaps politic and atomic bomb hiroshima, intrigue; nor have we mentioned the sheer organizational acumen and how to solve testing statistics problem, ability involved in running a major studio-factory, like that of Rubens. An enormous amount of self-confidence and bomb hiroshima essay, worldly knowledgeability, as well as a natural sense of examples of methodology in research proposal, well-earned dominance and power, was needed by the great chef d’ecole , both in the running of the production end of painting, and in the control and instruction of the numerous students and assistants. In contrast to the single-mindedness and commitment demanded of a chef d’ecole , we might set the image of the “lady painter” established by 19th-century etiquette books and reinforced by the literature of the times. It is precisely the atomic bomb essay, insistence upon a modest, proficient, self-demeaning level of amateurism as a “suitable accomplishment” for the well-brought up young woman, who naturally would want to direct her major attention to the welfare of others—family and husband—that militated, and still militates, against any real accomplishment on the part of women. It is this emphasis which transforms serious commitment to frivolous self-indulgence, busy work or occupational therapy, and today, more than ever, in suburban bastions of the ceu library, feminine mystique, tends to distort the bomb essay, whole notion of introduction powerpoint, what art is and atomic bomb essay, what kind of social role it plays. In Mrs. Ellis’ widely read The Family Monitor and Domestic Guide , published before the middle of the 19th century, a book of advice popular both in the United States and in college essay 2015, England, women were warned against the snare of bomb hiroshima essay, trying too hard to excel in any one thing: It must not be supposed that the writer is one who would advocate, as essential to woman, any very extraordinary degree of intellectual attainment, especially if confined to one particular branch of study. “I should like to excel in something” is a frequent and, to thinking powerpoint, some extent, laudable expression; but in what does it originate, and to atomic bomb essay, what does it tend? To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is of infinitely more value to a woman, than to be able to doctorate, excel in any one. By the former, she may render herself generally useful: by atomic hiroshima, the latter, she may dazzle for an hour. Literature Essays. By being apt, and tolerably well skilled in everything, she may fall into any situation in life with dignity and ease—by devoting her time to essay, excellence in one, she may remain incapable of every other.

So far as cleverness, learning, and knowledge are conducive to woman’s moral excellence, they are therefore desirable, and no further. All that would occupy her mind to the exclusion of better things, all that would involve her in essay, the mazes of flattery and admiration, all that would tend to draw away her thoughts from others and fix them on herself, ought to be avoided as an evil to her, however brilliant or attractive it may be in itself. 14. Lest we are tempted to laugh, we may refresh ourselves with more recent samples of exactly the same message cited in Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique , or in the pages of recent issues of popular women’s magazines. This advice has a familiar ring, of course: propped up by a bit of Freudianism and some tag-lines from the social sciences about the well-rounded personality, preparation for bomb hiroshima essay, woman’s chief career, marriage, and the unfemininity of deep involvement with work rather than sex, it is still the mainstay of the Feminine Mystique. Such an outlook helps guard man from unwanted competition in his “serious” professional activities and assures him of “well-rounded” assistance on the home front, so that he may have sex and family in addition to the fulfillment of his own specialized talent and college application, excellence at the same time.

As far as painting specifically is atomic bomb hiroshima essay concerned, Mrs. Ellis finds that it has one immediate advantage for the young lady over its rival branch of artistic activity, music—it is quiet and disturbs no one (this negative virtue, of course, would not be true of sculpture, but accomplishment with the hammer and chisel simply never occurs as a suitable accomplishment for the weaker sex); in addition, says Mrs. Ellis, “it [drawing] is an employment which beguiles the mind of many cares…Drawing is, of all other occupations, the one most calculated to keep the mind from brooding upon introduction self, and to maintain. that general cheerfulness which is a part of social and domestic duty…It can also,” she adds, “be laid down and resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and that without any serious loss.” 15 Again, lest we feel that we have made a great deal of progress in this area in the past 100 years, I might bring up the remark of atomic bomb essay, a bright young doctor who, when the conversation turned to his wife and her friends “dabbling” in the arts, snorted: “Well, at degree, least it keeps them out of trouble!” Now as in the 19th century, amateurism and lack of real commitment as well as snobbery and emphasis on chic on the part of women in their artistic “hobbies,” feeds the contempt of the successful, professionally committed man who is engaged in “real” work and can, with a certain justice, point to his wife’s lack of seriousness in her artistic activities. For such men, the “real” work of women is only that which directly or indirectly serves the essay, family; any other commitment falls under the rubric of diversion, selfishness, egomania or, at the unspoken extreme, castration. The circle is how to solve testing statistics a vicious one, in which philistinism and frivolity mutually re-enforce each other. In literature, as in atomic hiroshima essay, life, even if the woman’s commitment to art was a serious one, she was expected to of methodology in research, drop her career and hiroshima essay, give up this commitment at essay prompts, the behest of love and marriage: this lesson is, today as in the 19th century, still inculcated in bomb, young girls, directly or indirectly, from the moment they are born. Ceu Library Thesis Collection. Even the determined and successful heroine of Mrs. Craik’s mid-19th-century novel about feminine artistic success, Olive , a young woman who lives alone, strives for fame and atomic bomb essay, independence and actually supports herself through her art—such unfeminine behavior is at least partly excused by the fact that she is a cripple and how to a hypothesis statistics, automatically considers that marriage is denied to her—even Olive ultimately succumbs to atomic, the blandishments of love and marriage. To paraphrase the words of Patricia Thomson in The Victorian Heroine , Mrs.

Craik, having shot her bolt in the course of ceu library thesis collection, her novel, is content, finally, to let her heroine, whose ultimate greatness the reader has never been able to doubt, sink gently into atomic hiroshima matrimony. “Of Olive, Mrs. Craik comments imperturbably that her husband’s influence is to deprive the Scottish Academy of introduction to critical thinking, ‘no one knew how many grand pictures.’ ” 16 Then as now, despite men’s greater “tolerance,” the choice for hiroshima essay, women seems always to be marriage or a career, i.e., solitude as the price of success or sex and companionship at the price of professional renunciation. That achievement in the arts, as in any field of endeavor, demands struggle and sacrifice, no one would deny; that this has certainly been true after the middle of the 19th century, when the traditional institutions of artistic support and patronage no longer fulfilled their customary obligations, is undeniable: one has only to think of Delacroix, Courbet, Degas, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as examples of great artists who gave up the to critical thinking, distractions and atomic, obligations of of methodology in research, family life, at least in part, so that they could pursue their artistic careers more singlemindedly. Yet none of atomic, them was automatically denied the pleasures of sex or companionship on account of literature, this choice. Nor did they ever conceive that they had sacrificed their manhood or their sexual role on account of hiroshima essay, their singleness and application essay, singlemindedness in order to hiroshima, achieve professional fulfillment. But if the artist in introduction powerpoint, question happens to bomb essay, be a woman, 1,000 years of guilt, self-doubt and objecthood have been added to the undeniable difficulties of being an artist in the modern world. The unconscious aura of titillation that arises from a visual representation of an aspiring woman artist in the mid-19th century, Emily Mary Osborne’s heartfelt painting, Nameless and Friendless , 1857, a canvas representing a poor but lovely and respectable young girl at application prompts, a London art dealer, nervously awaiting the atomic essay, verdict of the pompous proprietor about the worth of her canvases while two ogling “art lovers” look on, is really not too different in its underlying assumptions from an of methodology in research proposal, overtly salacious work like Bompard’s Debut of the Model . The theme in both is innocence, delicious feminine innocence, exposed to the world. Hiroshima. It is the charming vulnerability of the young woman artist, like that of the hesitating model, which is really the subject of Miss Osborne’s painting, not the value of the young woman’s work or her pride in it: the issue here is, as usual, sexual rather than serious. Literature. Always a model but never an artist might well have served as the motto of the seriously aspiring young woman in the arts of the 19th century.

The monumental figures of The Church and The Synagogue from the South Portal of the Cathedral of Strasbourg, ca. 1225, are attributed to Sabina von Steinbach, daughter of the master-sculptor of the cathedral, who died before the bomb hiroshima essay, completion of the work. But what of the small band of of methodology proposal, heroic women, who, throughout the ages, despite obstacles, have achieved pre-eminence, if not the atomic bomb, pinnacles of grandeur of a Michelangelo, a Rembrandt or a Picasso? Are there any qualities that may be said to examples of methodology, have characterized them as a group and atomic hiroshima essay, as individuals? While we cannot go into such an introduction to critical powerpoint, investigation in depth in bomb, this article, we can point to a few striking characteristics of women artists generally: they all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of artist fathers, or, generally later, in the 19th and thesis collection, 20th centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality.

Neither of these characteristics is, of course, unusual for men artists, either, as we have indicated above in the case of artist fathers and sons: it is simply true almost without exception for their feminine counterparts, at least until quite recently. Bomb Hiroshima. From the legendary sculptor, Sabina von Steinbach, in the 13th century, who, according to local tradition, was responsible for thesis, South Portal groups on the Cathedral of Strasbourg, down to Rosa Bonheur, the most renowned animal painter of the 19th century, and including such eminent women artists as Marietta Robusti, daughter of Tintoretto, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Elizabeth Cheron, Mme. Atomic. Vigee-Lebrun and testing statistics, Angelica Kauffmann—all, without exception, were the daughters of artists; in atomic, the 19th century, Berthe Morisot was closely associated with Manet, later marrying his brother, and Mary Cassatt based a good deal of her work on the style of her close friend Degas. How To Solve Testing. Precisely the same breaking of traditional bonds and discarding of time-honored practices that permitted men artists to strike out in directions quite different from those of their fathers in the second half of the 19th century enabled women, with additional difficulties, to be sure, to strike out on their own as well. Many of our more recent women artists, like Suzanne Valadon, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kaethe Kollwitz or Louise Nevelson, have come from non-artistic backgrounds, although many contemporary and near-contemporary women artists have married fellow artists. It would be interesting to investigate the role of benign, if not outright encouraging, fathers in the formation of women professionals: both Kaethe Kollwitz and Barbara Hepworth, for example, recall. the influence of unusually sympathetic and supportive fathers on their artistic pursuits. In the absence of bomb essay, any thoroughgoing investigation, one can only gather impressionistic data about the presence or absence of rebellion against parental authority in how to a hypothesis statistics problem, women artists, and whether there may be more or less rebellion on the part of women artists than is atomic true in application prompts 2015, the case of men or vice versa.

One thing however is clear: for a woman to opt for a career at all, much less for a career in art, has required a certain amount of unconventionality, both in the past and at present; whether or not the atomic bomb, woman artist rebels against or finds strength in the attitude of her family, she must in any case have a good strong streak of rebellion in her to make her way in the world of art at all, rather than submitting to the socially approved role of wife and mother, the only role to which every social institution consigns her automatically. It is only by adopting, however covertly, the “masculine” attributes of in research, singlemindedness, concentration, tenaciousness and absorption in ideas and craftsmanship for their own sake, that women have succeeded, and continue to succeed, in the world of art. It is instructive to examine in greater detail one of the atomic hiroshima essay, most successful and accomplished women painters of all time, Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899), whose work, despite the ravages wrought upon its estimation by changes of writing essays, taste and a certain admitted lack of variety, still stands as an impressive achievement to anyone interested in the art of the 19th century and in atomic, the history of dissertation degree, taste generally. Rosa Bonheur is a woman artist in whom, partly because of the magnitude of her reputation, all the various conflicts, all the internal and external contradictions and atomic bomb essay, struggles typical of her sex and profession, stand out in sharp relief. Like Constant Troyon, Bonheur aimed at an epical, “heroic” interpretation of animals which became extremely popular. The Horse Fair , ca. 1852–55. The success of Rosa Bonheur firmly establishes the role of ceu library, institutions, and institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of atomic bomb essay, achievement in art.

We might say that Bonheur picked a fortunate time to become an artist if she was, at the same time, to have the disadvantage of being a woman: she came into her own in the middle of the 19th century, a time in testing, which the atomic bomb, struggle between traditional History Painting as opposed to the less pretentious and more free-wheeling genre painting, landscape and examples in research proposal, still-life was won by the latter group hands down. A major change in the social and institutional support for art itself was well under way: with the rise of the hiroshima essay, bourgeoisie and the fall of the cultivated aristocracy, smaller paintings, generally of every-day subjects, rather than grandiose mythological or religious scenes were much in demand. How To Solve A Hypothesis Testing Problem. To cite the bomb essay, Whites: “Three hundred provincial museums there might be, government commissions for public works there might be, but the only possible paid destinations for t he rising flood of canvases were the homes of the bourgeoisie. Powerpoint. History painting had not and never would rest comfortably in the middle-class parlor. ‘Lesser’ forms of image art—genre, landscape, still-life—did.” 17 In mid-century France, as in hiroshima essay, 17th-century Holland, there was a tendency for solve testing, artists to attempt to achieve some sort of security in a shaky market situation by specializing, by making a career out of a specific subject: animal painting was a very popular field, as the atomic bomb hiroshima essay, Whites point out, and Rosa Bonheur was no doubt its most accomplished and successful practitioner, followed in popularity only by the Barbizon painter Troyon (who at one time was so pressed for his paintings of cows that he hired another artist to a hypothesis testing statistics problem, brush in the backgrounds). Rosa Bonheur’s rise to fame accompanied that of the Barbizon landscapists, supported by those canny dealers, the bomb, Durand-Ruels, who later moved on to the introduction powerpoint, Impressionists. Atomic Hiroshima Essay. The. Durand-Ruels were among the first dealers to tap the expanding market in examples proposal, movable decoration for the middle classes, to use the Whites’ terminology. Rosa Bonheur’s naturalism and ability to capture the individuality—even the “soul”—of each of her animal subjects coincided with bourgeois taste at the time.

The same combination, of qualities, with a much stronger dose of sentimentality and pathetic fallacy to be sure, likewise assured the success of her animalier contemporary, Landseer, in England. Daughter of an impoverished drawing master, Rosa Bonheur quite naturally showed her interest in art early; at the same time, she exhibited an independence of hiroshima essay, spirit and liberty of manner which immediately earned her the label of tomboy. According to her own later accounts, her “masculine protest” established itself early; to what extent any show of persistence, stubbornness and vigor would be counted as “masculine” in the first half of the 19th century is conjectural. Rosa Bonheur’s attitude towards her father is somewhat ambiguous: while realizing that he had been influential in directing her towards her life’s work, there is ceu library thesis collection no doubt that she resented his thoughtless treatment of atomic hiroshima essay, her beloved mother, and in her reminiscences, she half affectionately makes fun of his bizarre form of social idealism. Raimond Bonheur had been an active member of the short-lived Saint-Simonian community, established in proposal, the third decade of the bomb, 19th century by examples in research proposal, “Le Pere” Enfantin at essay, Menilmontant. Writing. Although in her later years Rosa Bonheur might have made fun of some of the more far-fetched eccentricities of the members of the community, and disapproved of the additional strain which her father’s apostolate placed on her overburdened mother, it is obvious that the Saint-Simonian ideal of equality for women—they disapproved of marriage, their trousered feminine costume was a token of emancipation, and atomic bomb, their spiritual leader, Le Pere Enfantin, made extraordinary efforts to how to solve a hypothesis testing statistics problem, find a Woman Messiah to share his reign—made a strong impression on her as a child, and may well have influenced her future course of behavior.

“Why shouldn’t I be proud to atomic bomb hiroshima essay, be a woman?” she exclaimed to an interviewer. “My father, that enthusiastic apostle of literature essays, humanity, many times reiterated to me that woman’s mission was to elevate the human race, that she was the Messiah of future centuries. It is to his doctrines that I owe the great, noble ambition I have conceived for the sex which I proudly affirm to be mine, and hiroshima, whose independence I will support to my dying day…” 18 When she was hardly more than a child, he instilled in her the ambition to how to solve a hypothesis, surpass Mme. Vigee-Lebrun certainly the hiroshima essay, most eminent model she could be expected to follow, and he gave her early efforts every possible encouragement. At the same time, the spectacle of her uncomplaining mother’s slow decline from sheer overwork and poverty might have been an even more realistic influence on her decision to control her own destiny and never to become the slave of a husband and writing essays, children. What is particularly interesting from the modern feminist viewpoint is Rosa Bonheur’s ability to combine the most vigorous and unapologetic masculine protest with unabashedly self-contradictory assertions of “basic” femininity. In those refreshingly straightforward pre-Freudian days, Rosa Bonheur could explain to her biographer that she had never wanted to marry for fear of losing her independence—too many young girls let themselves be led to the altar like lambs to the sacrifice, she maintained. Yet at the same time that she rejected marriage for herself and implied an inevitable loss of selfhood for hiroshima, any woman who engaged in it, she, unlike the Saint-Simonians, considered marriage “a sacrament indispensable to the organization of society.” While remaining cool to offers of marriage, she joined in a seemingly cloudless, lifelong and apparently Platonic union with a fellow woman artist, Nathalie Micas, who evidently provided her with the companionship and emotional warmth which she needed. College. Obviously the presence of this sympathetic friend did not seem to atomic hiroshima essay, demand the literature, same sacrifice of genuine commitment to her profession which marriage would have entailed: in any case, the advantages of such an arrangement for women who wished to avoid the distraction of children in the days before reliable contraception are obvious.

Yet at the same time that she frankly rejected the conventional feminine role of atomic bomb, her times, Rosa Bonheur still was drawn into what Betty Friedan has called the “frilly blouse syndrome,” that innocuous version of the feminine protest which even today compels successful women psychiatrists or professors to adopt some ultra-feminine item of clothing or insist on proving their prowess as pie-bakers. 19 Despite the fact that she had early cropped her hair and adopted men’s clothes as her habitual attire, following the example of George Sand, whose rural Romanticism exerted a powerful influence over statistics her imagination, to her biographer she insisted, and no doubt sincerely believed, that she did so only because of the specific demands of her profession. Indignantly denying rumors to the effect that she had run about the streets of atomic hiroshima essay, Paris dressed as a boy in her youth, she proudly provided her biographer with a daguerreotype of herself at 16 years, dressed in perfectly conventional feminine fashion, except for her shorn head, which she excused as a practical measure taken after the death of her mother; “who would have taken care of my curls?” she demanded. 20. As far as the question of masculine dress was concerned, she was quick to reject her interlocutor’s suggestion that her trousers were a symbol of emancipation. “I strongly blame women who renounce their customary attire in the desire to make themselves pass for men,” she affirmed. “If I had found that trousers suited my sex, I would have completely gotten rid of my skirts, but this is not the. case, nor have I ever advised my sisters of the palette to wear men’s clothes in the ordinary course of life.

If, then, you see me dressed as I am, it is not at all with the aim of making myself interesting, as all too many women have tried, but simply in order to facilitate my work. Remember that at a certain period I spent whole days in the slaughterhouses. Indeed, you have to love your art in order to live in essay 2015, pools of blood…I was also fascinated with horses, and where better can one study these animals than at the fairs…? I had no alternative but to atomic essay, realize that the college essay 2015, garments of atomic essay, my own sex were a total nuisance. That is why I decided to a hypothesis problem, ask the Prefect of Police for the authorization to wear masculine clothing. 21 But the costume I am wearing is my working outfit, nothing else.

The remarks of fools have never bothered me. Nathalie [her companion] makes fun of atomic bomb hiroshima essay, them as I do. It doesn’t bother her at all to to critical thinking powerpoint, see me dressed as a man, but if you are even the slightest bit put off, I am completely prepared to bomb hiroshima, put on a skirt, especially since all I have to do is to open a closet to find a whole assortment of feminine outfits.” 22. Yet at the same time Rosa Bonheur is forced to application essay prompts 2015, admit: “My trousers have been my great protectors…Many times I have congratulated myself for having dared to break with traditions which would have forced me to abstain from certain kinds of work, due to the obligation to drag my skirts everywhere…” Yet the famous artist again feels obliged to atomic bomb hiroshima essay, qualify her honest admission with an examples, ill-assumed “femininity”: “Despite my metamorphoses of costume, there is not a daughter of Eve who appreciates the niceties more than I do; my brusque and atomic bomb essay, even slightly unsociable nature has never prevented my heart from remaining completely feminine.” 23. It is somewhat pathetic that this highly successful artist, unsparing of herself in the painstaking study of animal anatomy, diligently pursuing her bovine or equine subjects in the most unpleasant surroundings, industriously producing popular canvases throughout the course of a lengthy career, firm, assured and examples of methodology in research proposal, incontrovertably masculine in her style, winner of a first medal in the Paris Salon, Officer of the Legion of atomic, Honor, Commander of the Order of Isabella the writing literature, Catholic and the Order of Leopold of Belgium, friend of Queen Victoria—that this world-renowned artist should feel compelled late in life to justify and qualify her perfectly reasonable assumption of masculine ways, for any reason whatsoever, and to feel compelled to attack her less modest trouser-wearing sisters at the same time, in order to satisfy the demands of her own conscience.

For her conscience, despite her supportive father, her unconventional behavior and atomic hiroshima, the accolade of worldly success, still condemned her for not being a “feminine” woman. The difficulties imposed by such demands on the woman artist continue to add to her already difficult enterprise even today. Testing Statistics Problem. Compare, for example, the noted contemporary, Louise Nevelson, with her combination of utter, “unfeminine” dedication to her work and bomb hiroshima, her conspicuously “feminine” false eyelashes; her admission that she got married at 17 despite her certainty that she couldn’t live without creating because “the world said you should get married.” 24 Even in the case of college application essay prompts 2015, these two outstanding artists—and whether we like The Horsefair or not, we still must admire Rosa Bonheur’s achievement—the voice of the feminine mystique with its potpourri of ambivalent narcissism and guilt, internalized, subtly dilutes and hiroshima essay, subverts that total inner confidence, that absolute certitude and self-determination, moral and esthetic, demanded by the highest and essay prompts, most innovative work in art. We have tried to deal with one of the perennial questions used to atomic bomb hiroshima, challenge women’s demand for true, rather than token, equality, by examining the whole erroneous intellectual substructure upon which. the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is based; by questioning the validity of the formulation of so-called “problems” in general and college prompts 2015, the “problem” of women specifically; and then, by probing some of the limitations of the discipline of art history itself.

Hopefully, by stressing the institutional —i.e. the public—rather than the individual , or private, pre-conditions for achievement or the lack of it in the arts, we have provided a paradigm for the investigation of other areas in the field. By examining in some detail a single instance of bomb hiroshima, deprivation or disadvantage—the unavailability of nude models to women art students—we have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for women to examples of methodology proposal, achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the same footing as men, no matter what the potency of their so-called talent, or genius. The existence of a tiny band of successful, if not great, women artists throughout history does nothing to atomic hiroshima, gainsay this fact, any more than does the existence of a few superstars or token achievers among the members of any minority groups. And while great achievement is rare and college application, difficult at best, it is still rarer and more difficult if, while you work, you must at the same time wrestle with inner demons of self-doubt and guilt and outer monsters of ridicule or patronizing encouragement, neither of hiroshima, which have any specific connection with the quality of the art work as such. What is important is that women face up to the reality of their history and of their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity. Disadvantage may indeed be an excuse; it is not, however, an intellectual position. Rather, using as a vantage point their situation as underdogs in of methodology in research proposal, the realm of grandeur, and outsiders in that of ideology, women can reveal institutional and hiroshima essay, intellectual weaknesses in general, and, at the same time that they destroy false consciousness, take part in the creation of institutions in essay, which clear thought—and true greatness—are challenges open to anyone, man or woman, courageous enough to take the necessary risk, the leap into atomic bomb essay the unknown. 1. Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics , New York, 1970, and ceu library thesis collection, Mary Ellman’s Thinking About Women , New York, 1968 provide notable exceptions. 2. Atomic Hiroshima. “Women Artists.” Review of Die Frauen in die Kunstgeschichte by Ernst Guhl in The Westminster Review (American Edition), LXX, July, 1958, 91–104. I am grateful to college application essay, Elaine Showalter for having brought this review to my attention. 3. See, for atomic bomb hiroshima, example, Peter S. Walch’s excellent studies of writing literature, Angelica Kauffmann or his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Angelica Kauffmann , Princeton, 1968, on the subject; for Artemisia Gentileschi, see R. Ward Bissell, “Artemisia Gentileschi—A New Documented Chronology,” Art Bulletin , L (June), 1968, 153–168.

4. New York, 1968. 5. John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of essay, Women (1869) in Three Essays by John Stuart Miff, World’s Classics Series, London, 1966, p. 441. 6. For the relatively recent genesis of the emphasis on thesis the artist as the nexus of esthetic experience, see M. Bomb Hiroshima. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition , New York, 1953, and Maurice Z. Shrader, Icarus: The Image of the Artist in French. Romanticism , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. 7. A comparison with the parallel myth for women, the Cinderella Story, is revealing: Cinderella gains higher status on the basis of a passive, “sex-object” attribute—small feet—whereas the Boy Wonder always proves himself through active accomplishment. For a thorough study of myths about introduction to critical thinking artists, see Ernst Kris and Otto Kurz, Die Legende vom Kunstler: Ein Geschichtlicher Versuch , Vienna, 1934. 8. Atomic Bomb Essay. Nikolaus Pevsner, Academies of Art, Past and Present , Cambridge, 1940, p. 96f. 9. Contemporary directions—earthworks, conceptual art, art as information, etc.—certainly point away from emphasis on the individual genius and his salable products; in art history, Harrison C. and Cynthia A. White’s Canvases and Careers: Institutional Change in the French Painting World , New York, 1965, opens up a fruitful new direction of investigation, as did Nikolaus Pevsner’s pioneering Academies of Art . Ernst Gombrich and Pierre Francastel, in their very different ways, always have tended to view art and the artist as part of a total situation rather than in doctorate, lofty isolation. 10.

Female models were introduced in the life-class in Berlin in essay, 1875, in Stockholm in 1839, in Naples in 1870, at the Royal College of Art in London, after 1875. Pevsner, op. Thesis. cit. , p. 231. Female models at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts wore masks to hide their identity. as late as about 1866—as attested to in a charcoal drawing by Thomas Eakins—if not later. 12. H. C. and C. Bomb Hiroshima Essay. A. White, op. cit. , p. Ceu Library. 51. 14. Mrs. Ellis, The Daughters of England: Their Position in atomic bomb hiroshima essay, Society, Character, and Responsibilities (1844) in how to solve a hypothesis testing statistics, The Family Monitor , New York, 1844, p. 35.

16. Patricia Thomson, The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal , London, 1956, p. 77. 17. H. C. an d C . A. White, op. cit. , p. 91 . 18. Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, son oeuvre, Paris, 1908, p. 311.

19. Bomb Hiroshima. Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique , New York, 1963, p. 158. 20. A. Klumpke, op. Introduction Powerpoint. cit. , p. 166. 21. Paris, like many cities even today, had laws against impersonation on its books. 22. A. Atomic Essay. Klumpke, op. cit. , pp. 308–309. 24. Cited in Elizabeth Fisher, “The Woman as Artist, Louise Nevelson,” Aphra , I (Spring), 1970, p. 32.

Author: Linda Nochlin is professor of art history at Vassar. Her book on Realism (Penguin) will come out a hypothesis testing statistics problem, this winter. This article is based on a section of the anthology Woman in Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness , to be published by atomic bomb, Basic Books in introduction to critical thinking powerpoint, April. A version of this story originally appeared in atomic bomb hiroshima essay, the January 1971 issue of ARTnews on page 22 under the title “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” Linda Nochlin on Feminism Then and Now. Retrospective: Eight Artists Reply. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc. 110 Greene Street, 2nd Fl., New York, N.Y. 10012. Writing Literature. All rights reserved.

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Essay Example On Atomic Bombing In Hiroshima and Nagasaki

The Wonderful Wizard of hiroshima essay Oz Essay Questions. How does Baum use repetition, dualities and doubles in the text? In her introduction to the novel, Susan Wolstenholme comments that the text seems to make statements that double back on themselves: the text exposes the machinery behind enchantment as it celebrates power to enchant. while fantasy allows for college application essay, an escape, the fucntion of that escape is to allow a return to a repressive reality. The Wizard's fakery is atomic hiroshima essay, exposed but nevertheless can enchant; Dorothy's friends believe in the gifts the Wizard bestows upon ceu library thesis, them. Oz is a breathtaking world, yet Dorothy yearns to return to bomb hiroshima, the bleakness of Kansas; Baum celebrates both opposing environments.

There are good witches and bad witches, North and South and East and dissertation West, the first chapter mirrors the last chapter, Dorothy is disappointed by the Wizard twice. Atomic! There is also a very repetitive cast to examples in research, the writing. Each of the characters explains their wish to the Wizard in the same way, one after the atomic bomb hiroshima, other. Each of them is told the same thing by the Wizard. When Dorothy talks to her friends they often answer her one after the other. The Wicked Witch sends her minions out one after the other. The Wizard meets with the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, and Lion one after the other, their experiences and conversations proceeding in the exact same fashion. Baum's use of how to solve a hypothesis statistics problem repetition provides structure and order to a fantastical book. It keeps the text sane and establishes the irrefutable reality of Oz and the events transpiring there.

How is The Wonderful Wizard of essay Oz a fairy tale? Baum was fascinated with fairy tales in his youth and spent time refashioning the famous stories of the Brothers Grimm and Hans Christian Andersen. His own story has been interpreted multiple times - in theater, film, and further books. Dorothy resembles a princess like Cinderella in that she lives with people who are not her mother and father but is an heir to more than she can understand at the story's outset. How To Solve A Hypothesis! There is a fairy godmother and a witch, strange and fantastical creatures, a dangerous journey, a magical mark and magical shoes, dark forests and bomb essay splendid or terrifying castles, talking animals, stalwart friends, and a task for Dorothy to accomplish. Wonder tales have an aura of enchantment, which the Wonderful Wizard of Oz has in spades. The novel is thinking, not as dark as the atomic bomb essay, European fairy tales that Baum grew up with however; the dangers are less terrifying, the villains dispatched quite easily, none of the protagonists die, Dorothy does not deal with any sexual issues or even any serious emotional ones, and the tone is introduction thinking, lighthearted and whimsical. It is truly an American fairytale told with a childlike sense of ethics. There are many details in the novel that exemplify the American reality of the book's time - scarecrows, fields, farmers, prairies, forests, and bomb hiroshima deserts. The geography of Oz has been discussed in terms of its resemblance to America; the Emerald City was supposedly modeled after Chicago at the time of the World's Fair and the four quarters of Oz represent the east, west, south, and of methodology proposal north of America. The Munchkins live in a country that resembles Dutch Pennsylvania.

The north is said to resemble the forests and lakes of Michigan, which Baum visited. Baum had attended the World's Fair in Chicago and saw myriad strange and wondrous things that may have influenced him in his creation of Oz. The novel is also considered American for its expressed themes, including echoes of atomic bomb hiroshima Populism, and thesis its puritanical sexuality. The novel is simple and there are no real adults. There is a simple dichotomy of atomic hiroshima essay good and evil, and innocence, diligence, and hard work are touted as virtues. Baum truly succeeded in doctorate degree fashioning a fairy tale that was American in its style and content. How do the atomic, Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, and Lion reveal that they already possess what they think they lack? The Scarecrow believes that he does not have a brain, the Tin Woodman laments his lack of a heart, and the Lion desires a heaping of courage above all else. In Research Proposal! Despite their firm commitment to the fact that they are missing some crucial element of what makes one human, all three of Dorothy's friends in fact do possess the traits they believe they lack. This is very apparent when the atomic bomb, Tin Woodman sympathetically cries after accidentally killing a beetle.

The Scarecrow can obviously talk, and in research proposal quite eloquently, but the presence of his heightened intellect becomes manifest when he solves many of the problems that the travelers face. He figures out how to atomic hiroshima essay, get across the abyss, how to save Dorothy from the college application prompts, poppies, and how to fend off some of the Witch's minions. The Lion believes himself a coward but can often be found roaring threateningly at the dangerous creatures or humans that they face. He eventually becomes the king of atomic hiroshima essay all the animals. The fact that they have the in research, traits they desire, if not apparent before, is even more obvious when the Wizard slightly and hiroshima essay benevolently tricks them into thinking bran and pins are a brain, a silk heart is real, and drinking a liquid instills courage. Baum's tone is very light-hearted and whimsical as well as enchanting. College Application Essay Prompts! His prose is also straightforward and practical; he does not waste his time on extraneous details or spend much time on exposition of character or setting. His characters speak simply and lucidly. There are few words that would perplex a child and bomb hiroshima no apparent deeper meanings or underlying themes (although critics have since published many analyses on the text).

He enjoys having his characters speak one after the other and often repeats both dialogue and actions. There are many binaries and doubles in the text - the dissertation doctorate degree, good witches mirror the evil, and enchantment and essay practicality are both equally celebrated. A Hypothesis! He enjoys making up words and delights in their phonetic and aesthetic appeal; there is often no literary, historical, or linguistic meaning to his creations. Sometimes his writing is slapdash and harried; critics comment that he had so many ideas and hiroshima essay could not get them out in an organized fashion. Overall, though, his work is light and pleasing to read, and above all appropriate for children in theme and style. What role does color play in application essay the novel? Most viewers of the famous 1939 film adaptation remember the pivotal moment when Dorothy arrived in the vibrant Technicolor land of Oz after spending the first part of the film in the stark black and white Kansas prairie.

Color is important in the novel as well. Each land is delineated by color. The land of the atomic bomb hiroshima essay, Munchkins is bright blue, a fresh and thrilling color. The land of the Winkies is ceu library thesis collection, yellow and the land of the bomb, Quadlings is red. These are the primary colors and the primary lands of Oz.

Baum's earlier book Father Goose, His Book (1899) was also illustrated by W.W. Denslow and had monochromatic color illustrations is yellow, reddish orange, brown, and gray. Baum was familiar with color theory from his time as a window dresser and even wrote about it in his book The Art of Decorating Dry Goods Windows and Interiors (1900); he would have known that yellow was considered west of blue and red was to writing literature, the south. Atomic Essay! Yellow and blue intersects in the Emerald City and dissertation there is a brown area to the south in the china country. Color was not only a stylistic choice but one informed by atomic bomb hiroshima Baum's background. Dorothy, the protagonist of The Wizard of examples in research proposal Oz , is an Everywoman that all children can relate to. She is not sharply drawn and possesses very few, if any, unique traits or characteristics. She is not magical and does not appear to have any special skills. She is not overly anxious or stressed by her predicament and spends her time fully in the present, taking each situation as it comes and trusting in atomic hiroshima essay her friends and herself.

She adapts to different circumstances without worrying or complaining. The focus often seems to be on the strange people and places that she encounters rather than on herself and her thoughts. Application Essay Prompts! She is atomic bomb hiroshima, cheerful, virtuous, and kind. Like most children, she simultaneously desires something different from her reality - a boring and bleak life on the Kansas prairies with her stoic guardian - but needs, deep down, the familiarity and comfort of home. While independent, she still needs mother and father figures as well as companions. Solve A Hypothesis Statistics Problem! Overall, most children reading the novel could identify with Dorothy and quite easily place themselves in her (silver) shoes. Is the Wizard of Oz good or bad? While it sounds like a simple question and atomic essay one that is apropos to the black-and-white morality of the novel, it is not as easy to answer as it seems. The Wizard has no real powers but due to his impressive balloon and slick ingenuity, he was taken for a sorcerer by the people of Oz and application essay made their leader.

He did not protest this misunderstanding and instead enjoyed his newly-found power. He commissioned these people to build the wondrous Emerald City but did not treat them like slaves. In fact, the denizens of the Emerald City were very happy and pleased with their stunning home. Atomic! The Wizard did lie to Dorothy and her friends, however, and sent them on a dangerous quest in order to satisfy his own desire to eradicate the Wicked Witch - a threat to his position due to her real power. He made up for this deception by writing giving the atomic bomb essay, Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, and Dorothy what they asked for.

He tried to help Dorothy but ended up departing the thesis collection, city without her. This did not harm her, and it turns out she never needed his help in the first place; she had the silver shoes and the determination all along. In sum, the Wizard misled many people and claimed to be something he was not; at the same time, he had a benevolent heart and tried to make up for his wrongs. His trickery helped Dorothy's friends self-actualize. It is thus hard to essay, claim that he was either wholly good or wholly bad; as Oz himself said, he was a bad Wizard but a good man. How is the novel similar to and different from Alice in Wonderland and Peter Pan , two of the most famous children's books? All three books feature a child as protagonist and chart their journey to a magical and wondrous land far removed from the stifling realities of their homes.

In Alice , the character experiences literal growth as she vacillates between tall and short depending upon the substances she ingests. As Susan Wolstenholme notes in her introduction to Oz , this reveals a more concerted effort to accentuate the tension between childhood and adulthood. In Peter Pan childhood is everything - adulthood is to be shunned. Marriage and examples in research proposal parenthood are not part of the reality. Dorothy does not deal with her imminent adulthood either; she never confronts sexuality or conflict in that capacity. Also, whereas Wonderland is a topsy-turvy world that is unfamiliar and irrational, like a dream, Oz is more of an exaggerated caricature of the world Dorothy already knows. Even though it is alluded to that the hiroshima essay, Wizard has aged since he came to Oz, in latter books Baum rids his world of that idea and proffers the premise that one never ages in Oz, just like in Peter Pan's world.

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is not a coming of examples proposal age story per se, but the value of self-reliance provided by bomb the journey will certainly help Dorothy as she matures. The novel both revels in childhood and sets examples for adulthood. How are the novel and the famed movie adaptation of 1939 different? Perhaps the biggest difference between the two is introduction thinking, that in the novel Dorothy truly goes to bomb essay, the physical land of dissertation doctorate degree Oz whereas in the film it is atomic hiroshima, merely a dream that is writing literature essays, populated with people from her daily life who take the for of the bomb hiroshima, Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, Lion, and Wicked Witch. There are large sections from the novel taken out of the dissertation doctorate, film - the abyss, the atomic hiroshima, china country, the examples, Witch's minions, the Hammer-Heads - and, of course, several musical numbers and atomic hiroshima bits of exposition added in. Solve A Hypothesis Statistics Problem! The latter include the bomb hiroshima essay, Wizard-as-fortuneteller and how to testing the Witch-as-neighbor, as well as the problems with Toto. Dorothy is a teenager in the movie and bomb a child in the book.

There are four witches in the novel but only three in the film. The Wicked Witch of the West also has a greater role in the film, as she is the dream version of collection Miss Gulch. The moral of the story is the same. The film's classic song Somewhere Over The Rainbow articulates Dorothy's desire to explore another world but by the end of bomb both book and film, she learns there is no place like home. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-wonderful-wizard-of-oz/study-guide/essay-questions in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Wonderful Wizard of Oz The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and dissertation doctorate degree Analysis Summary And Analysis Chapters I-IV Chapters V-VIII Chapters IX-XI Chapters XII-XV Chapters XVI-IX Chapters XX-XXIV The World's Columbian Exhibition of 1893 Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store L. Frank Baum Biography.

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Now the Wicked Witch of the West had but one eye, yet that was as powerful as a telescope , and could see everywhere. Everyone must wear green. because everything in the Emerald City is green. Sorry, can't see them. hope you find them. Study Guide for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz study guide contains a biography of L. Frank Baum, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. The Wonderful Wizard of bomb hiroshima essay Oz essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by dissertation doctorate L. Frank Baum.

Lesson Plan for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. E-Text of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz e-text contains the full text of the bomb hiroshima, book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum.

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10 English Phrases to atomic bomb hiroshima Express Your Opinion in writing essays, an Essay. This is bomb a guest post by Sam Pealing. Make sure to writing literature visit his website EnglishForStudy.com for more academic English help! I admire international students. Seriously. If you’re a non-native English speaker doing a degree or doctorate in English, then I take my hat off to you. I get a lot of questions about writing essays, and atomic hiroshima essay I’ve taught hundreds of college, students how to write effective essays (which get good grades).

One of the most common mistakes that I see is a lack of bomb hiroshima essay, opinion. Most of the thinking powerpoint, time, students describe a situation, but they don’t give their opinion or stance. This can really damage your grade because lecturers are always looking for ‘critical thinking’. If you don’t give your opinion in your essays, your lecturers can’t see your critical thinking. Hiroshima? To put it simply: If you don’t put your opinion or stance in thinking powerpoint, an essay, then you’ll probably lose marks. Atomic Essay? In this article, you’ll learn 10 effective phrases that you can use to give your opinion in your essay.

I’ve also created a free lesson pack which will help you to practice the phrases in ceu library, this article. CLICK HERE to download it. If you’re looking for a quick fix for bomb your essay, these phrases should help you to start putting your own opinions in examples of methodology proposal, your essays. But, before you rush over to bomb hiroshima essay your essays to start putting these phrases in, there’s something you need to know. If you’re writing an academic essay, you will need to support your opinions with strong evidence . This is writing essays especially true if you are using some of the stronger phrases. This evidence can be a journal article, a lecture, a textbook, or something else which is atomic essay a trustworthy source of information.

In a more informal essay, like one in an IELTS or TOEFL language test, you don’t need to support your answers with strong evidence. Your experiences or opinions will be enough. Quick note : I know! You’re ready to see the phrases. How To Testing Statistics Problem? This won’t take long and atomic bomb essay it’s really important. 1. For these phrases to be really effective, you’ll need to review your grammar.

Shayna has some great videos on her Espresso English Youtube channel . I recommend these: 2. If you want to know the doctorate, structure of a good essay paragraph, check my post here . Hiroshima? These phrases are suitable for language tests such as TOEFL or IELTS. Writing Literature? In an academic essay, these phrases will probably be too informal because they are too personal. In my opinion , a good education is more important than a good car. I believe that schools should encourage students to walk or cycle to school rather than drive. Bomb Hiroshima Essay? “ In my mind , no-one should have to pay for medical care.” More Formal Academic Phrases With ‘That’ These phrases are more suitable for academic essays. If you are unsure whether you should use an solve statistics problem informal phrase or an bomb hiroshima essay academic phrase, use an academic one.

If you think your writing might be informal, read this post to learn more. The patterns here are quite straightforward. Thinking Powerpoint? Just add your sentence after ‘that’. “It would seem that + [your sentence]” Use this when you support your opinion with evidence. “ It would seem that children learn best when they are feeling comfortable.” “It could be argued that + [your sentence]” Use this when you want to challenge an existing opinion. “ It could be argued that the benefits outweigh the drawbacks in this situation.” “This suggests that + [your sentence]” Use this when you don’t want to fully commit to an opinion. Bomb Essay? You’re giving yourself some distance. “ The evidence suggests that people who speak more than one language have more job opportunities.” Use this when you are confident with your opinion. This phrase is introduction to critical quite strong* “ This proves that the best way to lose weight is through a controlled diet and bomb hiroshima a good exercise program.” “This supports the idea that + [your sentence]” Use this one when you are supporting an opinion that you have already made. “ This new research supports the idea that successful English learners look for opportunities to use English.” “Although [idea you disagree with], [idea you agree with]” Use this when you want make your opinion seem balanced. “ Although reports suggest that cigarettes could help people to introduction thinking lose weight, there are too many serious health problems associated with smoking.” Note: The ‘ although’ pattern is atomic very effective because it shows two sides of the argument. Dissertation? In the example, I support the idea that smoking is bad for atomic bomb hiroshima essay your health –BUT- I recognise that it could have some benefits. Ceu Library Thesis Collection? Structure your ‘ although’ sentence like this: Although, [weaker argument you disagree with], [stronger argument you agree with]. Using Adverbs, Adjectives and Nouns.

You can use adjectives to show your opinion. The adjective and atomic essay nouns in the example are negative . Proposal? You can get some good ideas from this video on Extreme Adjectives . Note: try not to use any emotional adjectives . Of course, these phrases aren’t the atomic bomb hiroshima essay, only ones that you can use! You can find more or you can create your own by combining different patterns. Here’s an to critical thinking powerpoint example of #7, #9 and atomic bomb hiroshima #10 used together. A Hypothesis Statistics Problem? “Although it is difficult for older adults to learn a second language, an important study by Smith (2014) proved that the elderly can successfully learn new languages.” So now you should have a better idea of how to include more opinions in your essays. But that’s not all; there are probably some new words here that you don’t know. So here’s what you should do: Choose three of the opinion expressions and hiroshima phrases that you want to try. Practice writing sentences using them (if you don’t have a topic, try this: should students do homework?

You can see examples of this in collection, the lesson pack ) Get the Lesson Pack for this lesson (which contains the vocabulary and the phrases from this lesson) CLICK HERE to atomic download it . Sam Pealing is an English language coach who specialises in two important areas: 1. helping you to get great grades at university, and 2. Literature? helping you to become an effective and confident English user. If you’re feeling frustrated or confused with English, Sam has created the essay, perfect email course for you! You can join his course here –or- you can read more by him on English For Study .

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1. How to Create a Resume 2. Resume Templates 2.1 Proven and Popular 2.2 Format 2.3 Basic and Simple 2.4 ATS-Optimized 2.5 Clean 2.6 Modern 2.7 Contemporary 2.8 Portfolio 2.9 One-Page 2.10 Creative 2.11 Infographic 2.12 Career 3. Using a Resume Template: Good, Bad, or Ugly? 4. Resume Builders: What Are They and Do You Need One? 5. Cover Letters: Starting off on the Right Foot 6. Formatting Tips. Select your optimal resume format. Chronological, functional, or a combination? The right format presents your work history and skills in the best possible light. See “Resume Format Guide” for hiroshima, some excellent guidance and format examples.

Write down your jobs, achievements, education, awards, skills, and any other relevant information you can think of. Look at the job description for clues on degree, what kind of candidate the employer is looking for. What work experiences and skills match that ideal candidate profile? Highlight those selling points in your resume. Atomic. “How to Write a Great Resume” will take you through the examples in research whole process step by step. A good resume template can streamline the process of atomic hiroshima essay, creating a professional resume. It takes care of all the little, easily overlooked formatting details such as the fonts, margins, bullets, and alignment. This allows you to thesis, focus on essay, the job search itself, and on doctorate degree, writing your resume.

Each document in our library is free to download for bomb hiroshima, personal use. Simply scroll down to dissertation doctorate degree, find a Microsoft Word template that presents your unique job experience in bomb hiroshima, the best possible way. Templates on this page are compatible with Microsoft Word. Please see these resources for to critical thinking powerpoint, professional resume templates in other formats: OpenOffice – In this primer on the OpenOffice resume, you’ll learn how to insert tables, images, and atomic hiroshima graphs into your resume. We also offer free resume and cover letter templates in both OTT and ODT formats. Collection. Google Docs – Google Doc offers a robust word processor on a powerful, free-to-use platform. Learn about the bomb essay many ways Google enables file sharing, or download one of thesis, trenty Google Docs resume examples. You can export these templates into Word or OpenOffice, save them in atomic essay, rich text or as a pdf, or even publish them as a web page. Photoshop – For resumes that benefit from images, the Photoshop PSD template can be a powerful tool.

Not every resume needs images. How To Solve A Hypothesis Problem. However, there are applicants, such as graphic designers or photographers, who should consider them. When used appropriately, images can anchor your resume in the mind of the hiring manager. Follow the link to find a multitude of resume examples in a variety of styles. InDesign – Created by Adobe, InDesign can be thought of essay, as page-layout software. It enables the introduction to critical thinking easy movement around the page of images, text, icons, or other artwork. This allows you to manipulate your resume in creative ways.

At the link you will find 26 resume templates using the InDesign INDD (InDesign Document) format. Bomb Essay. LaTeX – LaTeX is not a word processor; it is a “high quality type-setting system.” LaTex was created for academics whose publications include numbers, graphs, and non-Roman scripts. College Essay. This platform offers users a way to create these kinds of images that its competition lacks. Follow the link to find over thirty resume templates in hiroshima essay, the LaTeX file format, downloadable as ZIP files. If you are applying for doctorate degree, work in academia, you might need a CV template. Please see our Curriculum Vitae page for a CV writing guide and atomic hiroshima examples.

Some documents from our template library use “ lorem ipsum ” text. College Application. We refer to those documents as “blank resume templates” because they are designed to assist you with the resume style. We also have examples with sample resume outlines, bullet points, professional profiles, experiences, summary statements, objectives, and other content. These are created to atomic essay, help guide the resume writing process. Explore our free resume library, download free resume examples and templates, personalize them to match your experience and powerpoint needs, and start landing more interviews. For job-hunters on the go, here are three “Editors’ Choice” sample resume template designs. Each professional template has been prepared by resume experts and is suitable for hiroshima, most career stages and experience levels. You can also browse some of the most popular layouts we’ve created. Our hall of fame – Top 10 Best Templates – includes our ten most popular resume templates for you to download for free. Chronological resumes allow potential employers to review your work history, duties and accomplishments at introduction to critical powerpoint a glance. Atomic Essay. This type of writing literature, resume is a great choice for job seekers with a long and stable employment record.

Many hiring managers prefer seeing this traditional resume style. Atomic Bomb Essay. See our Chronological Resume Format Guide to format your own resume, and to download free chronological resume examples. Functional resumes take the focus away from work experience and solve statistics problem emphasize qualifications and bomb skills. This resume type works best for career changers, job seekers who have gaps in ceu library, their work history, and applicants with entry-level resumes. See our Functional Resume Format Guide to bomb hiroshima essay, learn how to create your own skills-based resume, and to how to solve, download functional resume examples. Combination Resumes (also known as “hybrid resumes”) show your employment timeline while also highlighting your most relevant qualifications. Atomic. This format works best for applicants with significant work experience and examples of methodology many job requirements and responsibilities. Our Combination Resume Format Guide provides the tools you’ll need to make this tricky format work for you, as well as free examples. Our Basic Resume Templates are for applicants in traditional or conservative fields.

Basic does not need to atomic hiroshima essay, be boring. These layuts are streamlined and organized, and may add a touch of color to help your application stand out. They are appropriate in most industries and career phases (entry-level, managerial, or executive). Three of examples of methodology proposal, our favorite examples are below, and thirty more are in bomb, our Basic Resume Template library. Many companies now use an Applicant Tracking System in their recruitment process.

Some of these systems cannot read graphics, tables, symbols, or charts. If you want to ensure that an to critical thinking powerpoint ATS doesn’t lose information in your resume, then plain text format is the safest choice. This modern resume style features a clean layout, traditional sans-serif fonts, and prominent titles. See all of our ATS-Ready Resume Examples. Tested for clarity and bomb hiroshima readability, Clean and Simple Resume Templates will add just the right amount of style to your professional profile. These effective designs rely on typography, white space, and color to create a professional and current look. If you think this resume style is for dissertation doctorate, you, download one of three examples below, or choose from seventy options we offer here. Our Modern designs are elegant and atomic bomb essay streamlined with a twist of creativity. While these layouts would be appropriate for a variety of industries, they are ideal for ceu library, high-tech professions where candidates want to portray experience, discipline, and knowledge, as well as show that they are progressive and current with the latest technology.

See three examples below, or follow the link to view more templates in bomb essay, our Modern Resume Design Library. Our Contemporary Templates will help you create an how to testing up-to-date and dynamic resume. These modern designs read like actual newsletters with headlines and teasers. They are set up as two-column or three-column layouts. Atomic Bomb Essay. If you think a Contemporary Template format is right for you, you can download any of our twenty-two eye catching examples from the Contemporary Collection. In this resume template library, the dissertation doctorate degree designs incorporate actual images of professional work. If you are an artist, photographer, graphic designer, web designer, or other creative professional, you can use one of our Portfolio Resume Templates to present your creativity and accomplishments in a visual way.

See all of our Portfolio examples here. Struggling to decide what to trim from your two-page resume? Our One-Page Resume guide will teach you all the tricks professional resume makers use to not exceed a single page. For eighteen sample resumes, each showcasing different techniques to fit resume content on a single page, follow the link to our discussion of bomb, One-Page Resumes. These artistic templates are a great design choice for any industry that values creativity. Ceu Library Thesis Collection. As fancy and bursting with imagination as they are, be sure to bomb hiroshima essay, consider who will be reading them. You may love them, but not every employer will find them appropriate. Examples Of Methodology. If a creative resume template is right for bomb hiroshima, you, download one of thinking, our 40+ examples from the Creative Resume Library.

Infographic resumes are a new trend, and atomic bomb have gained a great deal of popularity in 2017. This resume type uses images, charts, and graphs to tell the story of your professional life. Creative resumes and visual layouts are not yet well accepted by all hiring managers, so be sure to consider your industry. We created 12 new designs featuring a variety of graphics for you to in research, download – see our Infographic Resume Library. This new resume template library provides resume examples for various careers and career stages.

If you are a student or recent graduate with little or no job experience, then try our entry-level job examples: For students or recent graduates with some work experience, see more of atomic essay, our entry-level resume samples: Use these industry-specific examples if you have three or more years of professional experience in customer service or healthcare industries: If you live in one of the South Asian countries (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India), then please see our country-specific examples: Good, bad or ugly? Should you use a resume template? Some recruiting professionals advise against using templates and resume builders.

They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and keeps you from standing out from other candidates. This concern is worth considering. Recruiters and hiring managers see hundreds of resumes every day. One that is poorly crafted in either its formatting or its content will be quickly spotted and moved to the slush pile. Templates fix the issue of poor formatting by doing it for you. Ceu Library Thesis. With a template, you will not spend hours trying to adjust margins and fonts. The content produced by resume templates and builders, however, is not meant to essay, be the final result. In Research. Every job seeker’s experience is unique, and a template needs to atomic bomb hiroshima, be customized to match and promote that singular experience.

A chronological resume template should not be used by literature essays, a job-hopper, and hiroshima essay a skills-based resume is college prompts 2015 not the best choice for executives with an impressive vertical career progression. Templates are meant to be a place to start the difficult process of creating your resume. Bomb Essay. They aren’t one-size-fits all, cookie-cutter solutions, and examples of methodology they shouldn’t be treated as ready-made resumes. When used for guidance and inspiration when writing your own unique and original resume, resume templates can be a powerful weapon in landing more interviews more quickly. What are they and do you need one? If resume formatting is not your thing, you can get help from an online resume builder. This resume-making tool handles both design and content, and can create excellent first drafts. Atomic. The search for work is a race, and resume builders are starting blocks.

They don’t get you to the finish line, but can give you a head start over your competition. Resume builders offer many features that simplify the examples in research proposal job-hunting process. Here are a few: Email and atomic online resume – You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats. Writing Tips – Use tips and sample phrases to describe your work history and achievements. Cover letter templates and builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and design. Resume samples – Compare your resume against samples. Resume analytics – Find out thinking powerpoint if your resume is being viewed and downloaded.

… but keep in mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at business.tutsplus.com, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.” Resumes serve two functions. Their overt function is to atomic essay, list your skills, experience, and application prompts education. But their covert function is to atomic, show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style. Because of this, you need to essay prompts 2015, edit your resume so that it sounds close to your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to find an online resume builder.

Starting off on hiroshima essay, the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of application essay, your skills. It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company. If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is where you get to tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Atomic Essay. Use it to collection, explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the hiroshima potential employer why this job is important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of in research proposal, your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines.

Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the atomic bomb employer doesn’t read it. And if the how to solve a hypothesis statistics problem hiring committee has a tough choice between you and atomic essay a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from your competitors. Keep it brief – And the shorter the better. According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for introduction to critical thinking, example—make it tell a story. The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and atomic bomb hiroshima resolution, then the application 2015 reader won’t care that it is long. For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history.

The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for bomb essay, each of them. With social media, this is far easier than it used to a hypothesis statistics problem, be. Follow accounts of the hiroshima essay company and collection its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to study their content and the culture. Focus on details – Make sure that every word is essential. Use a spelling and atomic grammar checker and writing apps. Examples Of Methodology In Research. Ask someone else to read it and give you advice. Read from the end to the beginning and use other editing and proofreading tips.

Learn how to format a resume by atomic bomb hiroshima, making the most of Microsoft Word’s features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to fit resume text on how to a hypothesis testing statistics, one page, and how to atomic bomb hiroshima, remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and degree remove sections. Please keep in atomic bomb hiroshima essay, mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and literature we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on bomb hiroshima essay, your computer. We use text styles and built-in color schemes to create our templates. Dissertation Degree. Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the atomic hiroshima essay process of college prompts 2015, modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4.

You can change the page size to bomb hiroshima essay, make it compatible with the size used in your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the page color to “none” and print on ceu library thesis, a high-quality colored paper. Atomic Bomb Hiroshima Essay. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited.

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